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T O T H E 

Enfuing TREATISE; 


The Neceflity of Caring for the SOUL. 

*$. I . f U "^ H E only Intent of this enfuing Treatife \%, 
■ to be k/bort and plain Dire ft ion to the very 
"*" meaneji Readers, to behave themfelves fo 
in this World, that they may be happy for ever in the 
next. But becaufe 'tis in vain to tell Men their Duly, 
till they be perfuaded of the Neceffity of performing it, 
I fhall, before I proceed to the Particulars required of 
every Chrillian, endeavour to win them to the Prdftice 
of one general Duty preparatory to all the reft j and thac 
is, the Confideration and Care of their own Soulj ; 
without which they will never think themfelves much 
concerned in the other. 

2. Man, we know, is made up of two Parts, a Bad/ 
and a Soul: The Body is only the Hulk or Shell of the . 
Soul, a Lump of Fleih, fubject to many Difeafes and 
Pains, while it lives, and at lalt to Death itfelf; and. 
then 'tis fo far from being valued, that 'tis not to be en- 
dur'd above Ground, but laid to rot in the Earth. Yet 
to this viler Part of us we perform a great deal of Care ; 
all the Labour and Toil we are at, is to maintain that. 
But the more precious Part, the Soul, is little thought of, 
no Care taken how it fares, but, as if it were a Tning 
that nothing concern'd us, is left quite neglecled, never 
confider'd by us. 

A 4 3. Tbv 

7be PR E F ACE. 

3. This Carelefnefsoi the Soul is the Root of all the 
Sin we commit; and therefore whofoever intends to fet 
upon a Chnft ian Courfe, muft, in the firft Place, amend 
that. To the doing whereof there needs no deep Learn- 
ing, or extraordinary Parts; the fimpleft Man living 
(that is not a natural Fool) hath underftanding enough 
for it, if he will but ad in this by the fame Rules of 
common Reafon whereby he proceeds in his worldly 
Bufinefs. I will therefore now briefly fet down fome of 
thofe Motives which ufe to ftir up our Care of any out- 
ward Thing, and then apply them to the Soul. 

4. There be four Things efpecially which ufe to a- 
wake our Cere ; the firft is, the Worth of the Thing; 
tncfecond. the Ufefulntfs of it to us, when we cannot 
part with it without great Damage and Mifchief ; the 
third, the great Danger of it ; and the fourth, the Like- 
lihood that our Care will not be in vain, but that it will 
preferve the Thing cared for. » 

5. For the firft, we know our Care of any worldly 
*ri if u f ^hing ls anfwerable to the Worth of it; 

, c 7 DJ what is of greateft Price- t e are mod 
watchful to preferve, and moft fearful 
to lofe : No Man locks up Dung in his Cheft, but hit 
fcloney, or what he counts precious, he doth. Now in 
this^Refpecl the Soul deferves more Care, than all the 
Things in the World befides, for 'tis infinitely more 
worth ; firft, in that it is made after the Image of God ; 
it was God that breathed into Man this Breath of Life, 
Gen. ii. 7. Now God being of the grcatelt Excellen- 
cy, and Worth, the more any Thing is like him, the 
more it is to be valued. But 'tis fure that no Creature 
upon the Earth is at all like God, but the Soul ofM.nj 
and therefore nothing ought to have fo much of our 
Care. Secondly, the Soul never dies. We ufe to prize 
Things according to their Durahlenefs: What is mod 
lafting is moft Worth. Now the Soul is a Thing that 
will laft for ever ; When Wealth, Beauty, Strength, 
nay, our very Bodies themfelves fade away, the Soul 
ftill continues. Therefore in that Refpeclalfo the Soul 
is of the greateft Worth; and then what ftrange Mad- 
nefs is it for us to negled them as we do ? We can fpend 


Of the Necejfity of Caring for the Soul, iii 

Days, and Weeks, and Months, and Years, nay, our 
whole Lives, in hunting after a little Wealth of this 
World, which is of no Durance or Continuance, and, 
in Lhe mean Time, let this great durable Treafure, our 
Souls, be ftolen from us by the Devil. 

6. A fecond Motive to our Care of any Thing is the 
Vfefulnefs of it to us, or the great Mif- 
chief we fliall have by the Lofs of it. The Mifery of 
Common Reafon teaches us this in all lofmgthe SouL 
Things of this Life. If our Hairs fall, 
we do not much regard it, becaufe we can be well e 
nough without them : But if we are in Danger to 
our Eyes or Limbs, we think all the Care we can 
little enough to prevent it, becaufe we know it will be 
a great Mifery. But certainly there is no Mifery to be 
compared to that Mifery that follows the Lofs of tha 
SouL It is true, we cannot lofe our Sou/sin one Senfe, 
that is, folofe them, that they mall ceafe to be; but we 
may lofe them in another, that we mould wim to lofe 
them even in that; that is, we may lofe that happy 
Eitate to which they were created, and plunge them in- 
to the extremeft Mifery : In a Word, we may lofe them 
in Hell, whence there is no fetching them back, and fo 
they are loft for ever. Nay, in this Confidera'.ion our 
very Bodies are concerned, thofe Darlings of ours, for 
which all our Ca-e is laid out, for they muft certainly 
after Death be raifed again, and be joined again to the 
Soul, and take Part with it in whatever State. H then 
our Care for the Body take up all our Time and 
Thoughts, and leave us none to bellow on the poor Soul, 
it is lure the Soul will. foT Want of that Care, be made 
fj) ever miferable: But it is as fure that that very Body 
mud be fo too And therefore, if you have any true 
Kindnefs to your Body, (hew it by taking Care for \ our 
Souls. Think with yourfelves, how you will be able to 
endure ever lading Burnings. If a fmall Spark of Fire 
lighting on theleait Part of the Body, be fo intolerable, 
what will it be to have the whole caft into the hottelt 
Flames? and that not forfome few Hours, or Days, but 
for ever ? So that when you have fpent many Tboufands 
©f Years in that unfpeakablc Torment, you fhall be no 
A 5 - » 


iv The P R E F A C E. 

nearer coming out of it, than you were the firft Day you 
went in. Think of this, I fay, and think this withal, 
that this will certainly be the End of neglecting the 
Sou/; and therefore afford it fome Care, if it be but in 
Pity to the Body, that rnuft bear a Part in its Miferies. 

7. The third Motive to the Care of any Thing, is its 

The Danger H"S in D *»&""> novv a Thir g ma y be 
'.t o » 4 . in Danger two Ways : Firfi, by Enemies 
the bout 1. in. c ° , „,, i . , ' 7 r e , 

from without: This is the Cafe of the 

S/jtep, which is itill in Danger of being devoured by 
VVoi-ves\ and we know that makes the Shepherd (o 
much the more watchful over it. Thus it is with the 
Soul, which is in a great deal of Danger, in Refpe<5l of 
its Enemies: Thofe, we know, are the World, the Flejh, 
and the Devil; which are all fuch noted Enemies to it, 
that the very full ACt we do in behalf of our Souls, is to 
vow a continual War againft them. This we all do in our 
Baptifm; and whoever makes any Truce with any of 
them, is falfe, not only to his Soul, but to his Vovo alfo; 
becomes a forfvvorn Creature. A confideration well 
worthy our laying to Heart. But that we may the bet- 
ter underlland what Danger the Soul is in, let us a little 
coniider the Quality of thefe Enemies. 

8. In a War, you know, there are divers Things that 
make an Enemy terrible; \\iefirft is Subtilty and Cun- 
ning, by which alone many Victories have been won ; 
and in this Refpecl the Devil is a dangerous Adverfary ; 
he long fmce gave fufficienti Proof of his Subtilty, in be- 
guiling our firlt Parents, who yet were much wifer than 
we are j and therefore no Wonder, if he deceive and 
cheat us. Secondly, The Watchfuinefs and Diligence of 
an Enemy makes him the more to be feared, and h 3 
the Devil exceeds: It is his Trade and Bufinefs to de- 
ftroy us, and he is no Loiterer at it : He goes up and down 
feeking whom he may devour y 1 Pet. v. 8. He watches all 

Opportunities of Advantage againft us, with fuch Dili- 
gence, that he will be fure never to let any flip him. 
Thirdly, An Enemy near us is more to be feared than one 
at a Dijiance : For if he be far off, we may have Time 
to arm, and prepare ourfelves againft him ; but if he be 
near, he may ileal on us unawares. Arid of this Sort ia 

Of the Neceffity of Caring for the Soul v 

the Flefh ; it is an Enemy, at our Doors, (hall I fay ? 
nay, in our Boibms? it is always near us, to cake Oc- 
casion of doing us Mifchiefs. Fourthly, The bafer and 
falfer an Enemy is, the more dangerous. He that hides 
his Malice under the (hew of Friendfliip, will be able 
to do a great deal the more Hurt. And this again is 
the Fle/b, which, like Joab to Abner, 2 Sam. iii. 27. 
pretends to (peak peaceably to us, but ivounJi us to Death ; 
'tis forward to purvey for Pleafures and Delights for us; 
and fo feems very kind: but it has a Hook under that 
Bait, and if we bite at it, we are loft. Fifthly, The 
Number of Enemies makes therrf more terrible; and the 
World is a vaft Army againft us : There is no State or 
Condition in it, nay, fcarce a Creature, which doth 
not, at fome Time or other, fight againft the Soul : 
The Honours of the World feek to wound us by Pride, 
the Wealth by Covetoufnefs, the Ptofperity of it cempts 
us to forget God, the Adve>fities to murmur at him. 
Our very Tabi'e becomes a Snare to us, our Meat draws 
us to Gluttony, our Drink to Drunkemitfs\ our Company t 
nay, our neareft Friends, often bear a Part in this War 
againft us, whilft either by their Example, or Pert'uali- 
ons, they entice us to fin. 

9. Confider all this, and then tell me, whether a 
Soul thus beiet, hath Leifure to fleep? Even Delilah 
could tell Sam/on, it was Time to awake, when the 
Philijiines were upon him. And Chri/l tells us, If the 
good Man of the Houfe had knoivn in what Hour the 
1 hi ef would come, he would have watched, and not have 
fuffered his ihufe to be broken up, Mat. xxiv. 43. But we 
live in the midft of Thieves, and therefore muft look 
for them every Hour; and yet who is there among us, 
that hath that common Providence for this precious Part 
of him, his Soul, which he hath for his Houfe, or in- 
deed the meaneft Thing that belongs to him ? I fear our 
Souls may fay to us, as Chrift to his Difciples, Matt, 
xxvi. 40. What! could ye not watch with me one Hour? 
For I doubt ic would pofe many of us to tell when we 
beftowed one Hour on them, tho' we know them to be 
continually befet with moft dangerous Enemies. And 
then, alas ! what is like to fc>e tjie Cafe of thefe poor 


vi The P R EV AC E. 

Souls, when their Adverfaries beftow fo much Care and 
Diligence to deftroy them, and we will afford none to 
preferve them ? Purely the fame as of a befieged Town, 
where no Watch or Guard is kept which is certain to 
fall a Prey to the Enemy. Confider 'his, ye that for- 
get God, nay, ye that forget yourfelves, left be pluck you 
nivay, and there be none to deliver you. Pfal. 1. .22. 

10. But I told you there was afecond Way whereby 
a Thing may be in Danger, and that is, from fome Dis- 
order or Diftemper within itfelf This is often the Cafe 
of our fiodies; they are not only liable to outward Vio- 
lence, but they are within themfelves fick and difeafed. 
And then we can be fenfible enough that they are in 
Danger, and need not to be taught to feek out for 
Means to recover them. But this is alfo the Cafe of 
the Soul; we reckon thofe Parts of the Body dijeafed, 
that do not rightly perform their Office; we account it 
a lick Palate that taftes not aright, a fick Stomach that 
digefts not. And thus it is wifh the Soul, when its 
Parts do not rightly perform their Offices. 

1 1. The Parts of the Soul are efpecially thefe three; 
the Under/landing, the Will, and the Affeclions. And 
that thefe are difordered, there needs little Proof; teta- 
ny Man Icok feronfly into his own Heart, and confider 
how little it is he kn >ws of fpiritual Things, and then tell 
me, whether his Underftanding be not dark? how much 
spter is he to nvill evil 'han good, and then tell me, 
whether his Will be not crooked? and how ftrong De- 
fires he hath after the Pleafures of Sin, and what cold 
and faint ones towards Cod and Goodnefs, and then tell 
me, whether his Ajfefttons be not difordered and rebel- 
lious, even aga ; nlt the Voice of his own Reafon within 
him ? Now as in bodily Difeafes, the firft Step to the 
Cure is to know the Caufe of the Sicknefs ; fo likewife 
here, it is very ueceffary for us to know how the Soul 
firft fell into this difeafed Condition; and that I {hall 
bow briefly tell you 

1 2. GO D created the firft Manl'rfdam without Sin, 
a-i r a anc * endued his Soul with the full Knowledge 

* rir ' of his Duty, and with fuch a Strength, that 

he might, if he would, perform all that was 

required of him. Having thus created him, he makes 

Qvenant or Agreement with him to this Purpofe, 

Of the Nccejfity of Caring for the Sou!, vii 

that if he continued in Obedience fo GOD, without com- 
mitting Sin ; then, firji, that Strength of Soul, which 
he then had, mould be ftill continued to him ; and fe» 
cond/y, That he mould never die, but be taken up into 
Heaven, there to be happy for ever: But, on the other 
Side, if he committed Sin, and difobeyed God, then 
both he, and his Children after him mould lofe that 
Knowledge, and thzt perfect Strength, which enabled 
him to do all that God required of him ; and fecondly, 
mould be fubjedt to Death, and not only fo, but to eter- 
nal Damnation in Hell. 

13. This was the Agreement made with Adam, and 
all Mankind in him (which we call the Firjl Covenant) 
upon which God gave Adam a particular Commandment, 
which was no more but this, That he mould not eat of 
one only Tree of that Garden wherein he had placed him. 
But he, by the Perfuafion of the Devil, eats of that 
Tree, difobevs God, and fo brings that Curfe upon him- 
felf, and all his Pofterity. And fo, by that one Sin of 
his, he loft both the full Knowledge of his Duty, and the 
Power of performing it : And we, being born after his 
Image, did folikewife, and fo are become both ignorant 
indifcerning what we ought to do, and weak and unable 
to the doing of it, having a Backwardness to all Good, 
and an Aptnefs and Readinefs to all Evil; like a fick 
Stomachy which loaths all wholfom Food, and longs after 
fuch Tram as may nourifh the Difeafe. 

14. And now you fee where we got this Sicknefs of 
Soul, and likewife, that it is like to prove a deadly one; 
and therefore I prefume, I need fay no moretoafTure 
you our Souls are in Danger: It is more likely you will 
from this Description, think them hopelefs ; but that 
you may nor, from that Conceit, excufeyou< N* gleet of 
them. 1 (hall haften to (hew you the contrary, by pro- 
ceeding to the fourth Motive of Care. 

15. That fourth Motive is the Likelihood that our 
Care will not be in vain, but that it will 

be a Means to preferve the Thing cared That our Care 
for; where this is wanting, it dimeartens will not be in 
ourCare. A Phyfician leaves his Patient, vain. 
when he fees him paft Hope, as knowing 
it is then in vain to give him any Thing; but, on f* 

con> - j 


viii The PREFACE. 

contrary, when he fees Hope of Recovery, he plies him 
with Medicines. Now in this very Refpeft we have a 
great deal of Reafon to take Care of our Souls ; for 
they are not fo far gone, but they may be recovered ; 
nay, it is certain they will, if we do our Parts towards it. 
1 6. For tho' by that Sin of Adam all Mankind were 
under the Sentence of eternal Condemnation, yet it 
pleafed God fo far to pity our Mifery, as to give us his 
Son, and in him to make a new Covenant with us, after 
we had broken the firit. 

— . „ , 17. This Second Covenant was made with 
i ?e econ jj amf an( j us m hj m> prefenlly after his 
Covenant. ^ . and j s bHefly comained in thofe 

Words, Gen. Yu. 1 <; . where God declares, That toe 
Seed of the Woman /hall break the Serpent' j Head; and 
this was made up, as the firft was, of fome Mercies to 
be afforded by God, and fome Duties to be performed 
by us. 

18. God therein promifes to fend his only Son, who 
is God equal with himfelf, to Earth, to become Man like 
unto us in all Things, Sin only excepted, and he to do for 
us thefe feveral Things : 

19. Firft, To make known to us the whole Will of 
his Father ; in the Performance whereof we (hall be lure 
to be accepted and rewarded by him. And this was one 
oreat Part of his Bufmefs, which he performed in thofe 
many Sermons and Precepts we find fetdown in the Go/pel. 
And herein he is our Prophet, it being the Work of a 
Prophet of old, not only to foretel, but to leach. Our 
Duty in this Particular is to hearken diligently to him, 
to be rnoft ready and defirous to learn that Will of God, 
which he came from Heaven to reveal to us. 

20. Thefecsnd Thing he was to do for us, was to/a- 
tisfy God for our Sins, not only that one of Adam, but 
all the Sins of all Mankind that truly repent and amend, 
and by this Means to obtain for us Forgivenefs of Sins, 
the Favour of God, and fo to redeem us from Hell and 
eternal Damnation, which was the Punifliment due to 
our Sin. All this he did for us by his Death. He offered 
up himfelf a Sacrifice for the Sins of all thofe who hear- 
tily bewail and forfake them. And. in this he is our 

Of the Nccejfity of Caring for the Soul, ix 

Prie/i, it being the Prieft's Office to offer Sacrifice for 
the Sins of the People. Our Duty in this Particular is, 
Firjl, Truly and heartily to repent us of, and forfake 
our Sins, without which they will never be forgiven us, 
tho' Chriit have died. Secondly, Stedfaftly to believe, 
that if we do that, we (hall have the Benefits of that 
Sacrifice of his ; all our Sins, how many and great {o- 
ever, ihall be forgiven us, and we faved from thofe 
eternal Punifhmencs, which were due unto us for them. 
Another Part of the Piie/i's Office was bltjjir.g and pray- 
ing for the People ; and this alfo Chriit performs to us. 
It was his fpecial Commiflion from his Father to blefs 
us, as St. Peter tells us, Ads iii. 26. God fent his Son 
Jefus to blefs you : And the following Words Ihew where- 
in that Bleffing confiib, in turning aivay every one of you 
from his Iniquity Thofe Means which he has ufed for 
the turning us from our Sins, are to be reckoned, of all 
other, the greateit Bleflings ; and for the other Part, 
that of Praying, that he not only performed on Earth, 
but continues Hill to do it in Heaven ; He Jits on the 
right Hand of God, and makes Requefi for us, Rom. viii. 
34. Our Duty herein is, not to refift this unfpeakable 
Blefling of his, but to be willing to be thus blefled, in 
the being turned from our Sins ; and not to make void 
and fruitlefs all his Prayers and lnterceffons for us, which 
will never prevail for us, whilft we continue in them. 

2 1 . The third Thing that Chri/l was to do for us, 
was to enable us, or give us Strength, to do what God 
requires of us. This he doth, fir/}, by taking off from 
the Hardnefs of the Law given to Adam, which was ne- 
ver to commit the lead Sin, upon Pain of Damnation ; 
and requiring of us only an hone/1 and hearty Endeavour 
to do what we are able ; and where we fail, accepting 
of fincere Repentance. Secondly, By fending his Holy Spi- 
rit into our Hearts to govern and rule us, to give us 
Strength to overcome Temptations to Sin, and to do 
all that he now under the Gofpel requires of us ; and 
in this he is our King ; it being the Office of a King to 
govern and rule, and to fubdue Enemies. Our Duty in 
this Particular is, to give up ourfelves obedient Subjecls 
©f bis, to be governed and ruled by him, to obey all 


x The P REF AC E. 

his Laws, not to take Part with any Rebel ; that is, not 
to cherifh any one Sin. but diligently to pray for his 
Grace to enable us to fubdue all, and then carefully to 
make ufe of it to that Purpofe. 

22. Laftly, He has purchafed for all that faithfully 
obey him, an eternal glorious Inheritance, the Kingdom of 
Heaven, whither he is gone before to take Pofftflioa 
for us. Our Duty herein is to be exceeding careful, 
that we forfeit not our Parts in it ; which we (hall cer- 
tainly do, if we continue impenitent in any Sin,: Se- 
condly, Not to fallen our Ajfeclions en this World, but 
to raife them, according to the Precept of the Apoftle, 
Col. iii. 2. Set your Jjfefiions on 1 kings above, not 
on things on the Earth ; continually longing to come 
to the Pofieffion of that blefled Inheritance of ours, in 
Comparifon whereof ail Things here below mould feem 
vile and mean to us. 

23. This is the Sum of that fecond Covenant we are 
now under, wherein you fee what Chrift hath done, 
how he executes thofe three great Offices of King, Prie/l, 
and Prophet : As alfo what is required of us ; without 
our faithful Performance of which, all that he hath 
done (hall never Hand us in any Stead ; for he will never 
be a Priefi to fave any, who take him not as well for 
their Prophet to teach, as their AV*^ to rule them ;• Nay, 
if we neglect our Part of this Covenant, our Condition 
will be yet worfe than if it had never been made ; for 
we (hall then be to anfwer, not for the Breach of Law 
only, as in thejirft, but for the Abufe of Mercy, which 
is of all Sins the moft provoking. On the other Side, 
if we faithfully perform it, that is, fet ourfelves hear- 
tily to the obeying of every Precept of Chrift, not go- I 
ing on wilfully in any one Sin, but bewailing and for- m[ 
faking whatever we have formerly been guilty of, it is I 
then moft certain, that all the forementioned Benefits of I 
Chrift belong to us. 

24. And now you fee how little Reafon you have to I 
calt off the Care of your Souls, upon a Conceit they I 
are paft Cure, for that it is plain they are not ; nay, cer- I 
tainly, they are in that very Condition, which of all I 
others makes them fiueft for our Care. If they had I 


Of the NeceJ/ity of Caring for the Soul xi 

not been thus redeemed by Chri/i, they had been then fo 
hopelefs, that Care would have been in vain ; on the 
other Side, if his Redemption had beenfuch, that all 
Men mould be faved by it, though they live as they 
lilt, we mould have thought it needlefs to take Care for 
them, becaufe they were fafe without it. But it hath 
pleafed God fo to order it, that our Care mult be the 
Means, by which they muft receive the Good, even of 
all that Chrijl hath done for them. 

25. And now, if after all that God hith done to fave 
thefe Souls of ours, we will not bellow a little Care on 
them our felves, we very well deferve to perilh. If a 
Pbyfician mould undertake a Patient, that were in fome 
defperate Difeafe, and by his Skill bring him fo far out 
of it, that he were fure to recover, if he would but 
take Care of himfelf, and obferve thofe Rules the Phy- 
fician fet him ; would you not think that Man weary of 
his Life that would rtfufe to do that ? So certainly that 
Man is weary of his Soul, wilfully calls it away, that 
will not content to thofe eafy Conditions by which he 
may fave it. 

26. You fee how great Kindnefs God hath to thefe Souls 
of ours; the whole Trinity, Father, Son and Holy Ghoft, 
have all done their Parts for them. The Father gave 
his only Son ; the Son gave himlelf, left his Glory, and 
endured the bitter Death of the Crofs, merely to keep 
our Souls from perilhing ; the Holy Gkoji is become, as 
it were, our Attendant, wait-> upon us with continual Of- 
fers of his Grace, to enable us to do that which may 
preferve them ; nay, he is fo defirous we mould accept 
thofe Oifeis of his, that he is faid to be grieved, when 
we refufe them, Eph. iv. 30. Now what greater Dif- 
grace and Affront can we put upon God, than to defpife 
what he thus values? That thofe Souls of ours, which 
Chrilt thought worthy every Drop of his Blood, we 
mould not think worth any Part of our Care? We ufe, 
in Things of the World, to rate them according to the 
Opinion of thofe who are belt fkilled in them : Now 
certainly God, who made our Souls, belt knows the 
Worth of them ; and fince he prizes them fo high, let 
ps (if/it be but in Reverence to him) be alhamed to 


xii The PREFACE. 

negle& them, efpecially now that they are in fo hopeful 
a Condition, that nothing but our own Carelefnefs can 
poiTibly deitroy them. 

27. I have now briefly gone ov*r thofe four Motives 
of Care I at firft propofed, which are each of them fuch 
as never mifTes to ftir it up towards the Things of this 
World ; and I have alfo fhewed you, how much more rea- 
fonable, nay, neceffary it is, they mould do the like for 
the Soul. And now what can J fay more, but conclude 
in the Words of Ifaiah, Chap. xlvi. 8. Remember this, 
and Jbeiv your/elves Men j that is, deal with your Sou/, 
as your Realon teaches you to do with all other Things 
that concern you. And fure this common Juftice binds 
you to ; for the Soul is that which furnifties you with 
that keafon which you exercife in all your worldly Bufi- 
nefs : And fhall the Soul itfelf receive no Benefit from 
that Reafon which it affords you ? This is as if a Mafter 
of a Family ■, who provides Food for his Servants, mould 
by them be kept from eating any himfelf, and fo re- 
main the only ftarved Creature in his Houfe. 

28. And as Juftice ties you to this, fo Mercy doth 
likewife : You know the poor Soul will fall into endlefs 
and unfpeakable Miferies, if you continue to neglect it ; 
and then it will be too late to confider it. The laft Re- 
fuge you can hope for is God's Mercy ; but that you have 
defpifed and abufed. And with what Face can you, in 
your greatefl Need, beg for his Mercy to your Souls, 
when you would not afford them your own? No, not 
that common Charity of confidering them, of bellow- 
ing a few of thofe idle Hours, you know not(lcarce) 
how to pafs away, upon them ? 

29. Lay this to your Hearts; and, as ever you hope 
for Gad's Pity, when you moft want it, be fure in Time 
to pity yourfelves, by taking that due Care of your pre- 
cious Souls which belongs to them. 

30. If what hath been faid, have perfuaded you to 
this fo necejfary a Duty, my next Work will be to tell 
you how this Care muft be employed j and that, in a 
Word, is, in the doing of all thofe Things which tend to 
the making the Soul happy, which is the End of our Care : 
And what thofe are, I come now to mew you. 




Of the Duty of Man by the Light of Nature, 
by the Light of Scripture : Tbe three great 
Branches of Man* s Duty to God, our Selves, 
our Neighbour : Our Duty to God ; of 
Faith, the Promifes, of Hope, of Love, of 
Fear, of T'rufi. 

Sect. i.lrw'fe "~ ' "SHE Benefits purchafed form 
by Chrifty are fuch as will 
undoubtedly make the Soul 
happy ; for eternal Happi- 
nefs it felf is one of them : 
But becaufe thefe Benefits 
belong not to us, till we per- 
form the Condition required of us, whoever defires the 
Happinefs of his Soul, mull fet himfelf to the perform- 
ing of that Condition. What that is, I have already 
mentioned in the general, 'That it is the hearty, honefl 
Endeavour of obeying the whole W "ill of God. But then 
that Will of God containing under it many Particulars, 
it is neceffary we mould alfo know what thofe are; that 
is, what are the feveral Things that God now requires 
of us, our Performance whereof will bring us to ever- 
lafting Happinefs; and the Negleft toendlefs Mifery. 
2. Of thefe Things there are fome ^- , , . , 

which God hath fo llamped upon our / A r . * 
oil mil of Nature. 

oouls, that we naturally know them ; J 

that is, we Ihould have known them to be our Duty, 


2 The Whole Duty of Man. 

though we had i^ever been told fo by the Scripture. 
That this is fo, we may fee by thofe Heathens, who, 
having never heard of either Old or New Teftament, 
do yet acknowledge themfelves bound to fome general 
Duties, as, to worfhip God, to be juft, to honour their 
Parents, and the like : And as St. Paul faith, Rom. ii. 
I 5 . Their Confciences do in thofe Things accufe cr excufe 
them ; that is, tell them, whether they have done what 
they mould in thofe Particulars, or no. 

3.Now,though Chrift hath brought greater Light into 
the World, yet he never meant by it to put out any of that 
natural Light, which God hath fet up in our Souls: 
Therefore let me here, by the Way, advife you, not to 
walk contrary even to this leffer Light j I mean, not to 
venture on any of thofe Ads, which meer natural Con- 
fidence will tell you are Sins. 

4. It is juft Matter of Sadnefs to any chriftian Heart, 
to fee fome in thefe Days, who profefs much of Reli- 
gion, and yet live in fuch Sins, as a meer Heathen would 
abhor ; Men, that pretending to higher Degrees of Light 
and Holinefs, than their Brethren do, yet pra&ife con- 
trary to ail the Rules of common Honefty, and make it 
Part of their chriftian Liberty fo to do ; of whofe Se- 
ducement it concerns all that love their Souls to beware: 
And for that purpofe let this be laid as a Foundation, 
That that Religion or Opinion cannot be of God, nuhicb 
allows Men in any Wickednefs. 

5 . But tho' we muft not put out this Light, which God 
hath thus put into our Souls, yet this is not the only 
Way whereby God hath revealed his Will ; and there- 
fore we are not to reft here, but proceed to the Know- 
ledge of thofe other Things, which God hath by other 
Means revealed. 

6. The Way for us to come to know them is by the 
77 f h ^ Scriptures, wherein are fet down thofe fe- 
<, 3 . *& °* veral Commands of God, which he hath 

cnpture. ^. yen fo ^ ^ £ u | e f our Duty. 

7. Of thofe, fome were given before Chrift came in- 
to the World ; fuch are thofe Precepts we find fcattered 
throughout the Old Teftament, but efpeoially contained 
in the Ten Commandments, and that excellent Book! 

Sund. i. The Light of Scripture. 

of Deuteronomy ; others were given by Chrift, who ac 
ded much, both to the Law implanted in us by Nature; 
and that of the Old Teftament : and thofe you (hall 
find in the New Teftament, in the feveral Precepts given 
by Him and his Apoftles. but efpecially in that divine 
Sermon on the Mount, fet down in the fifth, fixth, and 
feventh Chapters of St Matthews Gofpel. 

8. All thefe (hould be feverally fpoke to ; but becaufe 
that would make the Difcourfe very long, and fo lefs fit 
for the meaner Sort of Men, for whofe Ufe alone it is 
intended, I choofe to proceed in another Manner ; by 
fumming up all thefe together, and fo, as plainly as lean, 
to lay down what is now the Duty of every Chriftian. 

9. This I find briefly contained in the Words of the 
Apoftle, Tit. ii. 12. That we Jhould live „-. , 

/oberly, rigbteoujly, and godly in this pre- „ 

fent IVorld: Where the Word Soberly, f£*'/y *'. 
contains our Duty to our/elves ; righte- r% * 
cujly, our Duty to our Neighbour; and u ^ % 
godly our Duty to God. Thefe therefore fhall be t},- 
Heads of my Difcourfe, our DUTY to GOD, OUR 
SELVES and our NEIGHBOUR. I begin with that 
to God, that being the bed Ground-work whereon to 
build both the other. 

io. There are many Parts of our DUTY to GOD: 
The two chief are thefe ; firft, to ac- 
knowledge him to be God ; fecondly, Duty to God. 
to have no other. Under thefe are con- 
tained all thofe Particulars, which make up our whole 
Duty to God ; which fhall be (hewed in their Order. 

1 1. To acknowledge him to be God, is to believe 
him to be an infinite glorious Spirit, that 
was from everlafting, without Beginning, jQcknonvhdg- 

iand (hall be to Everlafting, without End; ing him to be 
that he is our Creator, Redeemer, God. 
San&ifier, Father, Son, and Holy Ghoft, 
one God blefled for ever, that he is fubjeft to no 
Alteration, but is unchangeable; that he is no bodily 
SubHance, fuch as our Eyes may behold, but fpiritual 
and invifible, nvhom no Man hathfeen or can fee, as the 

7be Whole Duty of Man, 

■ great and excellent, beyond all that our Wit or Conceit 

B can imagine : That he hath received his Being from 

B tone, and gives Being to all Things. 

f 12. All this we are to believe of him, in regard of 

I JiisEffence, and Being : But befides this he is fet forth 

to us in the Scripture by feveral Excellencies, as that he 

.s of infinite Goodnefs and Mercy, Truth, Juftice, Wif- 

dom, Power, All-fufficiency, Majefty ; that he difpofes 

and governs all Things by his Providence; that he 

knows all Things, and is prefent in all Places : Thefe 

are by Divines called the Attributes of God, and all 

^thefe we muft undoubtedly acknowledge j that is, we 

'muft firmly believe all thefe divine Excellencies to be 

in God, and that in the greateft Degree ; and fo that 

they can never ceafe to be in him ; He can never be 

Other than infinitely Good, Merciful, True, &c. 

13. But the acknowledging him for o«r God fignifies 
yet more than this ; it means that we mould perform to 
iim all thofe feveral Parts of Duty, which belong from a 
Creature to his God : What thofe are I am now to tell you. 

14. TheFiift is FAITH, or Belief, net only that 
_, . , forementioned of his Eflence and Attri- 

butes, but of his Word, the believing mod 
firmly, that all that he faith is perfectly true. This ne- 
ceffarily arifes from that Attribute, his Truth ; it being 
natural for us to believe whatfoever is faid of one of 
whofe Truth we are confident. Now the holy Scrip- 
tures being the Word of God, we are therefore to con- 
clude, that all that is contained in them is moft true. 

15. The Things contained in them are of thefe four 

,. j Sorts: Firft, Affirmations, fuch are all 
OfbisAjjir- the StQries of the BibIej when h is fai(J> 

nations. fuch afid fuch Things came fo ard fo tQ 

pafs; Chriftwas born of a Virgin, was laid in a Man- 
ger, &c . And fuch alfo are many Points of Doctrine ; as 
that there are three Perfons in the Godhead, that Cbrift 
is the Son of God, and the like. All the Things of thif 
Sort, thus delivered in Scripture, we are to believe mr 
true. And not only fo, but becaufe they are all writt 
for our Inftruttion, we are to confider them for ^ 
Purpofe, that is, by them to lay that Foundatir 


Sand. i. Of Faith. y 

pofe ; but thefe I fuppofe fufficient to allure any Man 
of this one great Truth, that all that Chrift hath done for 
us, was directed to this end, the bringing us to live Chri- 
Jtianly ; or, in the words of St. Pa.ul, To teach us, that 
denying Ungodline/s, and worldly Lufis, nvejbould live fi- 
ber ly, righteoujly, and godly in this prefent World. 

22. Now we know Chrift is the Foundation of all 
the Promifes j /„ him all the Promifes of God are Tea 
and Amen, 2 Cor. i. 20. And therefore, if God gave 
Chrift to this end, certainly the Promifes are to the fame 
alfo. And then, how great an Abufe of them is it, to> 
make them ferve for Purpofes quite contrary to what 
they were intended ? <viz. to the incouraging us in 
Sins ; which they will certainly do, if we perfuadeour 
felves they belong to us, how wickedly foever we live. 
The Apoftle teaches us another ufe of them, 2 Cor. 
vii. 1. Having therefore thefe Promifes, let us cleanfe 
our fe he s from all Filthinefs of the Flejh and Spirit, per- 
fecting Holinefs in the Fear of God. When we do thus, 
we may juftly apply the Promifes to our felves, and 
wich Comfort expect our Parts in them. But till then, 
though thefe Promifes be of certain Truth, yet we can 
reap no Benefit from them, becaufe we are not the Per- 
fons to whom they are made, that is, we perform not 
the Condition required to give c us Right to them. 

23. This is the Faith or Belief required of us towards 
the things God hath revealed to us in the Scripture, 
to wit, fuch as may anf«ver the end for which thev 
were fo revealed, that is, the bringing us to -gocd 
Lives; the bare believing the Truth of them, without 
this, is no more than the Devils do, as St. Jam^s tells 
us, Chap. ii. 19. only they are not fo unreafonable af 
fome of us are, for they will tremble, as knowing we, I 
this Faith will never do them any good. But many of 
us go on confidently, and doubt not the Sufficiency of 
our Faith, though we have not the leaft Fruit of Obe- 
dience to approve it by. Let fuch hear Sr. James" s Judg- 
ment in the Point, Chap. ii. 26. As the B:dy <w':tho-t 
the Spirit is dead, fo Faith, if it have not Works, is 
dead alfo. 

B 24. A 


8 The Whole Duty of Man. 

24. A fecond Duty to God is Hope, that is, a comfort- 

able Expectation of thefe good Things 
Hope. he hath promifed. But this, as I told 

you before of Fai;h, muft be fuch as 
agrees to the Nature of the Promifes, which being fuch 
as requires a Condition on our part, we can hope no 
further, than we can make that good ; or if we do, we 

arefo far from performing by it this Duty 
Prefumption. of Hope, that we commit the great Sin 

of Prefumption, which is nothing elfe 
but hoping, where God hath given us no ground to 
hope ; this every Man doth, that hopes for Pardon of 
Sins, and Eternal Life, without that Repentance and 
Obedience to which alone they are promifed. The 
true Hope is that which purifies us, St. John faith, 
1 Epift. iii. 3. Every Man that hath this Hope in him, 
purifieth himfelf e<ven as he is pure ; that is, it maketh 
him leave his Sins, and earneftly endeavour to be holy 
as Chrift is ; and that which doth not fo, how confident 
foever it be, may well be concluded to be but that Hope 
of the Hypocrite, which Job allures us (hall perilh. 

25. But there is another way of tranfgreffing this 

Duty, befides that of Prefumption, and 
Defpair. that is by Defperation, by which I 

mean not» that which is ordinarily fo 
called, viz. the defpairing of Mercy, fo long as we 
continue in our Sins, for that is but juft for us to do : 
But I mean fuch a Defperation as makes us give over 
Endeavour, that is, when a Man that fees he is not at 
the prefent fuch a One as the Promifes belong to, con- 
cludes he can never become fuch, and therefore neglects 
all Duty, and goes on in his Sins.' This is indeed the 
fmful Defperation, and that, which if it be continued 
in, muft end in Deftruclion. 

26. Now the Work of Hope is to prevent this, by 
fetting before us the Generality of the Promifes, that 
they belong to all that will but perform the Condition. 
And therefore, though a Man have not hitherto per- 
formed it, and fo hath yet no Right to them, yet Hope 
will tell him, that that Right may yet be gained, if he 
will now fet heartily about it. It is therefore ftrange 


Sund. i. Of Despair. 9 

Folly for any Man, be he never fo finful, to give up 
himfelf for loft ; when, if he will but change his Courfe, 
he (hall be as certain to partake of the Promifes of 
Mercy, as if he had never gone on in thofe former Sins. 

27. This Chrift (hews us in the Parable of the Pro- 
digal, Luke xv. where we fee that Son, which had run 
away from his Father, and had confumed the Portion 
given him, in riotous living, was yet (upon his Return 
and Repentance) ufed with as much Kindnefs by his 
Father, as he that had never offended; nay, with higher 
and more paffionate Expreflions of Love. The Intent 
of which Parable was only to (hew us, how gracioufly 
our heavenly Father will receive us, how great foever 
our former Sins have been, if we (hall return to him 
with true Sorrow for what is pad, and fincere Obedi- 
ence for the Time to come ; nay, fo acceptable a thing 
is it to God, to have any Sinner return from the Error 
of his Ways, that there is a kind of Triumph in Hea- 
ven for it, There is Joy in the Pre fence of the Angels of 
God over one Sinner that repent eth, Lukexv. in. And 
now, who would not rather chufe, by a timely Repen- 
tance, to bring Joy to Heaven, to God and his holy 
Angels, than by a fullen Defperation to pleafe Satan and 
his accurfed Spirits ; efpecially, when by the former we 
(hall gain endlefs Happinefs to our felves, and by the 
latter as endlefs Torments? 

28. A third Duty to God is Love; there are two 
common Motives of Love among Men. 

The one, the Goodncfs and Excellency Love, its Mt~ 
of the Perfon ; the other, his particular fives. 
Kindnefs and Love to us: And both 
thefe are in the higheft degree in God. 

29. Firft, he is of infinite Goodnefs and Excellency 
in himfelf: This you were before taught 

to believe of him, and no Man can God's Excel' 
doubt it that confiders but this one thing, iency. 
that there is nothing good in the World, 
but what hath received all its Goodnefs from God : His 
Goodnefs is as the Sea, or Ocean, and the Goodnefs of 
all Creatures, but as fome fmall Streams flowing from 
. the Sea. Now you would certainly think hirn a mad 
B 2 Man, 

io The Whole Duty of Man. 

Man, that mould fay, the Sea were not greater thanfome 
little Brook ; and certa ; nly it is no lefs Folly to fuppofe, 
that the Goodnefs of God doth not as much (nay, infi- 
nitely more) exceed that of all Creatures. Befides, the 
Goodnefs of the Creature is imperfect, and mixed with 
much Evil ; but his is pure and entire, without any fuch 
Mixture. He is perfectly holy, and cannot be tainted 
with the leaft Impurity, neither can be the Author of 
any to us ; for though he be the Caufe of all the Good- 
nefs in us, he is the Caufe of none of our Sins. This 
St. 'James exprefly tells us, Chap. i. 13. Let no Man 
fay 'when he is tempted, I o.m tempted of God ; for God 
cannot be tempted with Evil, neither tempt eth he any Man. 
30. But, Secondly, God is not only thus good in 
himfelf, but he is alfo wonderful good, that is, kind 
and merciful to us : We are made up 
His Kindnefs of two Parts, a Soul and a Body, and 
to us. to each of thefe God hath exprefled in- 

finite Mercy and Tendernefs. Do but 
confider what was before told you of the SECOND 
COVENANT, and the Mercies therein offered, even 
Chrift himfelf and all his Benefits ; and alfo that he of- 
fers them fo fincerely and heartily, that no Man can 
mifs of enjoying them but by his own default. For he 
doth mod really and affectionately defire we mould 
embrace them and live; as appears by that folemn Oath 
of his, Ezekiel xxxiii. 1 1 . As 1 live, faith the Loid, I 
have no Pleafure in the Death of the Wicked, but that 
the Wicked turn from his Way and live ; whereto he 
adds this paffionate Expreflion, Turn ye, turn ye from your 
evil Ways, for ivhy nvill ye die ? To the fame Purpofe 
you may read, Ezckielxvni. Confider this, I fay, and 
then furely you cannot but fay he hath great Kindnefs 
to our Souls. Nay, let every Man but remember with 
himfelf the many Calls he hath had to Repentance and 
Amendment ; fometimes outward by the Word, fome- 
tinies inward by the fecret Whifpers of God's Spirit in 
his Heart, which were only to wooe and intreat him to 
avoid eternal Mifery, and to accept of eternal Happi- 
nefs: Let him, I fay, remember thefe, together with 
thofe jnany other Means God hath ufed towaid him for 


Sund. i. Of Love of GOD. ji 

the fame end, and he will have Reafon to confefs God's 
Kindnefs, not only to Men's Souls in general, but to 
his own in particular. 

31. Neither hath he been wanting to our Bodies; all 
the good Things they enjoy, as Health, Strength, Food, 
Raiment, and whatever elie concerns them, are meerly his 
Gifts ; fo that indeed it is impoflible we mould be igno- 
rant of his Mercies to them, all thofe outward Comforts 
and Refrefhments, we daily enjoy, being continual Ef- 
fects and Witneflfes of it : And though fome enjoy more 
of thefe than others, yet there is no Perfon but erjoys fo 
much in one kind or other, as abundantly fl>ews God's 
Mercy and Kindnefs to him in refpeft of his Bo Jy. 

3Z. And now, furely, you will think it but reafonable 
we (hould love him, who is in all refpefts thus lovely : 
Indeed, this is a Duty fo generally acknowledged, that 
if you fhould afk any Man the Queftion, whether be 
loved God or no, he would think you did him great 
wrong to doubt of it; yet for all this, it is too plain 
that there are very few that do indeed love him : And 
this will foon be proved to you by examining a little, 
what are the common Effects of Love, which we be-ir 
to Men, like our felves, and then trying whether we cart 
fhewany fuch Fruits of our Love to God. 

33. Of that fort there are divers, but for, Shortnefs, I 
will name but two. The firft is a De- 
fire of Pleafing, the fecond a Defire of Fruit of Love, 
Enjoyment. Thefe are conftantly the Defire of p!ea- 
Fruits of Love. For the firft, 'tis known fwg. 
by all, that he that loves any Ferfon is 
very defirous to approve himfelf to him ; to do whatfo- 
ever he thinks will be pleafing to him ; and according 
to the degree of Love, fo is this Defire more or lefs ; 
where we love earneltly, we are very earneft, and care- 
ful to pleafe. Now, if we have indeed that Love to 
God we pretend to, it will bring forth this Fruit, w 
fliall be careful to pleafe him in all things. Therefore 
as you judge of the 7ree by tis Fruits, fo may you judge 
of your Love of God by this Fruit of it: Nay, indeed, 
this is the Way of Tryal, which Chrift himfelf hath 
given us, John xiv. 15. If ye love me, keep my Com- 
B 3 mandmentiy 

12 Vbe Whole Duty of Man. 

mandments; and St. John tells us, i Epift. v. 3. that 
this is the Love of God, that ive walk after his Com- 
mandments. And where this one Proof is wanting, it 
will be impoflible to teftify our Love to God. 

34. But it muft yet be farther confidered, that this 
Love of God muft not be in a low or weak degree, 
for befides that the Motives to it, his Excellency and 
his Kindnefs, are in the higheft, the fame Com- 
mandment which bids us love God, bids us love him 
moith all our Hearts, and with all our Strength \ that is, 
as much as is poflible for us, and above any thing elfe. 
And therefore to the fulfilling of this Commandment, it 
is neceflary we love him in that degree ; and if we do 
fo, then certainly we mall have not only fome flight and 
faint Endeavours of pleafing, but fuch as are moft dili- 
gent and earned, fuch as will put us upon the moft pain- 
ful and coftly Duties, make us willing to forfake our own 
Eafe, Goods, Friends, yea, Life it felf, when we can- 
not keep them without difobeying God. 

35. Now examine thy felf by this ; Haft thou this 
Fruit of Love to fhew? Dolt thou make it thy conftant 
and greateft Care to keep God's Commandments ? To 
obey him in all things? Earneftly labouring to pleafe 
him to the utmoft of thy Power, even to the forfaking 
of what is deareft to thee in this world ? If thou doft, 
thou mayeft then truly fay, thou loveft God. ^But on the 
contrary, if thou wilfully continued in the Breach of 
many, nay, but of any one Command of his, never 
deceive thy felf, for the Love of God abides not in 
thee. This will be made plain to you, if you confider 
what the Scripture faith of fuch, as that they are Ene- 
mies to God by their wicked Works, Col. i. 2 1 . That 
the carnal Mind (and fuch is every one that continues 
'wilfully in Sin) is Enmity with God, Rom. viii. 7. That 
he thaty?«i wilfully, tramples under Foot the Son of God, 
and doth defpight unto the Spirit of Grace, Heb. x. 29. 
and many the like. And therefore unlefs you can think 
Enmity, and Trampling, and Defpight, to be Fruits of 
Love, you muft not believe you love God, whilft you 
go on in a wilful Difobedience to him. 

36. A 

Sund, i. Of Love of GOD. 13 

36. A fecond Fruit of Love, I told you, was Defire 
of Enjoying. This is conftantly to be 

teen in our Love to one another. If Defire of En- 
you have a Friend whom you entirely joying. 
love, you defire his Conversation, wilh 
to be always in his Company : And thus will it be alfo in 
our Love to God, if that be as great and hearty as this. 

37. There is a two fold Enjoying of God j the one 
imperfect in this Life, the other more perfect and com- 
pleat in the Life to come: That in this Life is that 
Converfation, as I may call it, which we have with 
God in his ordinances, in Praying and Meditating, in 
hearing his Word, in receiving the Sacrament, which 
are all intended for this Purpofe, to bring us into an 
Intimacy and Familiarity with God, by fpeaking to him, 
and hearing him fpeak to us. 

38. Now ]f we do indeed love God, we (hall cer- 
tainly hugely value and defire thefe Ways of Conver- 
fing with him ; it being all that we can have in thii 
Life; it will make us, with David, efteem One Day in 
God's Courts better than a tbou/and, Pfal. Ixxxiv. i o. 
we (hall be glad to have thefeOpportunities of approach- 
ing to him, as often as it is poflible, and be careful to 
ufe them diligently, to that end of uniting us (till more 
to him ; yea, we (hall come to thefe fpiritual Exercifes 
with the fame Chearfulnefs we would go to our deareft 
Friend. And if indeed we do thus, it is a good Proof 
of our Love. 

39. But I fear there are not many have this to (hew 
for it, as appears by the common Backwardnefs and 
Umvillingnefs of Men to come to thefe, and their Negli- 
gence and Heartlefsnefs when they are at them ! And can 
we think that God will ever own us for Lovers of him, 
whilft we have fuch Diflike to his Company, that we 
will never come into it, but when we are dragged by 
Fear or Shame of Men, or fome fuch worldly Motive ? 
It is fure, you would not think that Man loved you, 
whom you perceive to (hun your Company, and be loth 
to come in your Sight. And therefore be not fo unrea- 
fonable, as to fay, you love God, when yet you defire 
to keep as far from him as you can. 

B 4 40. But 

14 The Whole Duty of Man. 

40. But befides this, there is another Enjoyment of 
Gcd, which is more perfect and compleat, and that is, 
our perpetual enjoying of him in Heaven, where we 
fhail be for ever united to him, and enjoy him not now 
and then only for fhort Spaces of Time, as we do 
"here, but continually, without Interruption or breaking 
off. . And certainly, if we have that degree of Love to 
Gcd we ought, this cannot but be moll earneftly defired 
hy us fomuch, that we (hall think no Labour too great 
to compafs it. The feven Years that Jacob ferved for 
Rachel, Gen. xxix. 20. femed to him but a few Days, 
for the Love that he had to her. And furely , if we have 
Love to God, wefhall not think the'Service of our whole 
Lives too dear a Price for this full Enjoyment of him, 
nor eileem all the Enjoyments of the World worth the 
looking on in Companion thereof. 

41. If we can truly tell our (elves we do thus long 
for this Enjoyment of God, we may believe we love 
him. But I fear again, there are but few that can thus 
approve their Love. For if we look into Men's Lives, wc 
ihall fee they are not generally fo fond of this Enjoyment, 
as to be at any Pains to purchafe it. And not only Co, 
but it is to be doubted, there are many, who, if it were 
put to their Choice whether they would live here al- 
ways to enjoy the Profit and Pleafure of the World, or 
go to Heaven to erjoy God, would/ like the Children 
of Gad and Reuben, fet up their R.eft on this fide Jordan, 
Nurr.b. xxxii, and never defire that heavenly Canaan', 
io clofedo their Affections cleave to Things below, which 
ihews clearly they have not made God their Treafure ; 
for then, according to our Saviour's Rule, Matth. vi. 2 r . 
their Heart would be with him. Nay, faitheryet, it 
is too plain that many of us fet fo little Value on this En- 
joying of God, that we prefer the vileft and bafeft 
iiins before him, and chufe to enjoy them, though by- 
it we utterly kfe our Parts in ht'w, which is the Cafe of 
every Man that continues wilfully in thofe Sins. 

42. And now I fear, according to thefe Rules of 
Tryal, many that profefs to love God, will be found 
not to do fo. I conclude all with the Words of Saint 
John, 1 Epift. iii. 18. which, though fpoken of the 


Sund. r. Of F ear of GOD. r^ 

Love of our Brethren, is very fitly applicable to this Love- 
of God, Let us not love in Word, neither in Tongue ', 
but in deed and in truth. 

43. A fourth Duty to God is FEAR ; this arifes from 
the Confideration both of his Juftice and 

his Power: His Juftice is fuch, that he Fear. 
will not clear the Wicked ; and his Power 
fuch, that he is able to inflict the foreft Punimments upon 
them : And that this is a reafonable Caufe of Fear, 
Chrift himfelf tells us, Mat:h. x. 28. Fear him which is 
able to deftroy both foul and Body in Hell. Many other 
Places of Scripture there are, which commend to us this 
Duty, as Pful. ii. IT, Serve the Lord with Fear. Pfal. 
xxxiv. 9 Fear the Lord, ye that be his Saints. Prov. ix. 
10. The Fear of the Lord is the Beginning of Wifdom, 
and divers the Like. And indeed, all the Threatnings of 
Wrath againft Sinners, which we meet with in the Scrip- 
ture, are otrly to this end, to work this Fear in our Hearts. 

44. Now this Fear is nothing elfe, but fuch an awful 
Regard of God, as may keep us from offending him. 
This the wife Man tells us, Prow. xvi. 17. The Fear of 
the Lord it to depart from Evil: So that none can be 
faid truly to fear God, that is not thereby with-htld from 
Sin, and this is but anfwerable to that common Fear we 
have towards Men ; whoever we know may hurt us, we 
will beware of provoking: And- therefore if we be not 
as wary of difpleafing God, it is plain we fear Men. 
more than we do him. 

45. How great a Madnefs this is, thus to fear Men. 
above God, will foon appear, if we 

compare what Man can do to us with The Folly of 
that which God can. And firft, it is fure, fearing Men 
it is not in the Power of Man (I might more than. 
fay, Devils too) to do us any hurt, un- God, 
lefs God permit and fuffer them to do 
it : So that if we do but keep him our Friend, we may 
fay with the Pfalmift, The Lord is on my fide ', 1 fear not 
what Man can do unto me. For let their Malice be ne- 
ver fo great, he can retrain and ke^p them from hurt- 
ing us ; nay, he can change their Minds towards us,, 
according to that of the Wife Man,P«*. xvi. 7 . When* 
B 5 a Man's, 

1 6 Tbs Whole Duty of Man. 

a Man's Ways pleafe the Lord, he maketh even his Ene- 
mies to be at peace 'with him. A notable Example of 
this we have in Jacob, Gen. xxxii. who, when his Bro- 
ther Efau was coming againft him as an Enemy, God 
wonderfully turned hisHeart, fo that he met him with 
all the Expreffions of brotherly Kindnefs, as you may 
read in the next Chapter. 

46. But, Secondly, Suppofe Men were left at liberty 
to do thee what Mifchief they could, alas ! their Power 
goes but a little way ; they may perhaps rob thee of thy 
Goods, it may be they may take away thy Liberty, or 
thy Credit, or perchance thy Life too, but that thou 
knoweft is the utmoft they can do. But now God can 
do all this when he pleafes, and that which is infinitely 
more, his Vengeance reaches even beyond Death it 
felf, to the eternal Mifery both of Body and Soul in 
Hell ; in Companion of which, Death is fo inconfide- 
rable, that we are not to look upon it with any Dread. 
Fear not them that kill the Body, and after that have 
no more that they can do, faith Chrift, Luke xii. 4. and 
then immediately adds, But I will forewarn you whom 
yefhallfear, fear him which after he hath killed, hath 
Power to caft into Bell, yea, 1 fay unto you fear him. 
In which Words the Comparison is fet between the 
greateft 111 we can fuffer from Man, the Lofs of Life 
and thofe fadder Evils, God can inflicl on us ; and the 
latter are found to be the only dreadful Things, and 
therefore God only is to be feared. 

47. But there is yet one thing farther confiderable 
in this Matter, which is this, It is poflible we may 
tranfgrefs againft Men, and they not know it : I may 
perhaps Heal my Neighbour's Goods, or defile his Wife, 
and keep it fo clofe that he mall not fufpecl me, and fo 
never bring me to Punimment for it : But this we can- 
not do with God ; he knows all things, even the mod 
fecret Thoughts of our Hearts, and therefore though 
we commit a Sin never fo clofely, he is fure to find us, 
and will as furely, if we do not timely repent, punifh 
B6 eternally for it. 

48. And now furely it cannot but be confeiTed, that 
it is much iafer difpleafing Men, than God -, yet, alas, 


Sund. i. Of Trust in GOD. xy 

our Practice is as if we believed the direct contrary, 
there being nothing more ordinary with us, than for the 
avoiding of fome prefent Danger we fear from Men, to 
rum our felves upon the indignation of God. And thus 
it is with us, when either to fave our Eftates, or Credits, 
or our very Lives, we commit any Sin ; for that is 
plainly the chufing to provoke God, rather than Man. 

49. But God knows, this Cafe of Fear of Men is not 
the only one wherein we venture to difpleafe him ; for 
we commit many Sins, to which we have none of this 
Temptation, nor indeed any other; as for Inftance, 
that of common Swearing, to which there is nothing 
either of Pleafure or Profit to invite us. Nay, miny 
times, we, who fo fear the Mifchiefs that other Men 
may do to us, that we are ready to buy them off with 
the greatefl Sins, do our felves bring all thofe very Mif- 
chiefs upon us, by Sins of our own chufing. Thus 
the carelefs Prodigal robs himfelf of his liftate ; the de- 
ceitful and difhoneft Man, or any that Lives in open no- 
torious Sin, deprives himfelf of his Credit; and the Drun- 
kard and Glutton brings Difeafes on himfelf, to the (horten- 
ing his Life. Andean we think we do at all fear God, 
when that Fear hath fo little Power over us, that though 
it be back'd with the many prefent Mifchiefs that attend 
upon Sin, it is not able to keep us from them? Surely, 
fuch Men are fo far from fearing God, that they rather 
feem to defy him, refolve to provoke him, whatfoever 
it colt them, either in this World or the next. Vet fo 
unreafonably partial are we to our felves, that even fuch 
as thefe will pretend to this Fear : You may examine 
Multitudes of the mod grofs fcandalous Sinners, before you 
(hall meet with one that will acknowledge he fears not 
God. It is ftrange it mould bepoffible for Men thus to 
cheat themfelves; but however, it is certain we cannot 
deceive God, he will not be mocked, and therefore if 
we will not now fo fear as to avoid Sin, we (hall one 
Day fear, when it will be too late to avoid Punifhment. 

50. A fifth Duty to God is that of 
TRUSTING in him, that is, de- Trufi. 
pending and refting on him ; and that 

is, Firji, In all Dangers ; Secondly , In all Wants. We 


1 5 Ihe Whole Duty of Man. 

are to reft on him in all our Dangers both fpiritual and 
temporal. Of the firft fort, are all thofe Temptations, 
by which we are in danger to be drawn to Sin. And 
in this Refpecl he hath promifed, That if we rejiji the 
Dewil, he /hall flee from us, Jam. iv. 7. 
In allfpiri- Therefore our Duty is, Firfi, To pray 
tual Dangers, earneftly for God's Grace, to enable us 
to overcome the temptation : And, Se- 
condly, To fet our felves manfully to combat with it, not 
yielding, or giving Confent to it in the leaft degree ; and 
>vhilit we do thus, we are confidently to relt upon God, 
that his Grace will be fufficient for us, that he will either 
remove the Temptation, or ftrengthen us to withftand it. 
51. Secondly, In all outward and temporal Dangers 
we are to reft upon him, as knowing 
In all Temp*- that he is able to deliver us, and that he 
ral. will do fo, if he fee it beft for us, and 

if we be fuch to whom he hath pro- 
mifed his Prote&ion, that is, fuch as truly fear him. 
To this Purpofe we have many Promifes in Scripture, 
P/al. xxxiv. 7. The Angel of the Lord tarrieth round about 
them that fear him, and delivereth them ; and Pfal. 
xxxiv. 22. The Lord delt'vereth the Souls of his Servants, 
and all they that put their Trujl m himjball not he defti- 
tute ; and diveis the like. 

Alio we have many Examples, as that of the Three 
Children in the Furnace, Dan. iii. That of Daniel in 
the Lions Den, Dan. vi. and many others ; all which, 
ierve to teach us this one Leflbn, that if we go on con- 
icionably in performing our Duty, we need not be dif- 
inayed for any thing that can befal us, for the God whom 
we ferve is able to deliver us. 

52. Therefore in all Dangers we are firft humbly to 
pray for his Aid, and then to reft our 
Notfeek to felves chearfully on him ; and affuring 
deliver our ourfelves, that he will give fuch an If- 
fel-ves by any fue as ftiall be m oft for our good. But 
Sin. above all things, we muft be fure to fix 

our Dependance wholfy on him, and not 
to rely on the Creatures for help; much lefs muft we 
foek to deliver our felves by any unlawful Means, that 


Sund. 1/ Of Trust in GOD. 19 

is, by the committing of any Sin ; for that is, like Saul, 
1 Sam. xxviii. 8. Togo to the Witch, that is, to the Devil 
for Help; fuch Courfes do commonly deceive our Hopes 
at the prefent, and inftead of delivering us out of our 
Straits, plunge us in greater, and thofe much more un- 
comfortable ones, becaufe then we want that which is the 
only Support, God's Favour and Aid, which we certain- 
ly forfeit, when we thus feek to refcue ourfelves by any 
finful Means. But fuppofing we could by fuch a way 
certainly free ourfelves from the prefent Danger ; yet, 
alas, we are far from having gained Safety by it ; we have 
only removed the Danger from that which was lefsconfi- 
derable, and brought it upon the moft precious Part of us, 
our Souls, like an unfkilful Phyfician, that to remove a 
Pain from the Finger ftrikes it to the Heart ; we are 
therefore grofly mittaken, when we think we have play'd 
the good Hufband in faving our Liberties or Eftates, or 
Lives themfelves by a Sin ; we have not faved them, but 
madlyover boughtthem,laidoutourvery Soulson them : 
And Chrift tells us how little we fhall gain by fuch Bar- 
gains, Matth. xvi. 26. What is a Man profited if he 
Jballgain the whole World, and lofe his oiun Soul ? Let 
us therefore refolve never to value any Thing we can pof- 
fefs in this World at fo high a rate as to keep it at the 
Price of the leaft Sin; but whenever things are driven 
to fuch an IfTue, that we muft either part with fome, 
perhaps all our worldly PofTeffions, nay, Life itfelf, or 
elfe commit Sin, let us then remember that this is the 
Seafon for us to perform that great and excellent Duty of 
taking up the Crcfs, which we can never fo properly do 
as in this Cafe ; for our bearing of that, which we have 
no poffible way of avoiding, can at moft be faid to be but 
the carrying of the Crofs ; but then only can we be faid 
to take it up, when having a Means of efcaping it by a 
Sin, we rather chufe to endure the Crofs, than commit 
the Sin ; for then it is not hid on us by any unavoida- 
ble Neceffity, but we willingly chufe it ; and this is high- 
ly acceptable with God, yea, withal fo ftridly required 
by him, that if we fail of performing it when we are 
put to the Trial, we are not to be accounted Followers 
of Chriit, for fo himfelf hath exprefly told us, Matth. 


20 The Whole Duty of Man. 

xvi. 24. If any Man come after me, let him deny him- 
felf and take up his Crofs, and follow me ; and fo again, 
Mark viii. 34. It were therefore a good Point of fpiri- 
tual Wifdom for us, fometimes by fome lower Degrees 
of Self-denial to fit our felves for this greater, when we 
fhall be called to it ; we know, he that expects to run a 
Race, will before hand be often breathing himfelf, that 
he may not be foiled, when he comes to run for thePrize : 
in like manner 'twill be fit for us, fometimes to abridge 
our felves fomewhat of our lawful Pleafure, or Eafe, or 
Profit, fo that we may get fuch a Maftery over our felves, 
as to be able to renounce all, when our obedience to God 
requires it. 

53. And as we are thus to truft on God for Delive- 

rance from Danger, fo are we likewife 
In all wants for Supply of our Wants, and thofe 
Spiritual. again are either Spiritual or Temporal : 

Our Spiritual Want is that of his Grace, 
to enable us to ferve him, without which we can do 
nothing; and for this we are to depend on him, pro- 
vided we neglect not the Means, which are Prayer and 
a careful ufing of what he hath already beftowed on us : 
For then we have his promife for it, He will give the 
holy Spirit to them that ask it, Luke xi 13. And, Unto 
him that hath Jhall be given, Matth. xxv. 29, that is, To 
him that hath made a good ufe of that Grace he hath al- 
ready, Godwdl give more. We are not therefore to af- 
fright our felves with theDifficulty of thofeThingsGod re- 
quires of us, but remember he commands nothing, which 
he will not enable us to perform, if we be not wanting to 
our felves. And therefore let us fincerely do our Parts, 
and confidently afture ourfelves, God will not fail of his. 

54. But we have likewife temporal and bodily wants, 

and for the Supply of them, we are like- 
Temporal wife to rely on him. And for this alfo 

Wants. we want no Promifes, fuppofing us to 

be of the Number of them to whom 
they are made, that is, God's faithful Servants : They 
that fear the Lord, lack nothing, Pfal. xxxiv. 9. and 
Verfe. 1 o They that feek the Lord Iball want no man- 
tier of thing that is good. Again, Pfal. xxxiii. 18,. 19. 


Sund. i. 0/ Trust in GOD. 21 

Behold the Eye of the Lord is upon them that fear him, 
upon them that hope in his Mercy, to deliver their Souls 
from Death, and to feed them in Time of Famine, Ex- 
amples alfo we have of this, as we may fee in the cafe 
of Elijah and thenar Widow, I Kings xvii. and many 

55. We are therefore to look up to him for the Pro- 
vifion of all Things necefTary for us, according to that 
of the Pfalmifi, The Eyes of all wait upon thee, O Lord, 
and thou givefl them their Meat in due Seafon. And our 
Saviour hath taught us to pray for our daily Breads 
thereby teaching us, that we are to live in continual 
Dependance upon God for it. Yet I mean not by this, 
that we mould fo expect it from God, as to give up our 
felves to Idlenefs, and expect to be fed by Miracles. 
No, our honeft Induftry and Labour is the Means by 
which God ordinarily gives us the Neceflaries of this 
Life; and therefore we muft by no means neglect that, 
He that will not labour, let him not eat, fays the Apo- 
ftle, 2 Thef. iii. 10. And we may believe, God will 
pronounce the fame Sentence, and fuffer the flothful 
Perfon to want even necefiary Food. But when we 
have faithfully ufed our own Endeavour, then we muft 
alfo look up to God for his Bleffing on it, without 
which it can never profper to us. And having dons 
thus, we may comfortably reft our felves on his Provi- 
dence, for fuch a Meafure of thcfe outward Things, as 
he fees fitteft for us. 

56. But if our Condition be fuch, that we are not 
able to labour, and have no other Means of bringing in 
the NecefTiries of Life to ourfelves; yet even then we 
are chearfully to reft upon God, believing that He, who 
feeds the Ravens, will, by fome Means or other, tho' 
we know not what, provide for us, fo long as he pleafes 
we (hall continue in this World, and never in any cafe 
torment our felves with carking and diftruftful Thoughts; 
but, as the Apoftle, 1 Pet. v. 7. Caft all our Care upon 
him, who careth for us. 

57. This is earneftly prefTed by our Saviour, Mat. 
vi. where he abundantly fhews the Folly of this Sin of 
Diftruft. The Place is a moll excellent one, and there- 

22 The Whole Duty of Man. 

fore I fhall fet it down at large, Verfe 25. Therefore I 
fay unto you, take no Thought for your Life, what ye 
fhall eat, or ivhat ye fhall drink \ neither for your Body % 
what ye Jh all put on : Is not the Life more than Meat, 
and the Body than Raiment ? Behold the Fowls of the 
Air, for they fow not, neither do they reap, nor gather 
into Barns, yet your heavenly Father feedeth them. Are 
ye not much better than they ? Which of you, by taking 
Thought, can add one Cubit to his Stature ? And why 
take ye Thought for Raiment ? Confider the Li Hies of the 
Field how they grow, they toil not, neither do they J "pin, 
and yet 1 fay unto you, that even Solomon in all his 
Glory was not arrayed like oneofthefe. Wherefore, if 
God fo cloath the Grajs of the Field, which to day is, 
and to morrow is cajl into the Oven, Jhall he not much 
more cloath you, O ye of little Faith ? Therefore take no 
Thought, faying, What jhall we eat ? Or what fhall. 
we drink ? Or wherewithal /ball we be c loathed ? (For 
after all thefe Things do the Gentiles Jeek) for your hea- 
venly Father knoweth that ye have need of all thefe 
Things. But feek ye fir ft the Kingdom of God and his 
Right eoufnefs, and then all thefe Things flail be added 
unto you. Take therefore no Thought for the morrow, for 
the morrow fhall take Thought for the Things of it f elf ;. 
fufificient unto the Day is the Evil thereof . I might add 
many other Texts to this Purpofej but this is fo full 
and convincing, that I fuppofe it needlefs.. 

58. All therefore that I fhall fay more concerning this 

Duty, is to put you in mind of the 
The Benefits great Benefits of it, as firft, that by this 
of trufling Trufting upon God, you engage and 
in God. bind him to provide for you. Men, you 

know, think themfelves highly concern- 
ed not to fail thofe, that depend and truft upon them ;. 
and certainly God doth fo much more. But then, fe- 
condly, there is a great deal of Eafe and Quiet in the 
Practice of this Duty ; it delivers us from all thofe cark- 
ings and immoderate Cares, which difquiet our Minds, 
break our Sleep, and gnaw even our very Heart : 
I doubt not but thofe that have felt them, need not be 
cold they a*e uneafy. But then methinks that Uneafmefs. 


Sund. i. O/Trust in GOD. 23 

fiould make us forward to embrace the Means for the 
removing of them, and fo we fee it too often doth in un- 
lawful ones : Men will cheat, and Heal, and lye, and do 
any thing to deliver themfelves from the Fear of Want. 
But, alas ! they commonly prove but deceitful Reme- 
dies ; they bring God's Curfe on us, and fo are more 
likely to betray us to Want, than to keep us from it. 
But if you defire a certain and unfailing Cure for Cares, 
take this of relying upon God. 

59. For what mould caufe that Man to fear Want, 
that knows he hath One that cares for him, who is All- 
fufficient, and will not fuffer him to want what is fit for 
him ? If a poor Man had but a faithful Promife from a 
wealthy Perfon, that he would never fuffer him to want, 
it is fure he would be highly cheared with it, and would 
not then think fit to be as carking as he was before ; and 
yet a Man's Promife may fail us, he may either grow 
poor, and not be able, or he may prove Life, and not 
be willing to make good his Word. But we know God 
is fubjedt neither to Impoverifhing nor Deceit. And 
therefore how vile an Injury do we offer to him, if we 
dare not trufl as much upon his Promife, as we would 
that of a Man ? Yea, and how great a Mifchief do we 
do our felves, by loading our Minds with a Multitude 
of Vexations and tormenting Cares, when we may fo 
fecurely caft our Burden upon God? I conclude this in 
the Words of the ApofUe, Phil, iv. 6. Be careful for 
nothing, but in every thing by Prayer and Supplication, 
with 'I hank/giving, let your Requejli be made known to 


24 The Whole Duty of Man. 


Of Humility; of Submiffion to GOD's Will, 

in refpett of Obedience -, of Patience in all 

forts of Sufferings^ and of Honour due to 

GOB in fever al fVays, in his Houfe, Pof- 

feffion^ bis Day, Word> Sacraments, &c. 

Sect. i. A Sixth Duty to God is Humility, 
j[\ that is, fuch a Senfe of our own 
Meannefs and His Excellency, as may 
Humility. work in us lowly and unfeigned Submif- 

fion to him : This Submiffion is Two- 
fold ; Firjl, To his Will; Secondly, To his Wifdom. 

2. The Submiffion to his Will is alfo of two Sorts, 

the Submiffion either of Obedience, or 
Submiffion to Patience ; that of Obedience, is our 
God's Will in ready yielding our felves up to do his 
re/peclofO- Will; fo that when God hath, by his 
bidience. Command, made known to us what his 

Pleafure is, chearfully and readily to fet 
about it. To enable us to this, Humility is exceeding 
necefTary ; for a proud Perfon is of all others the un- 
apteft to obey, and we fee Men never pay an Obedi- 
ence, but where they acknowledge the Perfon com- 
manding to befome way above them ; and fo it is here. 
If we be not thoroughly perfuaded, that God is in r 
finitely above us, that we are Vilenefs, and nothing in 
comparifon of Him, we (hall never pay our due Obe- 

3. Therefore if ever you mean to obey entirely (as 

you muft, if ever you mean to be faved) 
The great Di- get your Hearts poffeffed with the Senfe 
fiance be- of that great unfpeakable Diftance that 

tnueen God is between God and you. Confider him, 
and us. as he is, a God of infinite Majefty and 

Glory, and we poor Worms of the Earth; 
He infinite in Power, able to do all Things, and we 


Sund. 2. Of Humility. 25 

able to do nothing, not fo much as to make one Hair 
white or Black, as our Saviour fpeaks, Matth. v. 36. 
He of infinite Purity and Holinefs, and we polluted and 
defiled, wallowing in all kinds of Sins and Uncleannefs ; 
He unchangeable and conftant, and we fubjett to change 
and Alteration every Minute of our Lives. He eternal 
and immortal, and we frail Mortals, that whenever he 
taketh away our Breath, we die, and are turned again 
to our Duft, Pfal. civ. 29. Confider all this, I fay, 
and you cannot but acknowledge a wide Difference 
between God and Man, and therefore may well cry out 
with Jcby after he had approached fo near to God, as 
to difcern fomewhat of his Excellency, Job xlii. 5, 6. 
Now mine Eye feeth thee, wherefore 1 abhor tnyfelf t 
and repent in Duji and A/hes. 

4. And even when this Humility hath brought us to 
Obedience, it is not then to be caft off, 
as if we had no farther Ufe of it ; for Ihe Unwor- 
there is Hill great Ufe, nay, Neceinty of thinefs 0/ our 
it, to keep us from any high Conceits of left Works. 
our Performances, which, if we once 
entertain, it will blaft the beft of them, and make them 
utterly unacceptable to God ; like the Strittnefs of the 
Pharifee, which, when once he came to boaft of, the 
Publican was preferred before him, Luke xviii. The beft 
of our Works are fo full of Infirmity and Pollution, that 
if we compare them with that Perfection and Purity 
which is in God, we may truly fay with the Prophet, 
All our Right eoufiejfes are as filthy Rags, Ifa. Ixiv . 6. 
And therefore to pride ourfelves in them, is the fame 
Madnefs, that it would be in a Beggar to brag of his 
Apparel, when it is nothing but vile Rags and Tatters. 
Our Saviour's Precept in this Matter mult always be re- 
membred, Luke xvii. 10. When you hate done all thofe 
things which are commanded you, fay, We are unprofitable 
Servants : If when we have done all, we mult give our 
felves no better a Title, what are we then to eileem our 
felves, that are fo far from doing any confiderable part 
of what we are commanded ? Surely, that worfe Name 
of flothful and wicked Servant, Matth. xxv. 26. we 
have no Reafon to think too bad for us. 

S . A 

26 The Whole Duty of Man. 

5. A fecond fort of Submiffion to his Will, is that of 
Patience; this Hands in fuffering his Will, 
SubmiJ/ton in as that of Obedience did in acting it, 
refpeii of Pa- and is nothing elie, but a willing and 
tiince. quiet yielding to whatever Afflictions it 

pleafes God to lay upon us. This the 
foremention"d Humility will make eafy to us,for when 
our Hearts are thoroughly poflefled with that Reverence 
and Efteem of God, it will be impoffible for us to grudge 
or murmur at whatever he does. We fee an Inflance of 
it in old Eli, 1 Sam. iii. who, afcer he had heard the fad 
Threatnings of God againft him, of the Destruction of 
his Family, the Lofs of the Priefthood, the cutting off 
both his Sons in one Day, which were all of them 
Afflictions of the heaviefl kind ; yet this one Confidera- 
tion, that it was the Lord, enabled him calmly and 
quiecly to yield to them ; faying, Let him do what 
feemeth him good \ ver. 18. The fime Effect it had on 
David in his Sufferings, Pfal.xxxix. 9. / was dumb, 1 
opened not my Mouth, becaufe thou didji it. God's doing 
it filenced all Murmurings and Grumblings in him. 
And fo mult it do in us, in all our Afflictions, if we will 
indeed approve our Humility to God. 

6. For furely you will not think that Child hath due 
Humility to his Parent, or that Servant to his Mailer, 
that when they are corrected, fhall fly in the Father's or 
Mailer's Face. But this do we whenever we grudge and 
repine at that which God lays upon us. But befides the 
want of Humility in our fo doing, there is alfo a great 
want of Juflice in it ; for God hath, as we are his Crea- 
tures, a Right to do with us what he will, and therefore 
for us to refill that Right of his, is the higheft Injuflice 
that can be : Nay farther, it is alfo the greateft Folly in 
the World, for it is only our Good that God aims at in 
afflicting us ; that heavenly Father is not like our earth- 
ly ones, who fometimes correct their Children only to 
fatisfy their own angry Humour, not to do them good. 
But rhis is fubject to no fuch Frailties, He doth not afflift 
•willingly, nor grieve the Children of 'Afe», Lam. iii. 33. 
They are our Sins, which do hot only give him j'jfli 
Caufe, but even force and neceflitate him to punifn us. 


Sund. 2. Of Patience, Esfr. 27 

He carries to us the Bowels and Affections of the ten- 
dered Father ; now when a Father fees his Child ftub- 
born and rebellious, and running on in a Courfe that 
will certainly undo him, what greater Aft of Fatherly 
Kindnefs can he do, than chart n and correct him, to 
fee if by that Means he may amend him ; nay, indeed, 
he could not be faid to have true Kindnefs to him, if 
he mould not. And thus it is with God, when he fees 
us run on in Sin, either he mud leave off to love us, and 
fo leave us to our felves, to take our own Courfe, and 
that is the heavieft Curfe that can befal any Man : or 
elfe, if he continue to love us, he muft correct and pu- 
nifh us, to bring us to Amendment. Therefore, when- 
ever he ftrikes, we are in all reafon not only patiently to 
lie under his Rod, but (as I may fay) kifs 
it alfo ; that is, be very thankful to him, ( fhankfulnefs 
that he is pleafed not to give us over to for God's Cor- 
our own Hearts Lufts, Pfal. lxxxi. 12. regions. 
but ftiil continues his Care of us ; fends 
Afflictions, as fo many MefTengers, to call us home to 
himfelf. You fee then how grofs a Folly it is to mur- 
mur at thofe Stripes, which are meant fo gracioufly : It 
is like that of a froward Patient, which reproaches and 
reviles the Phyfician that comes to cure him ; and if 
fuch a one be left to die of his Difeafe, every one 
knows whom he is to thank for it. 

7. But it is not only Quietnefs, no nor Thankfulnefs 
neither under Afflictions, that is the full 
of our Duty in this Matter; we muft Fruitfulnefs 
have -Fruitfulnefs alfo, or all the reft will under them, 
ftand us in no (lead. By Fruitfulnefs I 
mean the bringing forth that, which the Afflictions were 
fent to work in us, *uiz. the Amendment of our Lives. 
To which Purpofe, in Time of Affliction, it is very ne- 
certary for us to call our felves to an Account, to exa- 
mine our Hearts and Lives, and feirch diligently what 
Sins lye upon us, which provoked God thus to fmite 
us, and whatfoever we find our felves guilty of, humbly 
to confefs to God, and immediately to foifake foi the 
reft of our Time. 

, 8. All 

1% The Whole Duty of Man. 

8. All I (hall add concerning this Duty of Patience, 

is, that we are as much bound to it in 
In all Sorts of one fort of Sufferings as another, whe- 
Sujferings. ther our Suffering be fo immediately 

from God's Hand, that no Creature hath 
any thing to do in it, as Sicknefs, or the like; or whe- 
ther it be fuch, wherein Men are the Inftruments of af- 
flicting us. For it is moft fure, when any Man doth us 
hurt, he could not do it without God's Permiffion and 
Sufferance ; and God may as well make them the Inftru- 
ments of punifhing us, as do it more dire&ly by himfelf, 
and it is but a counterfeit Patience that pretends to fub- 
mit to God, and yet can bear nothing from Men : We fee 
holy Job, who is fet forth to us as a Pattern of true Pa- 
tience,made no fuch Difference in his Afflictions ; he took 
theLofsof his Cattle, which the Chaldeans and Sabeans 
robb'd him of, with the very fame Meeknefs with which 
he did that, which was confum'd by Fire from Heaven. 
When therefore we fuffer any thing from Men, be it 
never fo unjuftly in refped of them, we are yet to con- 
fefs it is moft juft in refpeft of God ; and therefore in- 
Head of looking upon them with Rage and Revenge, as 
the common Cuftom of the World is, we are to lock 
up to God, acknowledge his Juftice in the Affliction, 
begging his Pardon moft earneftly for thofe Sins, which 
have provoked him to fend it, and patiently and thank- 
fully bear it, till he fhall fee fit to remove it ; ftill fay- 
ing with Job, BleJ/ed be the Name of the herd. 

9. But I told you Humility contained in it a Sub- 

miffion not only to his Will, butalfo to 
SubmiJJion to his Wifdom ; that is, to acknowledge 
God's Wif- him infinitely wife, and therefore that 
dam. whatever he doth, is beft and fitteft to 

be done. And this we are to confefs both 
in his Commands, and in his difpofmg and ordering of 

Things. Firft, whatfoever he commands 
In his Com- us either to believe or do, we are to 
mands. fubmit to his Wifdom in both, to believe 

whatfoever he bids us believe, how im- 
poflible foever it feems to our fhallovv Underftandings, 
and to do whatever he commands us to do, how con- 

Sund. 2. Of Patience, &c, 29 

trary foever it be to our flefhly Reafon or Humour, and 
in both to conclude, that his Commands are moll fit and 
reafonable, however they appear to us. 

10. Secondly, We are to fubmit to his Wifdom in 
refpedl of his Difpofal and ordering of 
Things ; to acknowledge he difpofes all In his Difpo- 
Things mofl wifely, and that not only fals. 
in what concerns the World in general ; 
but alfo in what concerns every one of us in particular, 
lo that in what Condition foever he puts us, we are 
to allure ourfelves it is that which is bell for us, fince he 
chufes it for us who cannot err. And therefore never 
to have impatient Defires of any thing in this World, 
but to leave it to God to fit us with fuch an Eftate and 
Condition as he fees bed for us, and there let us quiet- 
ly and contentedly reft, yea, though it be fuch as of all 
others we mould leaft have wilhed for our felves. And 
this furely cannot but appear very reafonable to any 
that hath Humility : For that having taught him, that 
God is infinitely wife, and he very foolifh, he can never 
doubt but that it is much more for his Good that God 
mould chufe for him, than he for himfelf : Even as it is 
much more for the Child's Good to have the Parent 
chufe for it, than to be left to thofe filly Choices it 
would make for it felf. For how many times would it 
cut and burn, and mifchief it felf, if it might have 
every thing it defires ? And fuch Children are we, 
we many times eagerly defire thofe Things which 
would undo us if we had them. Thus many times we 
wifh for Wealth, and Honour, and Beauty, and the like, 
when if we had them they would only prove Snares 
to us, we mould be drawn into Sin by them. And this 
God. who knows all Things, fees, though we do not, 
and therefore often denies us thofe Things which he fees 

! will tend to our Mifchief, and it is his abundant Mercy 

i that he doth fo. Let us, therefore, whenever we are 
difappointed of any of our Aims and Wifhes, not only 

i patiently but joyfully fubmit to it, as knowing that it is 
certainly bell for us, it being chofen by the unerring 

' Wifdom of our heavenly Father. 

11. A 

jo • The Whole Duty of Man. 

ii. A feventh Duty to God is HONOUR, that 
is, the paying him fuch a Reverence and 
Honour. refpeft as belongs to fo great a Majefty. 

And this is either inward or outward. 
The inward is the exalting him in our Hearts, having 
always the higheft and moft excellent Efteem of him. The 
outward is the manifefting and (hewing forth that inward ; 
and that is the firft general in the whole Courfe of our 
Lives, the living like Men that do indeed carry that high 
Efteem of God. Now you know if we bear any fpecial 
Reverence but to a Man, we will be careful not to do any 
foul or bafe thing in his Prefence : And fo if we do in- 
deed honour God, we (hall abhor to do any unworthy 
thing in his Sight. But God fees all Things, and there- 
fore there is no way to fhun the doing it in his Sight 
if we do it at all ; therefore if we do thus reverence him, 
we muft never at any Time do any iinful Thing. 
iz. But befides this general way of honouring God, 

there are many particular Acls by which 
Several ways we may honour him, and thefe Acts are 
of honouring divers according to the feveral Particulars 
God. about which they are exercifed. For we 

are to pay this Honour not only imme- 
diately to himfelf, but alfo by a due Eftimation and Ac- 
count of all thofe things that nearly relate or belong to 
Him. Thofe are efpecially Six : Firft, his Houfe ; Se- 
condly, his Revenue or Income (as I may fay), thirdly, 
his Day; Fourthly, his Word ; Fifthly, his Sacraments; 
and Sixthly, his Name ; and every one of thefe is to 
have fome degree of our Reverence and Efteem. 

13. Firft, his Houfe, that is, the Church ; wh : ch 

being the Place fet apart for his publick 
In his Houfe. Worfhip, we are to look on it, though not 

as holy in refpecl of it felf, yet in refpecl 
of itsUfe, and therefore muft not profane it by imploying 
it to Ufes of our own. This Chrift hath taught us by that 
Aft of his, Mat. xxi. 1 2. in driving the Buyers and Sellers 
out of the Temple, faying, My Houfe is called the Houfe of 
Prayer: And again, Job. ii. 16. Make not my Father' s 
Houfe an Houfe of Merchandize. By which it is clear, 
Churchesareto be ufed only for the Service of God, and 
we are to make that the only end of our coming thither; and 


Sand. 2. Of Honour i we God, fc?r. 31 

not to come to Church a* to a Market, to make Bar. 
gains, ordifpatch Bufinefies with our Neighbours, as is too 
common among many. But whenever rhou entreft the 
Church, remember that it is the Houfe of God, a Place 
where he is in an efpecial manner prefent. and herefcre 
take the Counfel of the wife Man, Rcchf. v. i . ard keep 
thy Foot <zvhen thou goejl into the Hovfe of God : That is, 
behave thy felf with that godly Awe and Reverence, 
which belongs to that great Majefty thou art before. 
Remember that thy Bufinefs there is to converfe with God, 
and therefore fhut out all Thoughts of the World, even 
of thy molt lawful Bufinefs, which, though they be allow- 
able at another time, are here finful. How fearful a Guilt 
k it then to entertain anv fuch Thoughts as are in them- 
selves wicked ? It is like the Treafon of Judas, who 
pretended indeed to come to kifs his Matter, but brought 
with him a Band of Soldiers to apprehend him, Mat. 26. 
We make (hew in our coming to Church of ferving and 
worfhipping God, but we bring with us a Train of his 
Enemies to provoke and defpite him. This is a Wicked- 
nefs that may outvie the Profanenefs of theie Days in 
turning Churches into Stables; for finful and polluted 
Thoughts are much the worfe Sort of Beads. 

14. The fecond Thing to which Refpecl belongs, it 
his Revenue or Income ; that is, What- 
E foever is his peculiar Poifeffion, fet apart His PoJfeJJions, 
for the Maintenance of thofe, that attend 
his Service ; thofe were the Prielts in time of the -«*«% 
tnd Miniftersof the Gofpel now with us. A > J whatever 
is thus fet apart, we mud look on «ftn fuch Refpecl, ai 
not to dare to turn if ** * nv other U(e. Of this Sort 
fome are the P. ee- will -offerings of Men, who have 
fometimes *rf their own accord given fome of their Goodi 
or Lana' to this holy Ufe : and whatfoever is fo given, 
l\ can ^either by the Perfon that gave, nor any other, be 
! | taken away, without that great Sin of Sacrilege. , 

1 ^. But befides thefe, there was among th* 'V. J ' an , 
i\ hath always been in all Chriftian Natio- > ^niething al- 
' lotted by the Law of the Nation ** the Support and 
■'•Maintenance of thole that a*end the Service of God. 
\ And it is but juR and neceffary itfhouid be fo,that thole, 
J q who 

52 The Whole Duty o/Man. 

who by undertaking that Calling are taken off from the 
Ways of gaining a Livelihood in the World, mould be 
provided for by them whofe Souls they watch over. 
And therefore it is mod reafonable, which the Apoftle 
urges in this Matter, i Cor. ix. II. If vue have fotvn 
unto you Jpiritual things, is it a great thing if nve fkall 
reap your carnal Things? that is, it is mod unreafonable 
for Men to grudge the beftowing a few carnal things.the 
outward Neceflaries of this temporal Life,on them from 
whom they receive fpiritual things, even Inftru&ion and 
Afliftance towards the obtaining of an eternal Life. 
1 6. Now whatfoever is thus appointed for this Ufe, 
may by no means be employed to any 
The great Sin other. And therefore thofeTythes, which 
«f Sacrilege, are here by Law allotted for the Mainte- 
nance of the Miniflry, muft by no means 
be kept back, nor any Tricks or Shifts ufed to avoid the 
Payment, either in whole or in part. For firft, it is cer- 
tain, that it is as truly Theft, as any other Robbery can 
be, Minifters having Right to their Tythes by the fame 
Law, which gives any other Man Right to his Effete. But 
then Secondly, it is another manner of Robbery, than 
we think of, it is a robbing of God, whofe Service they 
were given to maintain : And that you may not doubt 
the Truth of this, it is no more than God himfelf hath 
faid of it, Mai. 3.8. Will a Man rob God? let ye have 
robbed me ; yet ye fay , Wherein have vue robbed thee. ? In 
T j*hes and Offerings. Here it is moft plain, that in God's I 
Accouirt.*^ e with-holding Tythes is a robbing of him. 
And, if you pie*c. vou mav in the next Verk fee what 
the Gain of this Robbery amounts to; Ye are curfed voith I 
a Curfe. A Curfe is all is gotten"^ ; t ; and common J 
Experience (hews us, that God's Venge^ce doth in a If 
remarkable Manner purfue this Sin of Sacrilege whether If* 1 
it be that of with-holding Tythes, or the other of fcizing | C: 
on thofc Poffeffions, which have been voluntarily cobfe- |^ 
_, crated to God. Men think to enrich 

' tUn v* themfelves by it, but it ufually proves 
fnent. -j-ettly contrary ; this unlawful Gain 

becoiw«« f uc h a Canker in the Eftate, as 
•fen eacs out even that w* \*& a j uft Title to. And 

therefore,! i 

Sand. 2. The Times for His Service. 33 

therefore, if you love (I will not fay your fouls, bat) 
your, preferve them from that Danger by a ftricl: 
Care never to meddle with any thing fet apart for God. 
17. A third thing wherein we are to exprefs our Re- 
verence to God, is the Hallowing of the 
Times fet apart for his Service. He The 'Times for 
who hath given all our Time requires his Se/vice. 
fome Part of it to be paid back again as 
a Rent or Tribute of the whole. Thus the Jews kept 
holy the Seventh Day, and wc Chriftians the Sunday, 
or Lord's Day : The Jews were in their Sabbath ef- 
pecially to remember the Creation of the World, and 
we in ours the Refurre&ion of Chrift, 
by which a Way is made for us into Lord's Day, 
that better World we expert hereafter. 
Now this Day thus fet apart, is to be employed in the 
Worfhip and Service of God, and that full more folemn- 
ly and publickly in the Congregation, from which no 
Man muft then abfent himfelf without a juft Caufe : 
And Secondly, privately at home; in praying with, and 
iniiructing our Families ; or elfe in the yet more private 
Duties of the Clofet, a Man's own private Prayers, 
Reading, Meditation, and the like. 

And that we may be at Leifure for thefe, a Reft front 
all worldly Bufinefs is commanded ; therefore let no Maa 
think that a bare Reft from Labour is all that is required 
of him on the Lord's Day, but the time, which he fares 
from the Works of his Calling, he is to lay out on thofe 
fpiritual Dutie?. For the Lord's Day was never ordained 
to give us a Pretence for Idlenefs,but only to change our 
Employment from Worldly to Heavenly; much lefs was 
it meant that by»our Reft from our Callings, we ihould 
have more time free to beftow upon our Sins,as too many 
do,who are more conftanton that Day at the Ale-houfe 
than the Church. But this Reft was commanded, flrft to 
fhadow out to us that Reft from Sin, which we are bound 
to all the Days of our Lives ; and fecondly, To take us 
off from our worldly Bufinefs, and to give us time t« 
I attend the Service of God, and the Need of our Souls. 

18. And furely, If we rightly confider it, it is a very 
1 great Benefit to us, that there isfuch a fet Time thus 
C 2 weekly 

34 The Whole Duty <?/Man. 

weekly returning for that purpofe. We are very intent 
r.nd bufy upon the World, and if there were not fome 
fuch Time appointed to our Hands, it is to be doubted, 
we mould hardly allot any ourfelves ; and then what a 
fiarved Condition moll thefe poor Souls of ours be in, 
that (hall never be afforded a Meal ? Whereas now there 
is aconflantDiet provided for them; tvtry Sunday, if we 
will confeionably employ it, may be a Feftival-day to 
them, may bring them in fuch fpiritual Food, as may 
nourifli them to Eternal Life. We are not to look on this 
Day with grudging, like thofe in Amos\\\\. 5. whoafk, 
When *will the Sabbath be gone, that ive may fet forth 
Wheat? as if that Time were utterly loft which were 
taken from our worldly Bufmefs. But we are to ccn- 
fider it, as the gainfulleft, as the joyfulleft Day of the 
Week, a Day of Harveft, wherein we are to lay up in 
flore for the whole Week, nay, for cur whole Lives. 
19. But befides this of the weekly Lord's Day, there 

are other Times which the Church hath 
The Feafts of fet apart for the Remembrance of fome 
the Church. fpecial Mercies of God, fuch as the Birth 

and Refurrection of Chrift:, the Defcent 
of the Holy G heft, and the like; and thefe Days we are 
to keep in that Manner, which the Church hath order- 
ed, to wit, in thefolemn Worfhip of God, and in par- 
ticular Thankfgiving for that fpecial Blefiing we then 
remember. And furely whoever is truly thankful for 
thofe rich Mercies, cannot think it too much to fet 
apart fome few Days in a Year for that purpofe. 

But then we are to lcok that our Feafls be truly fpi- 
ritual, by employing the Day thus holily, and not make 
it an Occafion of intemperance and Djforder, as too 
many, who confider nothing in Chrifimas and other good 
Times, but the good Chear and Jollity of them. For 
that is doing Defpight inftead of Honour to Chrift, who 
came to bring all Purity and Sobernefs into the World, 
and therefore mull not have that Coming of His re- 
membered in any other Manner. 

20. Other Days there are alfo fet apart in Memory 
cf the Apoftles, and other Saints, wherein we are to 
give hearty Thanks to God for his Graces in them ; 


Sund. 2. 0/GOD'j Wopd, &?r. 35 

particularly that they were made Inftramehts of revell- 
ing to us \CbnifiJtfiis y and the Way of Salvation, as 
you know the Apoitles were by their Preaching through- 
out the World. And then farther, we are to meditate 
'on thofe Examples of holy Life, they have given us, 
and ilir up our felves to the Imitation thereof. And 
whoever does uprightly fet himfelf to make thefe Uiei 
of thefe feveral Holy-days, will have Caufe, by the 
Benefit he fhall find from them, to thank, and not to 
blame the Church for ordering them. 

2 1 . Another Sort of Days there are, which we are 
likewife to obieive, and thofe are Days 

of fafting, and Humiliation ; and what- The Fa/Is. 
ever of this kind the Church enjoyns, 
whether conllantly at fet Times of the Year, or upo 
any fpecial and more fudden Occafion, we are to obferve' 
in fuch manner as (he directs, that is, not only a bare 
abftaining from Vleat, which is only the Body's Punifh- 
ment : bat in afflicting our Souls, humbling them deep- 
ly before God, in a hearty confeffing and bewailing of 
our own, and the Nation's Sins, and earneft Prayer for 
God's Pardon and Forgivenefs, and for : he turning away 
of thofe Judgments, which thofe Sins have called for ; 
but above all, in turning ourfe/<vcs from our Sins, lojfing 
the Bands of JVicksdnefs,** lfaiab ipeaks, Chap, lviii. 6. 
and excrcifirig our Reives in Works of Mercy, dea/i./^our 
Bread to the hungry, and the like, as it there follovvs. 

22. Fourthly we are to exprefs our Reverence to 
God, by honouring his Word; and this 

we muit certainly do, if we do indeed God's Word. 
honour him there being no furer Sign 
of our defpifing any Perfon, than the fetting light by 
what he fays to us; as on the contrary, if we value one, 
every Word he (peaks will be of Weight with us. Now 
this Word of God is exprefly contained 
in the Holy Scriptures, the Old and The Holy 
New Teftament ; where he fpeaks to us, Scriptures. 
to (hew us his Will and cur Duty. And 
therefore to this Word of his we are to bear a wonder- 
ful Refpect, to look upon it as the Rule by which we 
mult frame all the Actions of our Life ; and to that end 
C 3 eo 

36 The Whole Duty of Man. 

tofludy it much, to read in it as often as we can, if it 
may be, never to let a Day pafs us without reading, or 
hearing fome Part of it read. 

23. But then that is not all : We muil not only read, 
but we mull mark what we read : We mult diligently 
obferve what Duties they are, which God commands us 
to perform, what Faults they are, which God there 
charges us not to commit, together with the Rewards 
promised to the one, and the Punilhments threatned to 
the other. When we have thus marked, we mull lay 
them up in our Memory ; not fo loofely and care- 
lefly, that they (hall prefently drop out again ; but we 
muil fo fallen them there, by often thinking and medi- 
tating on them, that we may have them ready for our 
Ufe. Now that Ufe is the directing of our Lives ; and 
therefore whenever we are tempted to the committing of 
any Evil, we are then to call to mind, This is the thing 
which in fuch a Scripture is forbiddenby God, and all his 
Vengeances threatned againft it j and fo in like man- 
ner, when any Opportunity is offered us of doing good, 
to remember, this is the Duty which I was exhorted to 
in fuch a Scripture, and fuch glorious Rewards promif- 
ed to the doing of it ! And by thefe Confiderations 
ftrengthen our felvesfor Refinance of the Evil, and Per- 
formance of the Good. 

24. But befides this of the written Word, it hath 
pleafedGod to provide yet further for our Inllruclion by 
his Minillers, whofe Office it is to teach us God's Will, 
rot by faying any thing contrary to the written Word, 
(for whatfoever is fo, can never be God's Will) but by 
explaining it, and making' it eafier to our Underilaiid- 
ir.cs, and then applying it to our particular Occafions, 
and exhorting and ltirring us up to the Practice of it ; 
all which is the End, at which firir their Catechifing, 
and then their Preaching aimeth. And to this we are to 
bear alio a due Refpeit, by giving diligent heed thereto, 
notonly being prefcnt atCatechizings and Sermons, ar.d 
either fleep^ut the Time, or think of fomewhat elfe, 
but carefully marking what is faid to us. And furely, 
if we did but rightly confider how much it concerns us, 
we ihould conclude it very reafonable for us to do fo. 

25. For 

Sund. 2. Of GOD'j Word, &c. 37 

25. For firft, as to that of Catechizing, it is the lay- 
ing the Foundation, upon which allChri- 

ftian Praftice muft be built ; for that is Catechixitig. 
the teaching us our Duty, without which 
it is impoffible for us to perform it. And though it it 
true, that the Scriptures are the Fountains from whence 
this Knowledge of Duty muft be fetched, yet there are 
many, who are not able to draw it from this Fountain 
themfelves ; and therefore it is absolutely neceffary it 
fliould be thus brought to them by others. 

26. This Catechizing is generally looked upon as a 
thing belonging only to the Youth, and fo indeed it 
ought ; not becaufe the oldeft are not to learn, if they 
be ignorant, but becaufe all Children mould be fo in- 
ftrutted, that it mould be impoffible for them to be ig- 
norant, when they come to Years. And it nearly con- 
cerns every Parent, as they will free themfelves from the 
Guilt of their Childrens eternal Undoing, that they be 
careful to fee them inftrucled in all neceffary things ; to 
which Purpofe it will be fit early to teach them fome 
fhort Catechifm, of which fort none fo fit as the Church 
Catechifm ; yet are they not to reft on thefe Endeavours 
of their own, but alfo to call in the Minifter's Help, that 
he may build them up farther in Chriitian Knowledge. 

27. But alas ! It is too fure, that Parents have \ery 
much neglecled this Duty, and by that means it is, that 
fuch Multitudes of Men and Women, that are called 
Cbrijiians, know no more of Chrift, or any thing that 
concerns their own Souls, than the meereft Heathen. 

28. But altho' ic were their Parents Fault, that they 
were notinitrutted when they were young, yet it is now? 
their own, if they remain f \ ill ignorant, and it is fure 
it will be their own Ruin and A4ifery if they wilfully con- 
tinue fo. Therefore whoever he be, of what Age or 
Condition foever, that is in this ignorant Eftate, or in 
any fuch Degree of it, that he wants any Part of necef- 
fary faving Knowledge, let him, as he loves his Soul, 
as ever he would efcape Eternal Damnation, feek out 
for Inftruclion, and let no Fear of Shame keep any from 
it. For firft, it is certain, the Shame belongs only to 
the wilful continuing in Ignorance, to which the Defire 

C 4 cf 

3$ The Whole Duty of Man. 

of Learning is direftly contrary, and is fo far from a 
ihameful, that it is a molt commendable thing, and will 
be fure to be fo accounted by all wife and good Men. 
But Secondly, Suppcfe fome prophane, fenfelefs People 
fhould deride it, yet fure that Shame were in all reafon 
to be undergone joyfully, rather than venture on that 
Confufion of Face , which will at the Day cf Judgment 
befal thofe, who, to avoid a little falfe Shame amongft 
Men, have gone on in a wilful Ignorance of their Duty, 
which Ignorance will be fo far from excufing any Sins 
(hey fhall commit, that it adds one great and heavy Sin 
to all the reft, even the defpifing that Knowledge which 
is offered to them. How heinous a Sin that is, you may 
learn in the firft Chapter of the Proverbs, where hating 
Knowledge ;verfe 29. is faid to be the thing that draws 
down thofe fad Vengeances forementioned, even God's 
forfaking Men, laughing at their Calamity inltead of 
helping them ; which is of all other Conditions in the 
World the moil: miferable ; and furely they are madly 
defperate that will run themfelves into it. 

20. As for thofe who have already this Foundation 
laid, by the Knowledge of the Grounds of Chriftian Re- 
ligion, there is yet for them a farther 
Preaching, Help provided by Preaching ; and it is 
no more than needs ; for God knows, 
thofe that underftand their Duty well enough, are too 
apt to forget it j nay, fometimes, by the Violence of 
their own Lulls, to tranfgrefs it, even when they do re- 
member it; and therefore it is very ufeful we fhould be 
put in mind of it, to prevent our forgetting, and alfo 
often exhorted and afliiled to withftand thofe Lulls, 
which draw us to thofe Tranfgreffions. And to thefe 
Purpofes Preaching is intended \ Firft, to warn us to 
be upon our guard againft our fpiritual Enemy, and then 
to furnifh us with Weapons for the Fight ; that is, fuch 
Means and Helps as may beft enable us to beat off 
Temptations, and get the Victory over them. 

30. Since therefore this is the End of Preaching, we 
muft not think we have done our Duty, when we have 
heard a Sermon, though never fo attentively, but we 
mull lay up in our Hearts thofe Inflrudionsand Advices 


Sund. 2. Of GOD's Wok d, &c. 39 

we there meet with, and ufe them faithfully to that end 
of overcoming our Sins. Therefore whenever thou corn- 
ed to the Phyfician of thy Soul, do as thou wouldft 
with tlie Phyfician of thy Bed) ; thou comeilto him not 
only to hear him talk and tell thee what will cure thee, 
but alfo to do according to his Directions : And if thou 
dolt not fo here, thou art as vain as he that exneds a bare 
Receipt from his Doctor (hail cure him, tho' he never 
make ufe of it. Nay, thou art much more vain and 
ridiculous, for that, though it do him no Good, will do 
him no Harm, he (hall never be the worfe for having 
been taught a Medicine, though he ufe it not : But in 
thefe fpiritual Receipts it is otherwife ; if we ufe them 
not to our Good, they will do us a great deal of Harm, 
they will rife up in Judgment againlt. us, and make our 
Condemnation Co much the heavier. Beware therefore 
not to bring that Danger upon thy felf, but when tho* 
haft heard a Sermon, confider with thyfelf what Direc- 
tions there were in it for enabling thee to efchew Evil, 
or to do Good. And if there were any thing efpecialiy 
concerning thine own BofomS in ,lay that clofe to ttty heart, 
and all the Week after make it Matter of Meditation ; 
think of it even whiill thou art at thy Work, if thou 
wanteit. other Time ; and not only think of it, but fet 
to the Practice of it ; do what thou wert advifed to, for 
the fubduing Sins, and q-jick'ning Grace in thee. Final- 
ly, lock carefully topraclife the Counfel of the Apoitle, i. 22. Be ye Doers of the Word, and not Hearers 
only, deceiving your oivnfel-ves. To hope for Good from 
the Word without doing it, is, it feems, nothing but a de- 
ceiving our Selves : Let us never therefore meafure our 
Godlinefs by the Number of Sermons which we hear, as if 
the hearing many were the certain Mark ofagoodChri- 
llian ; but by the Store of Fruit we bring forth by them, 
without which all our hearing will ferve but to bring us 
into that heavier Portion of Stripes, which belongs to him, 
that knows bis Mafters Will and does it not t Luke \ 2.47. 
But this Reverence,which is due to Preaching, we muft npt 
pay to all that is novv-a-days called fo, for God knows, 
there are many falfe Prophets gone out into the World, as 
the Apoiile fpeaks, ijohniv. j. And no>v,if ever,is that 
C 5 Advice 

40 The Whole Duty 0/Man. 

Advice of his necefiary, to try the Spirits whether thev he 
of God. But what I have faid, I mean only of the Preach- 
ing of thofe, who firft have a lawful Calling to the Of- 
fice, and fecondly frame their Doctrine according to the 
right Rule, the written Word of God. But if any Man 
fay, he is not able to judge, whether the Doctrine be 
according to the Word or no, let him at leaft try it by 
the common known Rules of Duty, which he doth un- 
derftand, and if he find it a Doctrine giving Men Liber- 
ty to commit thofe Things which are by all acknow- 
ledged Sins, fuch as Rebellion, lnjuftice, Unmercifulnefs, 
Vncleannefs, or the like ; he may conclude, it is utterly 
contrary to God and his Word, and then Abhorrence, 
and not Reverence, belongs to it. 

3 1 . Fifthly, We are toexprefs our honouring of God 

by reverencing his Sacraments : Thofe 
The Sacra- are two, Baptifm, and the Supper of the 
ments. Lord. And this we are to do : Firft, By 

our high Efteem of them. Secondly, By 
our reverent Ufage of them. We are firft to prize them 
at a high Rate, looking on them as the Inftruments of 
bringing to us the greatest BleflLngs we can receive. The 
firft of them, Baptifm, that enters us into Covenant with 
God, makes us Members of Chrift, and fo gives us Right 
to all thofe precious Benefits that flow from him, to wit, 
Pardon of Sins, fanctifying Grace, and Heaven it felf, 
on Condition we perform our Parts of the Covenant. 
And as for the Lord's Supper, that is not only a Sign and 
Remembrance of Chrift and his Death ; but it is ac- 
tually the giving Chrift, and all the Fruits of his Death 
to every worthy Receiver. And therefore there is a moft 
high Eftimation, and Value due to each of them. 

32. And not only fo, but in the fecond Place, wemuft 

fhew our Reverence in our Ufage of 
OfBaptifm. them ; and that firft, Be/ore ; Second- 

ly, At ; Thirdly, After the Time of Re* 
ceiving them. It is true, that the Sacrament of Baptiftn 
being now adminiftred to us, when we are Infants, it is 
not to be expected of us, that we mould in our own Per- 
fons do any thing, either before or at the time of Receiv- 
ing it ; thofe Performances were ftrictly required of all 


Sund. 2. The Vow ^/Bapt ism. 41 

Perfons, who were Baptized when they were of Years. 
But for us, it fuffices to give us this Right to Baptifm, 
that we are born within the Pale of the Church, thac is, 
of Chriftian Parents ; and all that is required at that 
time is, what we can only perform by others, they in our 
Stead promifing that when we come to Years, we will 
perform our Parts of the Covenant. But by how much 
the lefs we are then able to do fo much, the greater Bond 
lies on us to perform thofe After duties required of us, 
by which we are to fupply the want of the former. 

3 3. Now if you would know what thofe Duties are,look 
over thofe Promifes which your God-fa- 
thers and God-mothers then made in your The Voiv of 
Name,' and you may then learn them. I Baptifm. 
cannot give you them in a better Form, 
than that of our Church's Catechifm,which tells us, That 
our God fathers andGod-mothers did protnife and <vovu three 
things in our Names ; ift, That we Jbould for/ake the De- 
<vil and all his Works ,the Pomps and Vanities of this wicked 
World, and all the finfulLufts of the Flejb. Where by the 
Devil is meant, 1 ft, the worfliipping of aH falfeGods, which 
is indeed but worshipping the Devil, ; a Sin, which at the 
time of ChrilVscoming into the world, was very common, 
moil part of Mankind then living in that vile Idolatry. 
And therefore, whenBaptifm was firft ordained, it was but 
needful to make theforfaking of thofe falfe God? a prin- 
cipal Part of the Vow. And though thofe falfe Worfhips 
are now much rarer, yet there was one fpecial Part of 
them, which may be feared to be yet too common among 
us, and that is. all forts of Uncleanjiefs, which though 
we do not make Ceremonies of our Religion, as the 
Heathens did of theirs, yet the committing thereof is a 
moft high Provocation in God's Eyes, fuch as drew him 
to deftroy whole Cities 'with Tire and Brim/lone, as you 
may read, Gen. xix. nay, the whole World with Watery 
Gen. vi. and will not fail to bring down Judgments, and 
ftrange ones, on any that continue therein ; and therefore 
the forfaking them well deferves to be looked on as an 
efpecial Part of this Promife. Befides this, ail dealing 
with the Devil is here vowed againft, whether it be by 
prattifing Witchcraft our felves, or consulting with thofe 


42 The Whole Duty of Man. 

ihat do, upon any Occafion whatever, as the Recovery 
of our Health, our Goods, or whatever elfe, for this is a 
Degree of the former Sin, it is the forfaking of the 
Lord, and fetting up the Devil for cur God, whilit we 
go to him in our Need for He]ps. 

34. But we alfo renounce all the Works of the Devil ; 
and thofe a;e either in general ail thcfe that the Devil 
tempts us to, or elfe thofe particular kinds of Sin which 
have moil: of his Image on them ; that is, thofe which 
he himfelf moitpracuies, fuch are Pride (which brought 
him from being an Angel of Light to theaccurfed Condi- 
tion he is now in) and lying; he is, as our Saviour faith, 
John 8. 44. A Liar, and the Father of it ; and fuch alfo 
are Malice and Envy, efpecially killing and deftroying of 
Others, for he was a Murderer from the beginning, Joh. viif. 
44. But above all, there is nothing wherein we become 
fo like him, as in tempting and drawing others to Sin, 
which is his wi.ole Trade and Buf.r.efs, and if we make 
it any Part of ours, we become like that Roaring Lion, 
that goes about fee king whom he may devour. 1 Vet. v. 8. 

35. The fecond thing we vow to forfake, is, the 
Pomps and Vanities of this wicked World. By the Pomps 
and Vanities, there are feveral Things meant, feme of 
them, fuch as were ufed by the Heathens in fome un- 
lawful Sports of theirs, wherein we are not now fo much 
concern'd, there being none of them remaining among 
us ; but befides that, there is meant all Excefs, either in 
Diet, or Sports, or Apparel : when we keep not thofe 
due iYIeafures, which either by the general Rules of So- 
briety, or the particular Circumilances of our Qualities and 
Callings we are bound to. Next, by the wicked World, 
we may underftand, firft, the Wealth and Greatnefs of 
the World, which though we do not fo totally renounce, 
that it is unlawful for a Chriftian to be either Rich or 
Great ; y«t we thus far promife to forfake them, that we 
will not fet our Hearts upon them, nor either get or 
keep them by the leaft unlawful Means. Secondly, by the 
•wicked World we may underftand the Companies and 
Cuftoms of the World, which, fo far as they are wicked, 
we here renounce, that is, we promife never to be drawn 
by Company to the Cewmifiion of a Sin, but rather ta 


Sund . 2 . The Vow of B a p t i s m . 43 

forfake the moft delightfuICompany than to be erffnared 
by it ; nor yet by Cullom, but rather venture the 
Shame of being thought fmguiar, ridiculous Perfons, 
walk as it were in a Path by our felves, than put our 
{elves into that broad way that leads to deflruclion, by 
giving our felves over to any finful Culiom, how common 
foever it be grown. If ihis Part of our Vow were but 
thoroughly confidered, it would arm usagiinit molt of the 
Temptations the World offers us, Company and Cuflom be- 
ing the two fpecial Instruments by which it works on us. 

36. A third Thing we renounce is, ail the Sinful Lujls 
of the Fie/b; where the rie(h is to be understood in that 
Senfe, wherein the Scripture often ufes it, for the Foun- 
tain of all difordered Affections. For tho 1 thofe unclean 
Defires.. which we ordinarily call the Luffs of the Flefh, 
are here meant, yet they are not the only things here 
contained, there beingdiversother things which theScrip- 
ture calls the Works of the Flejh ; I cannot better inform 
you cf them, than by fetting down the Lift St. Paul 
gives of them,Ga/. v. 19, 20, 21. Nozv the Works of the 
F!e!h are manifejl, which are thefe, Adultery, Fornication, 
Uncleannefs, Lafclviovfiefs, Idolatry, Witchcraft, Ha- 
tre.i, Variance, Emulations, ff rath, Strife, Seditions, He- 
nfies, En-vyings, Murthers,D) unkennefs, Rcvellings,and 

fuch like. This, with thofe other Defcriptions you will 
find fcattered in ieveral Places of Scripture, will (hew you 
there are many things contained in this Part of your 
Vow, the forfaking all the finful Lults of the FlefK 

37. The fecond thing our God-fathers and God mo- 
thers promifed for us, was, That -rue fhculd belie-ve all 
the Articles of the Cbrijlian Faith. Thefe we have fumm'd 
up together in that which we call the Apoflles Creed ; 
which, fince we promife to believe, we are fuppofed al- 
fo to promife to learn them j and that not only the 
Words, but likewife the plain Senfe of them : For who 
can believe, what he either never heard of, or knows 
not any thing of the meaning of it ? Now by this Be- 
lieving is meant not only the confenting to the Truth of 
them, but alfo the living like them that do believe. As 
for Example, our believing that God created us, mould 
make us live in that Subjection and Obedience to him, 


44 *fhe Whole Duty of Man. 

which becomes Creatures to their Creator ; the believing 
that Chrift redeemed us, mould make us yield up our- 
felves to him as hisPurchafe, to bedifpofed of wholly by 
him, and employ'd only in his Service. The believing 
a Judgment to come, mould give us care fo to walk, 
that we may not be condemned in it. And our believing 
the Life everlafting, mould make us diligent, fo to em- 
ploy our (hort Moment of Time here, that our Ever- 
lafting Life may be a Life of Joy, not of Mifery, to us. 
In this manner, from all the Articles of the Creed we 
are to draw Motives to confirm us in all Chriftian 
Practice, to which end it is, that our learning and be- 
lieving of them tends, and therefore without it we are 
very far from making good this Part of our Vow, the 
Believing all the Articles of the Chrifiian Faith. 

38. The laft Part of our Vow is, That, wefbould keep 
God's holy Will and Commandments, and walk in the fame 
all the Days of our Lives. Where, by our keeping God's 
holy Will and Comma* dments, is meant our doing of all 
thofe things, which he hath made known to us to be his 
Will we fhould perform ; wherein he hath given us his 
holy Word to inftrucl us, and teach us, what it is that he 
requires of us, and now he expecls that we (hould faith- 
fully do it without favouring ourfelves in the Breach of 
any one of his Commands. And then in this entire Obe- 
dience we muft walk all the days of our lives, that is, we 
muft go on in a conftant Courfe of obeying God ; not 
only fetch fome few Steps in his ways f but walk in them, 
and that not for fome Part of our time, but all the days 
of our lives, neverturn out of them,butgo on conftantly 
in them, as long as we live in this World. 

39. Having now thus briefly explained to you this 

Vow made at your BAPTISM, all I 
TheflriSi Oh- (hall add concerning it, is only to re- 
Hgation of this member you how nearly you are concef n- 
Vovo of Bap- ed in the keeping of it ; arid that,firft,in 
tifm. refpect of Juftice ; Secondly, in refpect 

of Advantage and Benefit. That you are 
in Juftice bound to it, I need fay no more, but that it is 
a Promife, and you know Juftice requires of every Mai* 
the keeping of his Promife. But then this is of all other 


Sund. 2. The Vow of Baptism. 45 

Promifesthemoftfolemnand binding, for it is a Vow, that 
is, a Promife made to God ; and therefore we are not only 
unjuft, but forfworn, whenever we break any part of it. 
40. But Secondly, We are alfo highly concerned to 
keep it, in refpecl of our own Benefit. I told you be- 
fore, that Baptifm entered us into Covenant with God ; 
now a Covenant is made up of two Parts, that is 
fomething promifed by the one Party, and fome- 
thing by the other of the Parties that make the Cove- 
nant. And if one of them break his Part of the Co- 
venant, that is, perform not what he hath agreed to, 
he can in no reafon look that the other mould make good 
his. And fo it is here, God doth indeed promife thofe 
Benefits before-mentioned, and that is his Part of the 
Covenant. But then we alfo undertake to perform the 
feveral things contained in this Vow of Baptifm, and 
that is our part of it; and unlefs we do indeed perforin 
them, God is not tied to make good his, and fo we for- 
feit all thofe precious Benefits and Advantages ; we are 
left in that natural and miferableEftate of ours, Children 
of Wrath, Enemies to God t and Heirs of eternal Damna- 
tion. And now what can be the Pleafure that any or 
all Sins can afford us, that can make us the leaft degree 
of Recompenceforfucha L-ofs ; the Lofs of God's Favour 
and Grace here, and the Lofs of our own Souls hereafter? 
For as our Saviour faith, ~Mark viii. 36. What /hall it 
profit a Man if hejball gain the ivho/e World and lofe his 
own Soul? Yet this mad Bargain we make, whenever we 
break any Part of this our Vow of Baptifm. It therefore 
moft nearly concerns us to confider fadly of it, to re- 
member that every Sin we commit is a direct breach of 
this our Vow ; and therefore when thou art tempted to 
any Sin, feem it never fo light, fay not of it as Lot did 
of Zoar, Gen. xix. 20. Is it not a little one ? But confider 
whatever it is, thou haft in thy Baptifm vowed againft 
it, and then be it never fo little, it draws a great one at 
the Heels of it, no lefs than that of being forfworn, 
which whoever commits, God hath in the third Com- 
mandment pronounced, He 'will not hold him guiltlefs. 
And that we may the better keep this Vow, it will be 
very ufeful often to repeat :o ourfelves the feveral Branches 


46 The Whole Duty of Man. 

of it, that fo we may ftill have it ready in our Minds to 
fet againtt all Temptations ; and furely it is To excellent 
a Weapon, that if we do not either caft it afide, or ufe 
it very negligently, it will enable us by God's help to put 
to flight our Spiritual Adverfary. And this is that Reve- 
rence we are to pay to this full Sacrament, that of Baptifm. 


Of the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper ; 
of Preparation before, as Examnaltm : Of 
Repentance, Faith, Obedience : Of Duties to 
be done at the Receiving, and afterwards^ &c. 

Sect. i. "Tk TO W follows the Reverence due to 

X^sJ the Sacrament of the Lord's 
Zhs Lid's Supper; and in this I matt' follow my 
Supper. firft Divifion, and fet down firll, what is 

to be done Before ; Secondly, /// ; and 
Thirdly, After the time of Receiving : For in this Sa- 
crament we cannot be excufed from any one of t'hefe 
things, though in da former we are. 

2. And £irft, for that which is to be done before, St. 

Paul ie\U us, it is Examination, 1 Cor.x'u 
Things t9 be 28. But let a Man examine himfelf and 
done before fo let him cat of that Bread, and drink af that 
Receiving. Cup. But before I proceed to the parti- 

calars of this Examination, 1 mull in the 
general tell you, thac the fpecial Bufiuefs we have to do 

in this Sacrament, is to repeat and renew 
Examina- that Covenant we made with God in our 
tion. Baptifm, which we having many ways grie • 

voufly broken, it pleafes God in his great 
Mercy to fufFer us to come to the renewing of it in this Sa- 
crament, which if we do in fincerity of Heart, he hath pro- 
mifed to accept us, and to give us all thofe Benefits in this, 
which he was ready to bellow in the other Sacrament, if 
we had not by our own Fault forfeited them. Since then 
the renewing of our Covenant is our Bufineis at this time, 

Sund. 3. Of the Lord's Sup p er. 47 

it follows, that thefe three things are necefTary towards it : 
Firfl, That weunderltand whattheCovenantis: Secondly, 
That we confider what our Breaches of it have been ; 
And, Thirdly, That we refolve upon a drift Obfer- 
vanceof it, for the reft of our Life. And the trying of our 
felves in every one 01 thefe Particulars, is thatExair. ination, 
which is required of us before we come to this Sacrament. 
4. And Frrit, V/e are to Examine whether we under- 
Hand what this Covenant is ; this is ex- 
ceeding neceffary, as being the Foundati- Of our Know- 
on of both the other ; for it h neither Ud^e. 
poflible to difcover our pall Sins, nor to 
fettle Purpofes againit them for the future without it. 
Let this therefore be your firft Bufinefs ; Try whether 
you rightly undtnland what that Covenant is which you 
enteied into at your Eaptifm, what be the Mercies promi- 
fed on God's Part, and the Duties on yours. And be- 
caufe the Covenant made with each of us in Baptifm, is 
only the applying to our Particulars the Covenant made 
by God in Chrift with all Mankind in general, you are to 
confider whether you underftand that ; if you do not, 
you mud immediately feek for Inltruction in it. And 
till you have means of gaining better, look over what 
is briefly faid in the Entrance to this Treatife, concern- 
ing the Second Covenant, which is the Founda- 
tion of that Covenant which God makes with us in our 
Baptifm. And becaufe you will there find, that Obedi- 
ence to all God's Commands is the Condition required 
of us, and is alfo that which we exprefly vow in our 
Baptifm, it is neceffary ycu mould likewife know what 
thofe Commands of God are. Therefore if you find you 
are ignorant of them, never be at reft till you have got your 
fe'f inttrucled in them, and have gained fuch a Meafure 
of Knowledge as may direcl you to do that Whole Duty 
of Man, which God requires. And the giving thee this 
Initruclion is the only Aim of this Book, which, the 
more ignorant thou art, the more earneitly I fhall en- 
treat thee diligently to read. Ar.d if thou halt hereto- 
fore approached to this Holy Sacrament in utteilgnorance 
of theie necefTary Things, bewail thy Sin in i'o doing, 
! but prefume not to come again, till thou halt by gaining 


48 The Whole Duty of Man. 

this neceflary Knowledge fitted thy felf for it, which 
thou mull haften to do. For though no Man muft come 
to the Sacrament in fuch ignorance, yet if he wilfully 
continue in it, that will be no Excufe to him for keeping 
from this Holy Table. 

4. The Second Part of our Examination is concerning 
our Breaches of this Covenant ; and here thou wilt find 
the ufe of that Knowledge J (peak of. For 
Sms. there is no way of difcovering what our Sins 

have been, but by trying our Actions by that 
which fhould be the Rule of them, the Law of God. When 
therefore thou fetteft to this Part of Examination, re- 
member what are the feveral Branches of 
Sevnalforts. thy Duty, and then afk thine own Heart 
in every Particular, how thou haft per- 
formed it ? And content not thyfelf with knowing in ge- 
neral, that thou haft broken God's Law, but do thy ut- 
mofttodifcoverin what Particulars thou haft done fo. Re- 
call, as well as thou canft, all the Paflages of thy Life; 
and in each of them confider what Part of that Duty hath 
been tranfgrefs'd by it. And that not only in the groffer 
Aft, but in Word alfo : Nay, even in thy moft fecret 
Thoughts : For though Man's Law reaches not to them, 
yet God's Law doth ; fo that whatever he forbids in the 
Ac~l, he forbids likewife in the Thoughts 3nd Defires, and 
fees them as clearly as our moft publick Acls. This par- 
ticular Search is exceeding neceflary j for there is no 
Promife of Forgivenefs of any Sin, but only to him that 
confefteth and forfaketh it. Now to both thefe it is 
neceflary, that we have a diftincl and particular Know- 
ledge of our Sins. For how can he either confefs his 
Sin that knows not his Guilt of it ? Gr how can he re- 
folve to forfake it, that difcerns not himfelf to have 
formerly cleaved to it? Therefore we may furely con- 
clude, that this Examination is not only ufeful but ne- 
ceflary towards a full and compleat Repentance ; for 
he that does not take this particular view of his Sins, will 
be likely to repent but by halves, whicn will never avail 
him towards his Pardon ; nothing but an entire forfa- 
kirg of every evil way being fuflicient for that. But 
furely, of all other times it concerns us, that when we 


Sund. 3. O/zkLoRD'sSuppER. 49 

come to the Sacrament our Repentance be full and cora- 
pleat ; and therefore this drift Search of our own Hearts 
is then efpecially neceflary. For although it be true, 
That it is not pofhble by all our diligence to difcoveror 
remember every Sin of our whole Lives, and though it 
be alfo true, that what is fo unavoidably hid from us 
may be forgiven without any more particular Confeflion 
than that of David, Pfal. xix. I 2. Cleanfe thou me from 
my fecret Faults ; yet this will be no Plea for us, if they 
come to be fecret only, becaufe we are negligent in 
fearching. Therefore take heed of deceiving thy felf in 
this weighty Bufinefs, but fearch thy Soul to the bottom, 
without which, it is impoilibie, that the Wounds thereof 
mould ever be thoroughly cured. 

5. And as you are to enquire thus narrowly concern- 
ing the feveral Sorts of Sins, fo alio mufl you concern- 
ing the Degrees of them, for there are divers Circum- 
ftances which encreafe and heighten the Sin. Of this 
fort there are many; as Firft, when we fin againft 
Knowledge, that is, when we certainly know fuch a 
thing to be a Sin, yet for the prefent Pleafure or Profit 
(or whatever other Motive) adventure on it. This is 
by Chrift himfelf adjudged to be a great heightning of 
the Sin, He that knows his Majiers Will and doth it not 
/hall be beaten with many Stripes. Luke xii. 47. Second- 
. ly, When we fin with Deliberation, that is, when we 
do not fall into it of a fudden, e're we are aware, but 
have time to confider of it ; this is another degree of 
the Sin. But, Thirdly, a yet higher is, when we do it 
againft the Refiftance, and Checks of our own Consci- 
ence, when that at the time tells us, This thing thou 
oughtell not to do : Nay, lavs before us the Danger as 
well as the Sin of it, yet in fpight of thefe Admonitions 
of Conscience, we go on and commit the Sin j this is a 
huge Increafe of it ; fuch as will raife the leail Sin into 
a molt high Provocation. For it is plain, a Sin thus 
committed muft be a wilful one, and then be the Matter 
of it never fo light, it is moft heinous in God's Eyes. 
Nay, this is a Circumilance of fuch force, that it may 
make an indifferent Action, that is in itfelf no Sin, be- 
come one. For though my Confcience fhould err in 


50 The Whole Duty of Man. 

telling me, fuch a thing were unlawful, yet fo long as 
I were fo perfuaded, it were a Sin for me to do that 
thing; for in that Cafe, My Will confents to the doing 
a thing which I believe to be difpleafmg to God, and Goc| 
(who judges us by our Wills, not Underftandings) im- 
putes it to me as a Sin, as well as if the v thing were in it 
felf unlawful. And therefore fureJy we may conclude, 
that any thing, which is in it felf finful, is made much 
more fo by being committed againft the Checks ofCon- 
fcience. A fourth Aggravation of a Sin is, when it 
hath been often repeated, for then there is not only the 
Guilt of fo many more Ads, but every Ad grows alfo 
fo much worfe, and more inexcufable. We always 
judge thus in Faults committed .againft our felves, we 
can forgive a llrigle Injury more eafily, than the fame 
when it hath been repeated, and the oftner it hath been 
fo repeated, the more heinous we account it. And fo 
furely it is in Faults againft God alio. Fifthly, the Sins 
which have been committed, after Vows and Refoluti- 
ons of Amendment, are yet more grievous; for that 
contains alfo the breaking of thofe Promifes. Some- 
what of this there is in every wilful Sin, becaufe every 
fuch is a Breach of that Vow we make at Baptifm. But 
befides that, we have fince bound our felves by new 
Vows, if at no other time, yet furely, at our coming 
to the Lord's Supper, that being (as was formerly faidj 
purpofely to repeat our Vows of Baptifm. And the 
more of thefe Vows we have made, fo much the great- 
er is our Guilt, if we fall back to any Sin we then re- 
nounced. This is a thing very well worth weighing, 
and therefore examine thy felf particularly at thy ap- 
proach to the Sacrament, concerning thy Breaches of 
former Vows made at the Holy Table. And if upon 
any other Occalion, as Sicknefs, Trouble of Mind, or 
the like, thou haft at any time made any other, call thy 
felf to a Uriel Account how thou haft performed them 
alfo, and remember, that every Sin committed againft 
fuch Vows, is, befides its own natural Guilt, a Perjury 
likewife. Sixthly, a yet higher Step is, when a Sin hath 
been fo often committed, that we are come to a Cuftom 
and Habit of it; and this is indeed a high degree. 

6. Yet 

Sund. 3. Of the Lord's Su p p er, 51 

6. Yet even of Habits, feme are worfe than others : 
as, Fiift, if it be fo confirmed, that we are cane to a 
hardnefs of Heart, have no fenfe at all of the Sin : Or, 
Secondly, \i we go on in it againft any extraordinary 
Means ufed by God to reform us, fuch as Sicknefs, or 
any other Affliction which feems to be fent on purpofe 
for our Reclaiming. Or, Thirdly, If all Reproofs and 
Exhortations either of Miniflers or private Friends work 
rot on us, but either make us angry at our Reprovers, 
or fet us on defending the Sin. Or, laftly, If this finful 
Habit be foftrong in us as to give us a love to the Sin, not 
only in our felves, but in others : If, as the ApcftJe faith, 
Rom. i. 32. We do mt only the things, but take pleafure 
in them that do them, and therefore entice and draw as 
many as we can into the fame Sins with us: Then it is 
rifen to thehigheftftep of Wickednefs, and is to belook*d 
on as the utmoft degree both of tin and Danger. Thus 
you fee how you are to examine your felves concerning 
your Sins, in each of which you are to confider how ma- 
ny of thefe heightening Circumfhnces there have been, 
that fo you may aright meafurc the Heinoufnefs of them. 

7. Now the End of this Examination is, to bring 
you to fuch a Sight of your Sins, as may 

truly humble you, make you fenfible of Humiliation. 
your own danger, that have provoked fo 
great a Majefty, who is able fo fadly to revenge himfelf 
upon you. And that will furely, even to the molt car- 
nal Heart, appear a reafonable ground of forrow. But 
that is not all ; it muft likewife bring you to a Senfc 
and Abhorrence of your Bafenefs and Ingratitude, that 
have thus offended fo good and gracious a God, that 
have made fuch unworthy and unkind Returns to thofe 
tender and rich Mercies of his. And this Confideration 
cfpecially muft melt your Hearts into a deep Sorrow and 
Contrition* the degree whereof muft be in fome mea- 
fure anfwerable to the degree*of your Sins. And the 
greater it is, provided it be not fuch as fhuts up the hope 
of God's Mercy, the more acceptable it is to God, who 
hath promifed not to defpife a broken and contrite heart, 
Pfal. li. 1 7. And the more likely it will be alio to bring 
us to Amendment : For if we have ooce felt what the 


52 Ibe Whole Duty of Man. 

fmart of a wounded Spirit is, we (hall have the lefs 
Mind to venture upon Sin again. 

8. For when we are tempted with any of the fhort 
Pleafures of Sin, we may then, out of our own Expe- 
rience, fet againft them the fharp Pains and Terrors of 
an accufmg Confcience, which will, to any that hath 
felt them, be able infinitely to out- weigh them. Endea- 
vour therefore to bring your felves to this melting Tem- 
per, to this deep unfeigned Sorrow, and that not only 
for the Danger you have brought upon your felf ; for 
though that be a Consideration which may and ought to 
work Sadnefs in us, yet, where that alone is the Motive 
of our Sorrow, it is not that Sorrow which will avail ug 
for Pardon ; and the Reafon of it is clear, for that Sor- 
row proceeds only from the Love of our felves, we are 
forry becaufe we are like to fmart. But the 
Contrition. Sorrow of a true Penitent muft be joined alfo 
with the Love of God, and that will make us 
grieve for having offended him, though there were no 
Punifhment to fall upon our felves. The way then to 
ftir up this Sorrow in us, is Firft, To ftir up our Love 
of God, by repeating to our felves the many gracious 
Aftsof his Mercy towards us, particularly, that of his 
fparing ns, and not cutting us off in our Sins. Confider 
with thy felf how many and how great Provocations 
thou haft offered him, peihaps in a continued courfe of 
many Years wilful Difobedience, for which thou mighteft 
with perfettjuftice have been e're this fent quick intoHell : 
Nay, poffibly thou haft before thee many Examples of lefs 
Sinners than thou art, who have been fuddenly fnatch'd 
away-in the midft of their Sins. And what caufe canit 
thou give, why thou haft thus long efcaped, but only 
becaufe his Eye hath fpared thee ? And what caufe of 
that fparing but his tender Compaffions towards thee, 
his unwillingnefs that thou fhouldft perilh : This Con- 
fideration, if it be preft home upon thy Soul, cannot 
chufe (if thy Heart be not as hard as the nether Milftone) 
but awake fomewhat of Love in thee towards this gra- 
cious, this long-fuffering God, and that Love will cer- 
tainly make it appear to thee, that it is an evil thing, 
nnd bitter, that thou bafi for/a ken the Lord, Jer. ii. 19. 


Sund. 3. Of the Lord's Supper. 53 

That thou haft made fuch wretched Requitals of fo 
great Mercy ; it will make thee both afhamed and an- 
gry at thy fell", that thou hall been fuch an unthankful 
Creature. But if the Confideration of this one fort of 
Mercy, God's Forbearance only, be fuch an Engagement 
and Help to this Godly Sorrow, what will then be the 
Multitude of thofe other Mercies which every Man is a- 
ble to reckon up to himfelf ? And therefore let every 
Man be as particular in it as he can, call to mind as 
many of them as he is able, fo that he may attain to the 
greater degree of true Contrition. 

9. And to all thefe Endeavours muft be added earned 
Prayers to God, that he by his holy Spirit would fhew 
you your Sins and foften your Hearts, that you maj 
thoroughly lament and bewail them. 

10. To this muft be joined an humble Confeffion 
of Sins to God, and that not only in ge- 
neral, but alfo in particular, as far as Confeffion. 
your Memory of them will reach, and that 

with all thofe heightning Circumftances of them, which 
you have by the fore-mentioned Examination difcovered. 
Yea, even fecret and forgotten Sins muft in general be 
acknowledged, for it is certain there are Multitudes of 
fuch ; fo that it is neceffary for every one of us to fay 
with David, Pfal. xix. 12. Who can under jland bis Er- 
rors ? Cleanfe thou me from my fecret Faults. When you 
have thus confeft your Sins with this hearty Sorrow, and 
fincere Hatred of them, you may then, (and not be- 
fore) be concluded to feel fo much of your Difeafe, that 
it will be feafonable to apply the Remedy. 

1 1 . In f,he*next Place therefore you are to look on 
him whom God hath fet forth to be the Pro- 
pitiation for our Sins. Rom. iii. 25. Even Faith. 
Jefus Cbrift, the Lamb of God, nvhich tak- 

eth away the Sins of the World. John i. 29. and ear- 
neftly beg of God, that by his moft precious Blood your 
Sins may be warned away ; and that God would for his 
fake be reconciled to you. And this you are to believe 
will furely be done, if you do for the reft of your Time 
forfake your Sins, and give your felves up fincerely to 
obey God in all his Commands. But without that, it 

54 *The Whole Duty of Man. 

is in vain to hope any Benefit from Chrift, or his Suffer- 
ings. And therefore the next Part of your Preparation 
muft be the fetting thofe refoiutions of Obedience, which 
J told you was the third thing you were to examine your 
felves of, before you approach the Holy Sacrament. 

12. Concerning the Particulars of this Refolution, I 

need fay no more, but that it muft an- 
Refo!utic?is of fwer every Part and Branch of our Du- 
Obedience. ty ; that is, we muft not only in general 

refolve, that we will obferve God's Com- 
mandments, but we mult refolve it for every Com- 
mandment by it felf ; and efpecially where we have 
found our felves mod to have failed heretofore, there 
efpecially to renew our Refoiutions. And herein it 
nearly concerns us to look, that thofe Refoiutions be 
fincere and unfeigned, and not only fuch flight ones as 
People ufe out of Cuftom to put on at their coming to 
the Sacrament, which they never think of keeping after- 
wards. For it is a certain Truth, that whofoever comes 
to this Holy Table without an entire Hatred of every 
Sin, comes unworthily ; and it is as fure, that he that 
doth entirely hate all Sin, will refolve to forfake it ; for 
you know, Forfaking naturally follows Hatred, no Man 
willingly abides with a Thing or Perfon he hates; and 
therefore he that doth not fo refolve, as that God, the 
Searcher of Hearts, may approve it as fincere, cannot be 
fuppofel to hate Sin, and fo cannot be a worthy Receiver 
of that Holy Sacrament. Therefore try yourRefolutions 
thoroughly, that you deceive not your felves in them, it is 
your own great Danger if you do ; for it is cettain you can- 
not deceive God, nor gain Acceptation from him, by any 
thing which is not perfectly hearty and unfeigned. 

13. Now as you are to refolve on this new Obedi- 

ence, fo you are likewife to refolve on 
Of the Meant, the Means, which may affift you in the 

Performance of it. And therefore con- 
sider in every Duty what are the Means that may help 
you in it, and refolve to make ufe of them, how unea- 
fy foever they be to your Flefh ; fo, on the other fide, 
confider what Things they are, that are likely to lead 
you to Sin, and refolve to fhun and avoid them : This 


Sund. 3. Of the Lor d'j Supper. 55 

you are to do in refpeft of all Sin9 whatever, buj efpe- 
cially in thofe, whereof you have formerly been guilty. 
For there it will not be hard for you to find, by what 
Steps and Degrees you were drawn into it, what Com- 
pany, what Occafion it was that enfnared you, as alia 
to what fort of Temptations you^re apteft to yield. And 
therefore you mull particularly fence your folf againll 
the Sin, by avoiding thofe Occafions of it. 

14. But it is not enough that you refolve you will do 
all this hereafter, but you mull inlhntly fet to it, and 
begin the Courfe by doing at the prefent iv hatfoever you 
have Opportunity of doing. And there are feveral thing* 
which you may, nay, mult do at the prefent, before yoa 
come to the Sacrament. 

1 5 . As firft, you mud call off every Sin, not bring any 
one unmodified Luft with you to that Ta- 
ble ; for it is not enough to purpofe to caft Prefent Re- 
themoffafterwards, but you muftthenac- # nouncing of 
tually do it, by with drawing all Degrees of Sin. 
Love and Arfe&ion from them ; you mull 
then give a Bill of Divorce to all your old beloved Sins, or 
elfe you are no way fit to be married to Chrift. The 
Reafon of this is clear; for this Sacrament is our fpiritual 
Nouriftiment; now before wecan receive fpiritualNourifti- 
ment, we mult have fpiritual Life, (for no Man gives Food 
to a dead Perfon.) But whofoevcr continues not only in 
the Aft, but in the Love of any one known Sin, hath no 
fpiritual Life, but is in God's Account no better than a 
dead Carcafs, and therefore cannot receive that fpiritual 
Food. It is true, he may eat the Bread and drink the 
Wine, but he receives not Chriit, but inftead of him, that 
which is moil dreadful ; the Apoille will tell you what, 
I Cor. xi. 29. He eats and drinks bis own Damnation. 
Therefore you fee how great a Neceffit-y lies on you thus 
actually to put ofFevery Sin before you come to thisTable. 

16. And the fame Nccefiity lies on you for a fecond 
thing to be done at this Time, and that 
is, the putting your Soul into a heaven- Embracing 
\y and Chriftian Temper; by pofleffing Virtu*. 
it with all thofe Graces which m3y ren- 
der it acceptable in the Eyes of Gqd. For when you 
D have 


56 The Whole Duty of Man. 

have turned out Satan and his accurfed Train, you muft 
not let your Soul lie empty ; if you do, Chrift tells you, 
Luke xi. 26. he will quickly return again, and your lajl 
Ejlate Jhall be nvorfe than your firft. But you muft by 
carneft Prayer invite into it the Holy Spirit with his 
Graces, or if they be infome degree there already, you 
muft pray that he will yet more fully polTefs it, and you 
muft quicken and ftir them up. 

1 7. As for Example, you muft quicken your Humility, 

by confidering your many and great Sins, 
Quickening of your Faith, by meditating on God's Pro- 
G\ aces. mifes to all penitent Sinners ; your Love to 

God, by confidering his Mercies, efpeci- 
ally thofe remembered in the Sacrament; his giving Chrift 
to die for us ,• and your Love to your Neighbour, nay to 
your Enemies, by confidering that great Example of his 
lufTering for us that were Enemies to him. And it is moft 
particularly required of us, when we come to this Table, 
that we copy out this Pattern of his in a perfec\Forgive- 
xiefs of all that have offended us, and not only Forgive- 
nefs, but fuch a Kindnefs alfo, as will exprefs it felf in 
all Offices of Love and Friendship to them. 

1 8. And if you have formerly fo quite forgot that 

blefled Example of his, as to do the di- 
Charity. reel contrary ; if you have done any Un- 

kindnefs or Injury to any Perfon, then 
you are to feek Forgivenefs from him : And to that end, 
firft, acknowledge your Fault, and fecondly, reftore to 
him, to the utmoft of your Power, whatfoever you have 
deprived him of either in Goods or Credit. This Re- 
conciliation with our Brethren is abfolutely neceffary 
towards the making any of our Services acceptable with 
God, as appears by that Precept of Chrift, Mattb. v. 
23, 24. If thou bring thy Gift to the Altar, and there 
remembereft that thy Brother hath ought againji thee, lea<ve 
there thy Gift before the Altar, and go thy way ; firft be 
reconciled to thy Brother, and then come and offer thy 
Gift. Where you fee, that though the Gift be already 
at the Altar, it mutt rather be left there unoffered than 
beofte«cu by a Man that is noi atperfecl Peace with his 
Neighbour. And if this Charit) be fo neceuary in all 


Sund. 3. Of the Lord*/ Supper. 57 

our Services, much more in this, where, by a joint par- 
taking in the fame holy Myfteries, we fignify our being 
united and knit not only to Chrift our Head, but alfo 
to each other as Fellow-Members. And therefore if we 
come with any Malice in our Hearts, we commit an 
Act of the higheft Hypocrify, by making a folemn Pro- 
feflion in the Sacrament of that Charity and Brotherly 
Love, whereof our Hearts are quite void. 

19. Another mod neceflary Grace at this time is that 
of Devotion, for the raifmg whereof we 

mud allow our felves fome time to Devotion. 
withdraw from our worldly Affairs, and 
wholly to fet our felves to this Bufinefs of Preparation ; 
one very fpecial Part of which Preparation lies in raifing 
up our Souls to a devout and heavenly Temper. And 
to that, it is mod necefiary, that we call off all Thoughts 
of the World, for they will be fure as (o many Clogs 
to hinder our Souls in their mounting towards Heaven. 
A fpecial Exercife of this Devotion is Prayer, wherein 
we muft be very frequent and earneft at our coming to 
the Sacrament, this being one great Inftrument, wherein 
we muft obtain all thofeother Gnces required in ourPre- 
paration. Therefore be fure this be not omitted ; for if 
you ufe never fo much endeavour befides, and leave out 
this, it is the going to work in your own Strength, with- 
out looking to God for his Help, and then it is impofiible 
you mould profper in it : For voe are not able of our felves 
to think any thing, as of our felves, but our Sufficiency is of 
God. z Cor. iii. 5. Therefore be inftant with him fo to 
affift you with his Grace, that you miy come (o fitted to 
this holy Table, that you may be partakers of the Be- 
nefits there reached out to all worthy Receivers 

20. Thefe and all other fpiritual Graces our Souls 
muft be cloathed with, when we come 

to this Feaft ; for this is that Wedding- Ihcejity of 
Garment, without which whofoever thefe Graces, 
comes is like to have the Entertainment 
mentioned in the Parable of him, who came to the Mar- 
riage without a Wedding garment, Matt. xxii. 13. nvho 
nvas caft into outer Darknefs, where is weeping and 
gnafhing of Teeth, For though it is poflible, he may fit 

D 2 it 


5§ Ihe Whole Duty of Man. 

it out at the prefent, and not be fnatchM from the Table, 
yet St. /\™/ allures him, he drinks damnation to himfelf 
and how foon it may fall on him is uncertain ; . but it is 
fure it will, if Repentance prevent it not, and as fure, 
that whenever it does come, it will be intolerable ; 
For who among us can dwell with fverlafling Burning ? 
Ifa. xxxiii. 14. 

21. I fhall add but one Thing more concerning the 

Things which are to be done before the 
TheUfifulne/s Sacrament, and that is, an Advice, that 
•/ afpiritual if any Perfon, upon aferious Viewof him- 
Guide. felf, cannot fatisfy his own Soul of his 

Sincerity, and fo doubts whether he may 
come to the Sacrament, he do not reft wholly on his own 
Judgment in theCafe ; for if he be a truly humbled Soul, 
it is likely he may judge too hardly of himfelf ; if he be 
not, it is odds, but if he be left to the fatisfy ing his own 
Doubts, he will quickly bring himfelf to pafs too favour- 
able a Sentence. Or whether he be the one or the other, 
if he come to the Sacrament in that Doubt, he certainly 
plunges himfelf into farther Doubts and Scruples, if not 
into Sin ; on the other Side, if he forbear becaufe of it, if 
that Fear be a caufelefs one, then hegroundlefly abfents 
himfelf from that Holy Ordinance, and fo deprives his 
Soul of the Benefits of it. Therefore in the midft of fo 
many Dangers, which attend the Miftake of himfelf, I 
would, as I faid before, exhort him not to truft his own 
Judgment, but to make known his Cafe to fome difcreet 
and godly Minifter, and rather be guided by his, who will 
probably (if the Gafe be duly and without any Difguife 
difcovered to him) be better able to judge of him, than he 
of himfelf. This is the Counfel the Church gives in the 
Exhortation before the Communion, where it is advifed, 
That if any, by other Means therefore mentioned, cannot 
quiet his own Confcience, but require farther Counfel and 
Comfort, then let him go to fome difcreet and learned Mi- 
nijler of God's Word, and open his Grief, that he may re- 
ceive fuch ghoftly Counfel, Advife and Comfort , that his 
Confcience may be relieved, &c. This is furely fuch Ad- 
vice as mould not be neglecled, neither at tlje time of 
coming to the Sacrament, nor any other, when we are 



Sund. 3. Of the Lor d'j Supper. 59 

under any Fear or Reafons of Doubt, concerning the State 
of our Souls. And for want of this, many have run into 
very great Mifchief, having let the Doubt feiler fo long, 
that it hath either plunged them into deep DiftrefTes of 
Confcience, or, which is worfe, they have, to ftill that 
Difquiet within them, betaken themfelves to all finful 
Pleafures, and fo quite call off all Care of their Souls. 

22. But to all this it will perhaps befaid, that this 
cannot be done without difcovering the 

Nakednefs and Blemiflies of the Soul, Nottobeajba- 
and there is Shame in that, and there- med to difco* 
fore Men are unwilling to do it. But to <ver our /elves 
that I anfwer, That it is very unreafon- to one. 
able that mould be an Hindrance : For 
firft, I fuppofe you are to chufe only fuch a Perfon, as 
will faithfully keep any Secret you (hall commit to him, 
and fo it can be no publick Shame you can fear. And 
if it be in refpecl of that fingle Perfon, you need not 
fear that neither ; for fuppofing him a godly Man, he 
will not think the worfe of you but the better, that you 
are fo defirous to fet all right between God and your 
Soul. But if indeed there were fhame in it, yet as long 
as it may be a Means to cure both your Trouble and 
your Sin too, (as certainly godly and faithful Counfel 
may tend much to both) that Shame ought to be defpifed, 
and ittis fure it would, if we loved our Souls as well as our 
Bodies : For in bodily Difeafes, be they never fofoul or 
fhameful, we account him a Fool who will rather mifs 
the Cure than difcover it : and then it mult here be (0 
much the greater Folly ; by how much the Soul is 
raore precious than the Body. 

23. But God knows, it is not only doubtful Perfons to 
whom this Advice might be ufeful ; there 

are others of another Sort whofe Confi- Asnecejfaryto 
dence is their Difeafe, who prefume ve- the confident 
ry groundlefly of the Goodnefs of their astothedoubt- 
Eftates : And for thofe it were nnoft hap- ful. 
py, if they could be brought to hear 
fome more equal Judgments than their own in this (o 
weighty a Bulinefs. The Truth is, we are generally fo 
D 3 apt 

60 The Whole Duty of Man. 

apt to favour our felves, that it might be very ufeful 
for the moft, efpecially the more ignorant Sort, fome- 
times to adviie with a fpiritual Guide, to enable them 
to pafs right Judgments on themfelves; and not only fo, 
but to receive Directions how to fubdue and mortify 
thofe Sins they are moft inclined to, which is a Matter 
of fo much Difficulty, that we have no Reafon to def- 
pife any Means that may help us in it. 

24. I have now gone through thofe feveral Parts of 
Duty we are to perform Before our Receiving ; in the 

next Place, I am to tell you what is to 
Jt tie time of be done At the time of Receiving. When 
Rtceiving. thou art at the Holy Table, firft humble 
Meditation of thy felf in an unfeigned Acknowledgment 
thy Univor- of thy great Unworthinefs to be admitted 
tbinefs. there ; and to that purpofe remember 

again, between God and thine own Soul, 
fome of thy greateft and fouleft Sins, thy Breaches of for- 
mer Vows made at that Table, efpecially fince thy laft 

Receiving. Then meditate on thofe bit- 
The Sufferings ter Sufferings of Chrift, which are fet out 
§f Chriji. to us in the Sacrament : When thou feeft 

the Bread broken ; remember how his 
blefled Body was torn with Nails upon the Crofs ; when 
thou feeft the Wine poured out, remember hqw his pre- 
cious Blood was fpilt there ; and then confider*it was thy 
Sins that caufed both. And here think, how unworthy a 
Wretch thou art to have done that which occafioned fuck 
Torments to him ; how much worfe than his very 
Crucifiers : They crucified him once, but thou haft, as 
much as in thee hy, crucified him daily. They crucified 
him becaufe they knew him not, but thou haft known 
both what he is in himfelf, the Lordof Glory, and what 
he is to thee, a moft tender and merciful Saviour, and yet 
thou huft ilill continued thus to crucify him afrefh Con- 
fider this, and let it work in thee, firft a great Sorrow 
ior thy Sins pall, and then a great Hatred and firm Refo- 
lution againft them for the time to come. 

25. When thou haft a while thus thought on thefe 


Sand. 3. Of the Lord'j Svv pe r. 61 

Sufferings of Chrift for the increafirg thy 
Humility and Contrition ; then in the The Atonement 
fecond Place think of them again, to ftir wrought by 
up thy Faith ; look on him as the Sa- them. 
crifice offered up for thy Sins, for the 
appeafing of God's Wrath, and procuring his Favour 
and Mercies towards thee. And therefore, believingly, 
yet humbly begof God toacceptof that Satisfaction ma<6 
by his innocent and beloved Son, and for the Merits there- 
of to pardon thee whatfoever is part, and to be fully re- 
conciled to thee. 

26. In the third Place, confider them again to raift 
thy Thankfulne r s. Think how much 

both of fhame and Pain he there endu- TheTlankful- 
red, but efpecially thofe great Agonies nefs oivingfar 
of his Sour, which drew from him that them. 
bitter Cry, My Gid, my God, nvhy baft 
thou for/a ken me? Matt. 27. 46. Now all this he fuffcr- 
ed only to keep thee from perilling. And therefore con- 
fider what inexprefTible Thar ks thou owed him, and en- 
deavour to raife thy Soul to the mofl zealous and hearty 
Thankfgiving ; for this is a principal part of Duty at 
this time, the praifing and Magnifying that mercy which 
hath redeemed us by fo dear a price. Therefore it will 
here well become thee to fay with David, 1 nvitl tale tht 
Gup of Salvation, and will call upon the Name of tht Lord. 

27. Fourthly, look on thefe Sufferings of Chrift toitir 
up this Love, and furely there cannot 

be a more effectual Means of doing it ; The great Jo^e 
for here the Love of Chrift to thee is of Cbrijl in 
moft manifeft, according to that of the thtm. 
Apoftle, I John iii. 16. Hereby peredv* 
ive the Love of G<id towards us, becau Q he laid dovu 
bis Life for us. And that even the higheft Degree of 
Love; for as he h'mfelf tells us, Jibnxv. 13. Greater 
Love than ths hath no Man, that a Man lay down his 
Life for his Friend. Yet even greater Love than this 
had he ; for he not only died, but died the moft painful 
and moft reproachful Death, and that not for his Friends, 
but for his utter Enemies. And therefore if after all this 

D 4 

62 The Whole Duty of Man. 

Love on his Part, there be no return of Love on ours, 
we are worfe than the vileft fort of Men, for even the 
Public an j, Matth. v. 46 love tbofe that lo<ve them. 
Here therefore chide and reproach thy felf. that thy Love 
to him is fo faint and cool, when his to thee was fo 
zealous and affectionate. And endeavour to enkindle 
this holy Flame in thy Soul, to love him in fuch a De- 
gree, that thou ma} eft be ready to copy out his Exam- 
ple, to part with all things, yea, even Life it felf, when 
ever he calls for it ; that is, whenfoever thy Obedience 
10 any Command of his (hall lay thee open to thofe Suffer- 
ings : But in the mean time to refolve never again to make 
any League with his Enemies, to entertain or harbour any 
Sin in thy bread. But if there have any fuch hitherto re- 
mained with thee, make this the Seafon to kill and crucify 
it; offer it up at this Inftant a Sacrifice to him, who was 
facrificed for thee, and particularly for that very end, that 
be might redeem thee from all Iniquity ; therefore here make 
thy folemn refolutions, to foriake every Sin, particularly 
thofe into which thou hall moft frequently fallen. And that 
thou mayeft indeed perform thofe Refolutions, earneftly 
beg of this crucified Saviour, that he will, by the Power 
of his Death, mortify and kill all thy Corruptions. 
28. When thou art about to receive the confecrated 
Bread and Wine, remember that God 
Ihe Benefits of now offers to feal to thee that new Co- 
the New Co- venant made with Mankind in his Son. 
*venant fealed For fmce he gave us his Son in the Sa- 
in the Sacra- ciament, he gives with him all the Be- 
ment* nefits of that Covenant, to wit, Pardon 

of Sins, fandifying Grace, and a Title to 
an eternal And here be aftonimed at the 
infinite Goodr>fs of God, who reaches out to thee fo 
precious a Treafure. But then remember that this is all 
but on Condition, that thou perform thy Part of the Co- 
venant. And therefore fettle in thy Soul the moft ferious 
Purpofe of Obedience, and then with all poffible Devotion 
join with the Minifter in that lhort, but excellent Prayer, 
ufed at the Inftant of giving the Sacrament, The Body of 
our Lardy &c. 

29. So 

Sund. 3. Of the Lor d's Supper. 63 

29. So Toon as thou haft received, offer up thy de- 
vouteft Praifesfor that great Mercy, to- 
gether with thy moll earned Prayers for Upon Recciv 
fuch Afliftance of God's Spirit as may en- ing, give 
able thee to perform the Vow thou haft Thanks. 
now made. Then, remembring thatChrift 

is a Propitiation not for our Sins only, but Pray. 
alfofor the Sins of 'the whole World '; let thy 
Charity reach as far as his hath done, and pray for all Man- 
kind, that every one mayreceivc the Benefitof that Sacri- ■ 
rice of his ; commend alfo to God the Eftate of the Church, 
that particularly where of thou art a Member ; and forget 
not to pray for all to whom thou owed Obedience, both 
in Church and State; and fo go on to pray for fuch par- 
ticular Perfons as either thy Relations or their Wants (hall 
prefent to thee. It there be any Collection for the Poor (as 
there al waysought to be at this time) givefreely according 
to thy Ability j or if, by the Default of others, there be no 
fuch Collection, yet do thou privately defign fomething to- 
wards the Relief of thy poor Brethren, and befure togive 
it the next fitting Opportunity that offers it felf. All this 
thou muft contrive to do in the time that others are receiv- 
ing, that fo, when the publick Prayers after the Admini* 
ltration begin, thou mayeft be ready to join in them, 
which thou muft likevvife take Care to do with all Devo- 
tion : Thus much for Behaviour at the timeof Receiving. 

30. Now follows the third and laft thing, that is, what 
thou art to do after thy Receiving. That 

which is immediately to be done, is as Jfter the Sa- 

foon as thou art retired from the Con- c/ament. 

gregation, to offer up again to God thy 

Sacrifice of Praife for all thofe precious Mercies conveyed 

to thee in that holy Sacrament, as alfo humbly to intreat 

the continued aflillance of his Grace, 

to enable thee to make good all thofe PrivatePray- 

Purpofes of Obedience thou haft now er andthankf- 

made. And in whatfoever thou knoweft giving. 

thy felf moil in Danger, either in re- 

fpect of any former Habit, or natural Inclination, there 

cfpecially defire, and earneftly beg his Aid. 

D 5 31. When 

64 The Whole Duty of Man. 

31. When thou haft done thus, do not prefently let 
thy felf loofe to thy worldly Cares and 
Not prefently Bufmefs, but fpend all that Day either 
to fall to in Meditating, Praying, Reading, good 

worldly Jf- Conferences, or the like; To as may bed 
fairs. keep up that holy Flame which is enkind- 

led in thy Heart. Afterwards, when thy 
Calling requires thee to fall to thy ufual Affairs, do it; 
but yet ftill remember, that thou haft a greater Bufinefa 
than that upon thy Hands; that is, the performing of 
all thofe Promifes thou fo lately madeft to God: And 

therefore what- ever thy outward Ern- 
To keep thy Re- ployments are, let thy Heart be fet on 
folutions ftill that ; keep all the Particulars of thy Re- 
in Memory. folutions in Memory, and whenever thou 

art tempted to any of thy old Sins, then 
confider, this is the thing thou fo folemnly vowedft againft ; 
and withal remember, what a horrible Guilt it will be, if 

thou fhouldeft now willfuly do any thing 
The Danger contrary to that Vow; yea, and what a 
of breaking horr;ble Mifchief alfo it will be to thy 
them. felf; For at thy Receiving, God and 

thou entred into Covenant, into a League 
of Friendfhip and Kindnefs. And as long as thou keep- 
eft in that Friendfiiip with God, thou art fafe; all the 
Malice of Men or Devils can do thee no Harm : For, as 
the Apoftle faith, Rem. viii. 31. If God be for us, <wbo 

can be againft us ? But if thou breakeft 
Making God this League, (as thou certainly doft, if 
thy Enemy. thou yieldeft to any wilful Sin) then God 

and thou art Enemies ; and if all the 
World then were for thee, it could not avail thee. 
32. Nay, thou wilt get an Enemy within thine own 

Bofom, thy Confcience accufing and 
IhycwnCon- upbraiding thee; and when God and 
fciince. thine own Confcience are thus againfl 

thee, thou canft not but be extremely mi- 
ferable even in this Life, befides that fearful Expectation 
of Wrath, which awaits thee in the next. Remember all 
this, when thou art fet upon by any Temptation, and then 
lure thou cuuft not but look upon that Temptation, as a 



Sund. 3. Of the Lor dV Supper. 63 

Cheat that comes to rob thee of thy Peace, thy God, thy 
very Soul ; and then fure it will appear as unfit to entertain 
it, as thou wouldeft think it to harbour one in thy Houfe, 
who thou knoweft came to rob thee of what is deareft to 

33. And let not any Experience of God's Mercy in 
pardoning thee heretofore.encourage thee 

again to provoke him ; for befides that it God*s former 
is the higheft Degree of Wickednefs and Pardons no 
Unthankfulnefs to make that Goodnefs of Encourage- 
his, itjbich Jhould lead tbee to Repentance, ment to Sin. 
an Encouragement in thy Sin : Befides 
this, I fay, the oftener thou haft been pardoned, the lefs 
Reafon thou haft to expedl it again, becaufe thy Sin is fo 
much the greater for having been committed againft Co 
much Mercy. If a King have feveral times pardoned an 
Offender, yet if he ftill return to Commiflion of the fame 
Fault, the King will at laft be forced, if he have any 
Love to Juftice, to give him up to it. Now fo it is here, 
God is as well Juft as Merciful, and his Juftice will at k<ft 
furely and heavily avenge the Abufe of his Mercy ; ar;d 
there cannot be a greater abufe of his Mercy, than to 
fin in hope of it : So that it will prove a rniferable de- 
ceiving of thy felf thus to prefume upon it. 

34. Now this Care of making good 

thy Vow muft not abide wi:h thee fome The Ob'igafi- 
few Days only, and then becaftafide, but on of t hi s Fo-ut 
it muft continue with thee all thy Days, peipetual. 
For if thou break thy Vow, it matters 
not whether fooner or later : Nay, perhaps the Guilt 
may in fome refpeel be more, if it be late ; for if thou 
halt for a good while gone on in the Obfervance of it, 
that mews the Thing is poflible to thee ; and fo thy Af- 
ter breaches are not of Infirmity, becaufe thou canft not 
avoid them; but of Perverfenefs, becaufe thou wilt not. 
Befides, theUfeof Chriftian Walking mult needs make 
it more eafy to thee. For indeed all the Difficulty of it 
is but from the Cuftom of the contrary : And therefore, if 
after fome Acquaintance with it, when thou haft over- 
come fomewhat of the Hardnefs, thou malt then give it 
over, it will be moftinexcufable. Therefore be csieful 
sill the Days of thy Life to keep (ucha Wacch over 

66 The Whole Duty of Man. 

felf, and fo to avoid all Occafions of Temptations, as 
may prefervethee from all wilful Breaches of this Vow. 
35. But though the Obligation of every fuch fingle 
Vow reach to the utmoft Day of our 
Tet often to Lives, yet are we often to renew it, that 
be renewed. , is, we are often to receive the Holy Sa- 
crament, for that being the means of con- 
veying to us fo great and unvaluable Benefits, and it be- 
ing alio a Command of Chrift, that we mould do this in 
'Remembrance ofbim, we are in refpedl both of Reafon and 
Duty to omit no fit Opportunity of partaking of that Ho- 
ly Table. I have now (hewed you, what that Reverence 
is, which we are to pay to God in his Sacrament. 


Honour due to God's Name ; Sins againft it \ 
Blafphemy, Szv earing : Of Affertory^ Pro- 
rmffory, Unlawful Oaths ; Of Perjury , Vain 
Oaths, and the Sin of tbem, &c. 

Sect. 1 . '"TpHE laft Thing wherein we are to 

JL exprefs our Reverence to him, is 

Honour due to the honouring of his Name. Now what 

God's Name. this honouring of his Name is, we (hall 

belt underftand, by confidering what are 
the Things by which it is difhonoured, the avoiding of 
which will be our Way of honouring it. 

The n>ft is, all Blafpheniies, or fpeaking any evil 

Thing of God, the higheft Degree 
Sinsagainflit. whereof is curfing him; or if we do 

not fpeak it with our Mouths, yet if we 
do it in our Hearts, by thinking any unworthy Thing 

of him, it is look*d on by God, who 
hhfpbemy. fees the Heart, as the vileft Difhonour. 

But there is alfo a Blafphemy of the 
Actions, that is, when Men, who profefs to be Servants 
of God, live fo wickedly, that they bring up an evil 
Report of him, whom they own as their Mafter and 
Lord. TJhis Blafphemy the Apoftle takes Notice of, 

Sund.4- Of Oaths, Z3c. 67 

Rom. ii. 24, where he tells thofe who profefs to be Ob- 
fervers of the Law, That by their wicked Anions the 
Name of God was blalpbemed among the Gentiles. Thofe 
Gentiles were moved to think ill of God, as the Fa- 
vourer of Sin, when they faw thofe, who called them- 
felves his Servants, commit it. 

A fecond Way of dishonouring God's Name is by 
Swearing ; and that is of two Sorts, ei- 
ther by falfe Oaths, or elfe by ra(h and Swearing. 
light Ones. A falfe Oath may alfo be of 
two Kinds, as Firft, That by which I affirm fomewhat, 
or, Secondly, That by which I promife. 
The Firft is, when I fay, fuch or fuch AJfertory 
a Thing was done fo or fo, and con- Oaths. 
firm this Saying of mine with an Oath ; 
if then I know there be not perfect Truth in what I 
fay, this is a flat Perjury, a downright being forfworn : 
Nay, if I fwear to the Truth of that whereof I am only 
doubtful, though the thing mould happen to be true, 
yet it brings upon me the Guilt of Perjury ; for I fwear 
at a Venture, and the thing might, for ought I knew, 
be as well falfe as true; whereas I ought never to fwear 
any thing, the Truth of which I do not certainly know. 

2. But befidesthis fort of Oaths, by which I affirm 
any thing, there is the other fort, that 
by which I promife fomewhac And Promijfory. 
that Promife may be either to God or 
Man. When it is to God, we call it a Vow, of which 
I have already fpoken, under the Heads of the Sacra- 
ments. I (hall now only fpeak of that to Man, and this 
may become a falfe Oath, either at, or after the Time 
of taking it. At the Time of taking it, it is falfe, if 
either I have then no real rurpofe of making it 
good, or elfe take it in a Senfe different from that which 
I know he, to whom I make the Promife, underftands 
it j for the Ufe of Oaths being to allure the Perfons, 
to whom they are made, they muft be taken in their 
Senfe. But if I were never fo fincere at the taking 
the Oath, if afterwards, I do not perform it, I am cer- 
tainly perjured. 

3. The 

68 7 be Whole Duty of Tv'an. 

3. The Nature of an Oath being then thus binding,. 

it nearly concerns us to look that the 
Unlawful Matter of our Oaths be lawful, forelfe 

Oatbs. we run ourfeh*es into a woful fnare. For 

Example, fuppofe, Ifwear to kill a Man, 
if I perform my Oath, I am guilty of Murder ; if I 
break it, of Perjury ; and fo I am under a Neceffity of 
finning one way or other ; but there is nothing puts us 
under a greater Degree of this unhappy Neceffity, than 
when we fwear two Oaths, whereof the one is diredlly 
crofs and contradictory to the other : For if I fwear to 
give a Man my whole Eftate, and afterwards fwear to 
give all or Part of that Eftate to another, it is certain, I 
muft break my Oath to one of them,becaufe it is impof- 
lible to perform it to both, and fo I muft be under a Ne- 
ceffity of being forfvvorn. And into this unhappy Strait 
every Man brings himfelf, that takes any Oath, which 
crofTes fome other which he hath formerly taken ; which 
{hould make all, that love either God or their own Souls, 
refolve never thus miferably to entangle themfelves, by 
taking one Oath crofs and thwarting to another. But it 
may perhaps here be afked,what a Perfon that hath al- 
ready brought himfelf into fuch a Condition fhall do ? I 
anfwer,hemuft firft heartily repent of the great fin of tak- 
ing the unlawful Oath, and then flick only to the lawful,, 
which is all that is in his Power towards the repairing his 
Fault, and qualifying him for God's Pardon for it. 

4. Having faid this concerning the Kinds of this Sin of 

Perjury, I fhall only add a few Words 
God greatly to (hew you how greatly God's Name 
dijbanoured by is dishonoured by it. In all Oaths, you 
Perjury. know, God is folemnly called to wit - 

nefs the Truth of that which is fpoken; 
now if the Thing be falfe, it is the bafeft Affront and 
Di(honour that can poffibly be done to God. For it is 
in Reafon to fignify one of thefe two Things, either 
that we believe he knows not whether we fay true or 
no ; (and that is to make him no God, to fuppofe him 
to be as deceivable and eafy to be deluded, as one of 
our ignorant Neighbours) or elfe that he is willing to 
countenance our Lyes. The former robs him of that 


Sund. 4. Of Oaths, &c. 69 

great Attribute of his, his knowing all Things, and is 
furely a great difhonouring of him, it being even a- 
mongft Men accounted one of thegreateft Difgraces, to 
account a Man fit to have Cheats put upon him ; yet 
even fo we deal with God, if we venture to forfwear 
upon a Hope, that God difcerns it not. But the other 
is yet worfe, for the fuppofing him willing to coun- 
tenance our Lyes, is the making him a Party in them ; 
and is not only the making him no God, (it being im- 
poflible that God mould either lye himfelf, or approve 
it in another) but is the making him like the very De- 
vil i for he it is that is a Liar, and the Father of it, John 
viii. 44. And furely I need not fay more to prove, that 
this is the highefl Degree of difhonouring God's Name. 

5. But if any yet doubt the Heinoufnefs of this Sin, 
let him but confider what God himfelf 
fays of it in the Third Commandment, The Punijb- 
where he folemnly profefTes, He will not ments of it, 
hold him guilt left, that taketh hii Name in 
vain. And fure the adding that to this Command- 
ment, and none of the reft, is the marking this out for 
a mod heinous Guilt. And if you look into Zach. v. 
you will there find the Punifhment is anfwerable ; even 
to the utter Deftruclion, not only of the Man, but his 
Houfe alfo. Therefore it concerns all Men, as they 
love either their temporal or eternal Welfare, to keep 
mod (Iriclly from this Sin. 

But befides this of Forfwearing, I told you there was 
another Sort of Oaths, by which God's 
Name is difhonoured : Thofe are the Vain Oaths. 
vain and light Oaths, fuch as are fo ufual 
in our common Difcourfe, and are exprefly forbidden 
byChrift, Mat, v. 34. But I fay unto you. Swear not 
at all, neither by Heaven, for it is God's Throne, nor by 
the Earth, Jor it is his Footftool : Where you fee, we 
are not allowed to fwear even by meer Creatures, be- 
caufe of the Relation they have to God. How great a 
Wickednefs is it then to prophane his holy Name by 
ralh and vain Oaths ? This is a Sin that is (by I know- 
not what Charm of Satan's) grown into a Fafhion a- 
mong us ; and now its being fo draws daily more Men 


jo The Whole Duty of Man. 

into it. But it is to be remembred, that when we (hall 
appear before God's Judgment-feat, to anfwer for thofe 
Profanations of his Name, it will be no Excufe to fay, 
it was the Fafhion to do fo : It will rather be an In- 
crease of our Guilt, that we have by our own Practice 
helped to confirm that wicked (Juftom, which we ought 
to have beat down and difcountenanced. 

6. And fure, whatever this prophase Age thinks of it, 

this is a Sin of a very high Nature: For 
The Sin of befides that it is a direct Breach of the 

them. Precept of Chrift ; it (hews, Firft, a very 

mean and low Efteem of God : Every 
Oath we fwear, is the appealing to God to judge the 
Truth of what we fpeak, and therefore, being of fuch 
Greatnefs and Majefty, requires that the Matter, con- 
cerning which we thus appeal to him, mould be ofgreat 
Weight and Moment, fomewhat wherein either his own 
Glory, or fomeconfiderableGood of Man is concerned. 
But when we fwear in common Difcourfe, it is far other- 
wife; and the triflingeft or lighreft Thing ferves for the 
Matter of an Oath ; nay, often Men fwear to fuch vain 
and foolifh Things, as a considering Perfon would be a- 
fhamed barely to fpeak. And i=> it not a great defpifing 
of God to call him folemnly to judge in fuch childifh. fuch 
wretched Matters ? God is the great Kingof the World ; 
now though a King be to be reforted unto in weighty 
Cafes, yet fure he would think himfelf much defnifed,if 
he mould be called to judge between Boys at their chil- 
difh Games ; and God knows, many things, whereto we 
frequently fwear, are not of greater Weight, and there- 
fore are a Sign that we do not rightly efteem of Gcd. 

7. Secondly, This common Swearing is a Sin which 

leads dire&ly to the former of forfwear- 
Tbey lead to ing ; for he that by the Ufe of Swear- 
Verjury. ing hath made Oaths fo familiar to him, 

will be likely to take the dreadfulleft 
Oath without much Confideration. For how (hall he, 
that fwears hourly, look upon an Oath with any Re- 
verence ? And he that doth not, it is his Chance, not 
his Care that is to be thanked, if he keep from Per- 
jury. Nay, farther, he that fwears commonly, is not 


Sund. 4. O/Oaths, &c. 71 

only prepared to forfwearwhenafolemnOath is tendered 
him, but in all Probability does a&ually forfwear himfelf 
often in thefe fuddener Oaths ; for fuppofing them to 
come from a Man e're he is aware, ( which is the bed 
can be faid of them) what Aflurance can any Man have, 
who fwears e're he is aware, that he (hall not lye fo too ? 
And if he doth both together, he mull necefiarily be for- 
fworn. But he that obferves your common Swearers, will 
be put pad doubt that they are often fcrfworn. For they 
ufually fwear indifferently to things trueorfalfe.doubtful 
or certain. And I doubt not, but if Men, who are guilty 
of this Sin, would but impartially examine their own 
Practice, theirHearts would iecond me in this Obfervation. 
8. Thirdly, This is a Sin to which there is no temp- 
tation, there is nothing either of Plea- 
fure or Profit got by it ; Mofl other Sins No Tempta- 
offer us fomewhat either of the one or tion to them, 
the other, but this is utterly empty of 
both. So that in this Sin the Devil does not play the 
Merchant for our Souls, as in others he does ; he doth 
not fo much as cheapen them, but we give them freely 
into his Hands without any thing in Exchange. There 
feems to be but one thing poffible for Men to hope to 
gain by it, and that is to be believed in what they fay, 
when they thus bind it by an Oath. But this alfo they 
conftantly fail of; for there are none fo little believed 
as the common Swearers. And good Reafon, for he 
that makes no Confcience thus to profane God's 
Name, why (hall any Man believe he makes any of ly- 
ing ? Nay, their Forwardnefs to confirm every the 
flighted Thing by an Oath, rather gives Jealoufy that 
they have fome inward Guilt of Faliencfs, for which 
that Oath mud be the Cloak. And thus you fee in how 
little Stead it Hands them, even to this only Purpofe for 
which they can pretend it ufeful ; and to any other Ad- 
vantage it makes not the lead Claim, and therefore is 
a Sin without Temptation, and confequently without 
Excufe ; for it (hews the greated Contempt, nay, Un- 
kindnefs to God j when we will provoke him thus, 
without any Thing to tempt us to it. And therefore, 
though the Commonnefs of this Sin hath made it pafs 


/2 The Whole Duty of Man. 

but for a fmall one, yet it is very far from being fo, ci- 
ther in itfelf, or in God's Account. 

9. Let all therefore, who are not yet fallen into the 

Cuftcm of this moft careful never 
NeceJJity of to yield to the leaft Beginnings of it; and 
abftaining for thofe who are fo miferable, as to be 

from them, already enfnared in it, let them imme- 
diately, as they tenJcr their Souls, get 
out of it. And let no Man plead the Hardnefs of leav- 
ing an old Cuftom, as an Excufe for his continuing in it, 
but rather the longer he hath been in it, fo much the 
more hafte let him make out of it, as thinking it too too 
much, that he hath fo long gone on in fo great a Sin* 
And if the Length of the Cuftom hath increafed theDif- 
flculty of leaving it,that is fufficient in alireafon to make 
him fet immediately to the calling itoff left that Difficulty 
at laft grow to an ImpoflibiJity ; and the harder he find* 
it at the prefent, fo much the more dili- 
Means for it, gent and watchful he muft be in the Ufe 
of all thofe Means, which may tend to 
the overcoming that finful. Habit ; fome few of thofe 
Means it will not bs ami fs here to mention. 

10. Firft, Let him poffefs his Mind fully of the Hei- 

noufnefs of the Sin, and not to meafure 
Senfeofthe it only according to the common Rate 
Guilt and of the World. And when he is fully 

Danger. perfuaded of the Guilt, then let him add 

to that, the Confideration of the Dan- 
ger, as that it puts him out of God's Favour at the 
prefent, and will, if he continue in it, caft him into 
Hell for ever. And fure, if this were but thoroughly 
laid to Heart, it would reftrain this Sin. For I would 
afk a Man, that pretends Impombility of leaving the 
Cuftom, whether, if he were fure he mould be hanged 
the next Oath he fwore, the Fear of it would not keep 
him from fwearing ? I can fcarce believe any Man in 
his Wits fo little iViafter of himfelf, but it wouid. And 
then furely Damning is fo much worfe than hanging, 
that in all Reafon the Fear of that ought to be a much 
greater Reftraint. The Doubt is, Men do either not 
heartily believe that this Sin will damn them, or if they 


Sund. 4 O/Oath?, ^r. 73 

do, they look on it, as a thing a great way off, and fo 
are not much moved with it ; but both thefe are very 
unreafonable. For the firft, it is certain, that every one 
that continues wilfully in any Sin, is fo long in a State 
of Damnation, and therefore this being fo continued in, 
muft certainly put a Man in that Condition. For the 
Second, it is very poflible he may be deceived in thinking 
it fo far off ; for how knows any Man that he (hall not 
be ftruck dead with an Oath in his Mouth ? Or if he 
were fure not to be fo, yejt eternal Damnation is furely to 
be dreaded above all Things, be it at what Diftance fc» 

1 1 . A fccond Means is to' be exactly true in all tho« 
fpeakelt; that all Men may believe thee 

on thy bare Word, and then thou wilt Truth in 
never have Occafion to confirm it by an Speaking. 
Oath to make it more credible, which is 
the only Colour or Reafon can at any time be pretended 
for Swearing. 

12. Thirdly, Obferve what it is that moll betrays 
thee to this Sin, whether Drink, or An- 
ger, or the Company and Example of Forfaklng the 
others, or whatever elfe, and then, if ever Occajions* 
thou mean to forfake the Sin, forfake 

thbfe Occafions of it. 

1 3. Fourthly, Endeavour to poflefs thy Heart with a 
continual Reverence of God, and if that 
once grow into a Cuflom with thee, it Reverence of 
will quickly turn out that contrary one God. 
of Profaning. Ufe and accuftom thy 
ielf therefore to this Reverence of God, and particular- 
ly to fuch a Refpect to his Name, as, if it be poflible, 
never to mention it without feme lifting up of thy Heart 
to him Even in thy ordinary Difcourfe, whenever thou 
takeft his Name into thy Mouth, let it be an Occafion of 
raifing up thy Thoughts to him j but by no Means 
permit thyfelf to ufe it in idle By Words, or the like. If 
thou doit accuftom thyfelf to pay this Reverence to 
the bare Mention of his Name, it will be an excellent 
Fence againft the profaning it in Oaths, 

■ 4. A 

74 The Whole Duty of Man. 

14. A fifth Means is a diligent and conftant Watch 

over thyfelf, that thou thus offend not 
Watchfulnefs. with thy Tongue, without which all the 

former will come to nothing, and the 
lad Means is Prayer, which muft be added to all thy 

Endeavours ; therefore pray earneftly, 
Prayer, that God will enable thee to overcome 

this wicked Cuilom ; fay with the 
Pfalmift, Set a Watch, O Lord, over my Mouth, and keep 
the Door of my Lips. And if thou doft fincerely fet thy 
felf to the Ufe of Means for it, thou mayeft be aiTured, 
God will not be wanting in his Affifiance. I have been 
the longer on this, becaufe it is fo reigning a Sin. God 
in his Mercy give all that are guilty of it a true Sight of 
the Heinoufnefs of it. 

15. By thefe feveral Ways of difhonouring God's 

Name, you may underftand what is the 
What it is to Duty of honouring it, viz. a Uriel ab- 
Honour God's ftaining from every one of thefe, and 
Name. that Abftinence founded on an awful Re- 

fpe&and Reverence to that facred Name, 
which is Great, Wonderful, and Holy, P/al. xcix. 3. I 
have nowpaft through the feveral Branches of that great 
Duty of Honouring of God. 


OJWorlhip due to God's Name. Of Prayer 
and its 'feveral Parts. Of Publick Prayers 
in the Church, in the Family. Of Private 
Prayer. Of Repentance, Sec. OfPafting. 

Sect. I. /HT^HE eighth Duty we owe to God 
w n. JL is Worship; this is that great 

Worjbip. -p ut y ^ which efpecially we acknow- 

ledge his Godhead, Wormip being proper only to God, 
_ . and therefore it is to be looked upon as 

Prayer, its a moft weighty Du ty. This is to be per- 

tarts% formed, Firft, by our Souls, Secondly, 


c jnd. 5. The Duty 0/ Prayer. j$ 

by our Bodies. The Soul's Part is praying. Now Prayer 
is a fpeaking to God, and there are divers Parts of it, 
according to the different Things about which we fpeak. 

2. As firft, there is Confeflion, that is, the acknow- 
ledging our Sins to G6d . And this may be 

either general or particular ; the general ConfeJJion. 
is when we only confefs in grofs, that we 
are finful ; the particular, when we mention the feveral 
Sorts and Ads of our Sins. The former is neceflary to be 
always a Part of our folemn Prayers, whether public or 
private. The latter is proper for private Prayer, and 
there the oftner it is ufed, the better ; yea, even in our 
daily private Prayer, it will be fit conftantly to remember 
fome of our greateft and fouleft Sins, though never {o 
long fmce pall. For fuch we fliould never think fufficiently 
confefled and bewailed. And this Bewailing muft al- 
ways go along with Confeflion : we muft be heartily 
forry for the Sins we confefs, and from our Souls ac- 
knowledge our own great Unworthinefs in having com- 
mitted them. For our Confeflion is not intended to in- 
ftrucl God, who knows our Sins much better than our 
felvesdo; but it is to humble ourfelves, and therefore we 
muft not think to have confefled aright till that be done. 

3. The fecond Part of Prayer is Petition, that is, the 
begging of God whatfoever we want, ei- 
ther for our Souls or Bodies. Forour Souls, Petition. 

we muft firft beg Pardon of Sins,' and that 
for the Sake of JefusChrift, who fhed his Blood to ob- 
tain it. Then we muft alfo beg the Grace 
and Afliftance of God's Spirit, to enable For our Souls, 
us to forfake our Sins, and to walk in 
Obedience to him. And herein it will be needful par- 
ticularly to beg all the feveral Virtues, as Faith, Love, 
Zeal, Purity, Repentance, and the like ; but efpecially 
thofe which thou moft wanteft ; and therefore obferve 
what thy Wants are, and if thou beeft proud, be moft 
inftant in praying for Humility ; if luftful, for Chaftity ; 
and fo for all other Graces, according as thou findeft 
thy Needs. And in all thefe Things that concern thy 
Soul, be very earneft and importunate ; take no De- 
nial from God, nor give over, though thou do not pre- 


j6 The Whole Duty of Man. 

fently obtain what thou fueft for. But if thou haft 
never fo long prayed for a Grace, and yet findeft it not, 
do not grow weary of Praying, but rather fearch what 
the Caufe may be which makes thy Prayers fo inefFe&ual; 
fee if thou do not thy felf hinder them ; perhaps thou 
prayeft to God to enable thee to conquer fome Sin, and 
yet never goeft about to fight againft it, never makeft 
any Refiftance.but yieldeft to it as often as it comes^ay, 
putted thy felf in its Way, in the Road of all Tempta- 
tions. If it be thus, no Wonder though thy Prayers avail 
not, for thou wilt not let them. Therefore amend this, 
and fet to the doing of thy Part fmcerely,and then thou 
needeft not fear but God will do his. , 

4. Secondly, we are to petition alfo for our Bodies ; 

that is, we are to alk of God fuch Necef- 
Bodies. faries of Life, as are needful for us while 

we live here. But thefe only in fuch a De- 
gree and meafure, as his Wifdom fees bell for us : We 
muft not prefume to be our own Carvers, and pray for 
all that Wealth or Greatnefs, which our own vain Hearts 
may perhaps defire, but only for fuch a Condition in 
refpe& of outward Things, as he fees may moll tend to 
thofe great Ends of our living here, the glorifying him, 
and the faving of our own Souls. • 

5 . A third Part of Prayer is Deprecation ; that is, 

when we pray to God to turn away fome 
Deprecation, evil from us. Now the Evil maybe ei- 
ther the Evil of Sin, or the Evil of Pu- 
nilhment. The Evil of Sin, is that we are efpecially 
to pray againft, moil earneftly begging of God, that he 
will, by the Power of his Grace, preferve us from falling 
into Sin. And whatever Sins they are, 
Of Sin. to which thou knoweft thy felf moft 

inclined, there be particularly ear- 
neft with God to preferve thee from them. This is 
to be done daily, but then more efpecially, when we 
are under any prefent Temptation, and in Danger of 
falling into any Sin j in which Cafe we have Reafon 
to cry out as St. Peter did, when he found himfelf 
finking. Save, Lord, or 1 perijb ; humbly befeeching 
him either to withdraw the Temptation, or ftrengthen us 
to withftand it, neither of which we can do for ourfelves. 

6. S«- 

Sand. 5. ^Djtyc/Prayer. 77 

6. Secondly, We are likewife to pray againft the E- 
vil of Punifhment, but principally agiinft 
fpiritual Punifhments,.as the Anger of OfPuniJb- 
God, the withdrawing of his Grace, and ment. 
eternal Damnation. Againft thefe we 
can never pray with too much Earneftnefs. But we 
may alfo pray againft temporal Punilhments, that is, 
any outward Affliction, but this with Submiffionto God's 
Will, according to the Example of Chrift, Matth. xxvi, 
30. Not as I ivill, but as thou wilt. 

7. A fourth Part of Prayer is Interceflion ; that is, 
praying for others. This in general we 
are to do for all Mankind, as well Stran- Int ere effort. 
gers as Acquaintance, but more particu- 
1 arly thofe to whom we have any fpecial Relation, ei- 
ther publick, as our Governors both in Church and 
State; or private, as Parents, Husband, Wife, Children, 
Friends, &c. We are alfo to pray for all that are in 
Affliction, and fuch particular Perfons as we difcern 
cfpecially to be fo. Yea, we are to pray for thofe that 
have done us Injury, thofe that dcfpitefully ufe us and 
ferfecute us ; for it is exprcfly the Command of Chrift, 
Matth. v. 44. and that whereof he hath likewife given 
us the higheft Example, in praying even for his very 
Crucifiers, Luke xxiii. 34. Father, forgive them. For all 
thefe forts of Perfons we are to pray, and that for the 
very fame good Things we beg of God for our felves, 
that God would give them in their feveral Places and 
Callings all fpiritual and temporal Bleflings, which he 
fees wanting to them, and turn away from them all 
Evil, whether of Sin or Puniftiment. 

8. The fifth Part of Prayer is Thankfgiving ,• that is, 
the praifmg and blefling God for all his 
Mercies, whether to our own Perfons, and Thanifgi* 
thofe that immediately relate to us, or to *ving. 
the Church and Nation whereof we are 
Members, or yet more general to all Mankind ; and this 
for all hi.s Mercies both Spiritual and Temporal, In the 
Spiritual, (Irrt, for thofe vherein we are all in common 
concerned, as the giving of his Son, the fending of his 
Spirit i and all thofe Means he hath uied to bring finful 


;;8 Tbs Whole Duty of 'Man. 

Men unto himfelf. Then fecondly, for thofe Mercies 
we have in our own Particular received j fuch arc, the 
having been born within the Pale of the Church, and fo 
brought up in the Chriftian Religion, by which we have 
been Partakers of thofe precious Advantages of the Word 
and Sacraments, and fo have had, without any Care, or 
Pains of ours, the Means of Eternal Life put into our 
Hands. But befides thefe, there is none of us, but have 
received other fpiritual Mercies from God. 

9. As firft, God's Patience and Long-fuffering, wait- 

ing for our Repentance, and not cutting us off 
Spiritual in our Sins. Secondly, his Calls and lnvica- 
Mercies. tions of us to that Repentance, not only out- 
ward, in the Miniftry of the Word, butalfo 
inward, by the Motions of his Spirit: But then, if thou 
be one that haft by the help of God'sGrace been wrought 
upon by thefe Calls, and brought from a Profane or 
Worldly to a Chriftian Courfe of Life, thou art furely in 
the higheft Degree tied to magnify and praife his Good- 
nefs, as having received from him the greateft of Mercies. 

10. We are likewifeto give Thanks for Temporal 

Bleftings, whether fuch as concern the Pub- 
Temporal. lick as the Profperity of the Church or 

Nation, and all remarkable Deliverances 
afforded to either ; or elfe fuch as concern our Particu- 
lar, fuch are all the good Things of this Life, which we 
enjoy, as Health, Friends, Food, Raiment, and the like; 
alfo, for thofe minutely Prefervations, whereby we are 
by God's gracious Providence kept from Danger, and 
the efpecial Deliverances which God hath given us in 
the time of greateft Perils. It will be impoffible to fet 
down the feveral Mercies, which every Man receives 
from God, becaufe they differ in Kind and Degree be- 
tween one Man and another. But it is fure, that he 
which receives leaft, hath yet enough to employ his 
whole Life in Praifes to God. And it will be very fit for 
every Man to confider the feveral Paffages of his Life, 
and the Mercies he hath in each received, and fo to ga- 
ther a kind of Lift, or Catalogue of them, at leaft the 
Principal of them, which he may always have in his Me- 
mory, and often with a thankful Heart repeat beforeGod. 

11. Thefe 

Sund.£. The Duty of Pr a yer. 79 

1 1 . Thefe are the feveral Parts of Prayer, and all of 
them to be ufed both publickly and pri- 
vately. The publick Ufe of them is, firft, Publick prayers 
that in the Church,where all meet to join in the Church* 
in thofe Prayers, wherein they are in 

common concerned. And in this (where the Prayers are 
fuch as they ought to be) we mould be very conftant, 
there being an efpecial Blefting promifed to the joint 
Requefts of the Faithful ; and he that without a necef- 
fary Caufe abfents himfelf from fuch Publick Prayers 
cuts himfelf off from the Church, which hath always 
been thought fo unhappy a thing, that it is the greateil 
Punifhment the Governors of the Church can lay upon 
the word Offender; and therefore it is a ftrange Mad- 
r.efs for Men to inflict it upon themfelves. 

1 2. A fecond Sort of publick Prayer is, that in a Fa- 
mily ; where all that are Members of it 

join in their common Supplications; and In the Family, 
this alfo ought to be very carefully attend- 
ed to, firrt, by the Mailer of the Family, who is to look 
that there be fuch Prayers, it being as much his Part 
thus to provide for the Souls of his Children and Ser- 
vants, as to provide Food for their Bodies, Therefore 
there is none, even the meaneft Houfholder, but ought 
to take this Care. If either himfelf, or any of his Fa- 
mily can read, he may ufe fome Prayers out of fome 
good Book ; if it be the Service Book of the Church, he 
makes a good Choice : If they cannot read, it will then 
be neceffary they mould be taught without Book fome 
Form of Prayer, which they may ufe in the Family; for 
which Purpofe again fome of the Prayers of the Church 
will be very fit, as being moft eafy for their Memories, 
by reafon of their Shortnefs, and yet containing a great 
deal of Matter. But what Choice foever they make of 
Prayers, let them be fure to have fome,and let no Man, 
that profeffes himfelf a Chriltian, keep fo heathenifli a 
Family, as not to fee God daily worfhipped in it. But 
when the mafter of a Family hath done his Duty in thus 
providing, it is the Duty of every Member of it to 
make ufe of that Proviiion, by being conftant and dili- 
gent at thofe Family Prayers. 

E 13. Pri- 

So The Whole Duty of Man. 

13. Private or fecret Prayer is that which is ufed by 

a Man alone apart from all others ; 
Private Prayer, wherein we are to be more particular, 

according to our particular Needs, than 
publick it is fit to bs. Aid cats of pr i vate Prayer is a 
Duty which will not be excufed by the Performance of the 
other of Publick. They are both required, and one mud 
not be taken in Exchange for the other. And whoever is 
diligent in publick Prayers, and yet negligent in private, 
it is much to be feared, he rather feeks to approve himfelf 
to Men than to God ; contrary to the Command of our 
Saviour, Matt, 6. who enjoins this private Prayer, this 
praying to our Father in fecret, from whom alone we are 
to expect our Reward, and not from the vain Praifes of 

14. Now this Duty of Prayer is to be often perform- 

ed, by none feldomer than Evening and 
Frequency in Morning, it being moft jieceflary that we 
Prayer, mould thus begin and end all our Works 

with God; and that not only in refpeft of 
the Duty we owe him, but alfo in refpecl of our felves, 
who can never be either profperous or fafe, but by com- 
mitting ourfelves to him ; and therefore mould tremble 
to venture on the Perils either of Day orNight, without 
his Safeguard. How much oftner this Duty is to be 
performed, muft be judged according to the Bufinefs or 
Leifure Men have : Where, by Bufinefs, I mean not 
fuch Bufinefs as Men unprofitably make to themfelves, 
but the neceffary Bufinefs of a Man's Calling, which, 
with fome,will afford them much time for fet and folemn 
Prayer. But even thefe Men may often in a Day lift up 
their Hearts to God in fome (hort Prayers, even whilit 
they are at their Work. As for thofe that have more 
Leifure, they are in all Reafon to beftow more time upon 
this Duty. And let no Man that can find Time to be- 
ftow upon his Vanities, nay, perhaps his Sins, fay he 
wants Leifure for Prayer ; but let him now endeavour to 
redeem what he hath mifpent, by employing more of 
that Leifure in this Duty for the future. And furely, if 
we did but rightly weigh how much 
Ike Advantages it is our own Advantage to perform 
$/ Prayer. this Duty, we mould think it Wif- 


Sand. 5. The Duty of Prayer. 81 

^om to be as frequent as we are ordinarily feldom 
in it. 

15. For, firft, it is a great Honour for u?, poor Worms 
of the Earth, to be allowed to fpeak fo 

freely to the Majefty of Heaven. If a Honzur. 
King (hould but vouchfafe to let one of 
his mcaneft Subje&s talk familiarly and freely with him, 
it would be looked on as a huge Honour ; chat V;an, 
how defpicable foever he were before, would tbeo be the 
Envy of all his Neighbours; and there is little Quetlion 
he would be willing to ttrke all Opportunities of receiving 
fo great a Grace. But alas ! this is nothing to the Ho- 
nour is offered us, who are allowed, nay, invited to fpeak 
to, and converfe with the King of Kings ; and there- 
fore how forward (hould we in all Reafon be to it ? 

16. Secondly, It is a great Benefit, even the greateft 
that can be imagined ; for Prayer is the 

Inltrument of fetching down all good Benefits. 
things to us, whether Spiritual or Tem- 
poral ; no Prayer that is qualified as it ought to be, but 
is fure to bringdown a BleiTing, according to that of the 
wife man, Ecclef. xxxv. 17. The Prayer of the bubble 
piercetb the Clouds, and nvill not turn auuay till the High- 
ejl regard it. You would think him a happy Man, that 
had one certain means of helping him to whatfoever he 
wanted, though it were to coll him much Pains and La- 
bour ; now this happy Man thou mayeit be if thou wilt. 
Prayer is the never-failing Means of bringing thee, if 
not all that thou thinkelt thou wanteft, yet all that in- 
deed thou dolt, that is, all that God fees fit for thee. 
And thercfore,be there never fo much Wearinefs to thy 
Flelh in the Duty, yet, confidering in what continual 
Want thou ftandeft of fomething or other from God, it 
is a Madnefs to let that Uneafmefs dilhearten thee, and 
keep thee from this fo fure Means of fupplying thy 

1 7. But,in the third Place, this Duty is in itfelf fo far 
from being uneafy, that it is very plea- 

fant. God is the Fountain of Happi- Pleafantnefs. 
nek, and at his right Hand are pleasures 
for evermore, Pfal. xvi. 1 1 . And therefore the nearer we 
E 2 draw 


Sz Ths Whole Duty of Man. 

craw to him, the happier we muft needs be, the very 
Joys of Heaven arifing from our Nearnefs to God. Now 
in this Life we have no Way of drawing fo near to him, 
as by this of Prayer, and therefore furely it js that which 
in it felf is apt to afford Abundance of Delight and 
Pleafure; if it feem otherwife to us, itisfrom fome Dif- 
temper of our own Hearts, which, like a fick Palate, 
cannot relim the moft pleafant Meat. Prayer is a plea- 
fant Duty, but it is withal a fpiritual One j and therefore, 
if thy Heart be carnal, if that- be fet 
Carnality one either on the contrary Pleafures of the 
Reafon of its Flefh, or Drofs of the World ; no marvel 
Jeeming other- then, if thou tafte no Pleafantnefs in it, 
wife. if, like the Ifraelites, thou defpife Manna, 

whilfl thou longed after the Fiefh-pots of 
E?_ypt. Therefore, if thou find a Wearinefs in this Duty, 
fuipeft thy felf, purge and refine thy Heart from the Love 
of all Sin, and endeavour to put it into a heavenly and 
fpiritual Frame, and then thou wilt find this no unplea- 
fant Exercife, but. full of Delight and Satisfaction. In 
the mean time, complain not of the Hardnefs of the 
Duty, but of the Untowardnefs of thy own Heart. 
1 8. But there may alfo be another Reafon of its feem- 
ing unpleafant to us, and that is, Want 
Want of Ufe, of Ufe. You know there are many 
Another. things, which feem uneafy at the firft 

Trial, which yet, after we areaccuftom- 
ed to them,feem very delightful; and if this be thy Cafe, 
then thou knoweft a ready Cure, viz. to ufe it oftner, 
and fo this Confideration naturally enforces the Exhor- 
tation of being frequent in this Duty. 

i 9. But we are not only to confider how often.but how 

well we perform it. Now to do it well, 

To ajk nothing we are to refpecl, firft, the matter of 

unlawful. our Prayers, to look that we afk nothing 

that is unlawful, as Revenge upon our 

Enemies, or the like • Secondly, the manner, and that 

muft be firft, in Faith ; we muft believe, 

To ajk inFaitb. that if we afk as we ought, God will 

either give us the thing we afk for, or 

elfe fomething which he fees better for us : And then, 


Sund. 5. The Duty o/Pr aye r, 83 

Secondly, in Humility ; we mull acknowledge our felves 
utterly unworthy of any of thofe good 
Things we beg for, and therefore fue for In Humility. 
them only for Chriil's fake. Thirdly, 
with Attention ; we muft mind what we are about, and 
not fuffer ourfelves to be carried away to 
the thought of other Things. I told you With Atten- 
at the firlt, that Prayer was the Bufinefs tion. 
of the Soul, but if our Minds be wan- 
dring,it v> the Work only of the Tongue and Lips, which 
makes it in God's Account no better than vain Babling, 
and fo will never bring a Bleiling on us. Nay, as Jacob 
faid to his Mother, Gen. xxvii. 12. it will be more 
likely to bring a Curfe on us than a Blefling j for it is a 
profaning one of the mod folemn Parts of God's Ser- 
vice, it is a Piece of Hypocrify, the drawing near to him 
ivitb our Lips, ivhen out- Hearts are far from bim, and a 
great flighting and delpifing that dreadful Majefty we 
come before; and as to ourfelves, it is a mod ridiculous, 
Folly, that we, who come to God upon fuch weighty 
Errands, as are all the Concernments of our Souls and 
Bodies, (hould in the midft: forget our Bufinefs, and purfue 
every the lighted thing that either our own vain Fancies, 
or the Devil, whofe Bufinefs it is here to hinder us, can 
offer to us. It is juft as if a Malefaclor, that comes to 
fue for his Life to the King, mould in the midit of his 
Supplication happen to efpy a Butterfly, and then mould 
Lave his Suit, and run a Chace after that Butterfly: Would 
you not think it a Pity a Pardon Ihculd be call avva y upon 
fo wretched a Creature? And fure it will be as unreason- 
able to exped, that God mould attend and grant thofe"- 
Suits of ours, which we do not at all confider our felvcs. 
20. This wandring in Prayer is a thing we are much 
concerned to arm our felves againf;, it 
being that to which we are naturally Helps aga'mfi 
wonderful pror.e. To that End it will ibandring. 
be neceflary, Firir, to pofiefs our Llearts 
at our coming to Prayers with the Greatnefs of that Ma- 
jelly we are to approach, that fo we ^ r , . ~ 
may dread to be vain and trifling in his ^'^Tf'f™ of 
Prefence.Secondly,we are to confider the Goa ' **&'&' 
E 3 great 

r \ 

$4 ?be Whole Duty of Man. 

great Concernment of the Things we are to afk, fome 

whereof are fuch, that if we fhould 
Our Needs. not be heard, we are of all Creatures 

the moft miferable; and yet this Wan- 
dring is the way to keep us from being heard. Thirdly, 

we are to beg God's Aid in this parti- 
Prayer,far cular ; and therefore, when thou fetteft 
God's Aid. to Prayer, let thy firft Petition be for 

this Grace of Attention. 

2 1 . Laftly, be as watchful, as is poffible, over thy 

Heart in time of Prayer, to keep out all 
Watchfulnefs. wandring Thoughts ; or, if any have 

gotten in, let them not find Entertain- 
ment ; but as foon as ever thou difcerneft them, fuffer 
them not to abide one Moment, but call them out with 
Indignation, and beg God's Pardon for them. And if 
thou doft thus fincerely, and diligently ftrive againft 
them, either God will enable thee in fome meafure to 
overcome, or he will in his IVlercy pardon thee what 
thou canft not prevent ; but if it be through thy own 
Negligence, thou art to expect neither, fo long as that 
Negligence continues. 

22. In the fourth Place, we mull look our Prayers be 

with Zeal and Earneftnefs ; it is not e- 
With Zeal. nough that we fo far attend them, as. 

barely to know what it is we fay, but 
we muft put forth all the Affection and Devotion of our 
Souls, and that according to the feveral Parts of Prayer 
before- mentioned. It is not the cold, faint Requeft 
that will ever obtain from Gcd ; we fee it will not from 
our felves ; for if a Beggar fhould afk Relief from us, and 
do it in fuch a fcornful Manner, that he feemed indiffe- 
rent whether he had it, or no, we fhould think he had 
either little Want or great Pride, and fo have no Heart 
to give him. Now furely, the things we afk from God 
are fo much above the Rate of an ordinary Alms, that 
we can never expect they fhould be given to flight and 
heartlefs Petitions. No more, in like manner, will our 
Sacrifice of Praife and Thankfgiving ever be accepted 
by him, if it be not offered from a Heart truly affected 
with theSenfe of his Mercies ; 'tis but a kind of formal 


Sund. 5. TheDuTY of Prayer. $5 

complimenting, which will never be approved by him, 
who requires the Heart, and not the Lips only. And 
the like may be faid of all the other Parts of Prayer. 
Therefore be careful, when thou draweft nigh to God 
in Prayer, to raife up thy Soul to the higheft Pitch of 
Zeal and Earneftnefs thou art able. And becaufe of thy 
felf alone thou art not able to do any thing, befeech God 
that he will inflame thy Heart with this heavenly Fire of 
Devotion ; and when thou haft obtained it, beware that 
thou neither quench it by any wilful Sin, nor let it go 
out again, for want of ftirring it up and employing it. 

23. Fifthly, we mull pray with Purity, I mean, we 
muft purge our Hearts from all Affections 

to Sin. This is furely the Meaning of With Purity. 
the Apoftle, i Tim. ii.8. when he com- 
mands Men to lift up holy Hands in Prayer; and he there 
inftances in one fpecial Sort of Sin, Wratb and Doubt- 
ing ; where, by doubting, is meant, thofe unkind Dif- 
putes and Contentions which are fo common amongft 
Men. And furely he that cherifhes that, or any other 
Sin in his Heart, can never lift up thofe holy Hands, 
which are required in this Duty. And then fure his 
Prayers, be they never fo many or earned, will little 
avail him ; the Pfalmift will tell him, the mall not be 
heard, Pfal lxvi. 18. If I regard Iniquity in my heart ', 
the Lord will not hear me. Nay, boiomon xv'iW tell him 
yet worfe, that his Prayers are not only vain, bat abo- 
minable, Ptov. xv. 8. The Sacrifice of the nuicked is an 
Abomination to the Lord. And thus to have our Prayers 
turned into Sin, is one of the heavier! Things that can 
befal any Man. We fee it fet down in that fad Cata 
logueof Curfes, Pfal cix. 7. Therefore let us not be 
fo cruel to ourfelves, as to pull it upon our own Heads, 
which we certainly do, if we offer up Prayers from an 
impure Heart. 

24. In the lad Place, we mufl direft our Prayers to 
right Ends ; and that either in refpeft of 

the Prayer itfelf, or the Things we pray To right Ends. 
for. Firtt, we iv.uft pray, not to gain 
the Praife of Devotion amongft Men, like thofe Hy- 
pocrites, Matth. vi. 5. nor yet only for Company or 
E 4 Fafhion* 

26 The Whole Duty of Man. 

Falhion-fake to do as others do ; but we muft do it» 
Firft, as an AcY of Worfhip to God ; Secondly, as an 
Acknowledgment, that he is that great Spring, from 
whence alone we expect all good Things j and Thirdly, 
to gain a Supply of our own or others Needs. Then m 
refpecl of the Things prayed for, we muft be fure to 
have no ill Aims upon them ; we muft not afk,that we 
may confume it upon our Lufts, James iv. 3. as thofe do, 
who pray for Wealth, that they may live in Riot and 
Excefs ; and for Power, that they may be able to mif- 
chieve their Enemies, and the like. But our End in all 
muft be God's Glory firft, and next that, our own and 
others Salvation ; and all other Things muft be taken 
in only as they tend to thofe, which they can never do, 
if we abufe them to Sin. I have now done with that 
£rft Part of Worfhip, that of the Soul. 

25. The other is that of the Body -, and that is no- 

thing dk but fuch humble and reverent 
Bodily War- Geftures in our Approaches to God, as 

Jbip, may both exprefs the inward Reverence 

of our Souls, and may alfopay him fome 
Tribute from our very Bodies, with which the Apoftle 
commands us to glorify God, as well as with our Souls ; 
and good Reafon, fince he hath created and redeemed 
the one as well as the other. Whenfoever therefore thou 
ofFereft thy Prayers unto God, let it be with all Lowli- 
nefs, as well of Body as of Mind, according to that of 
the Pfalmift, PfaL xcv. 6. O come, let us ivorjbip, let 

' us fall down and kneel before the Lord our Maker. 

26. The Ninth Duty to God is Repentance : 

That this is a Duty to God we are taught 
'Repentance. by the Apoftle, ABs xx. 21. where, 

fpeaking of Repentance, he ftiles it 
Repentance towards God. And there is good Reafon this 
fhould be a Duty to him, fince there is no Sin we com- 
mit, but is either mediately or immediately againfthim. 
For though there be Sins both againft our felves and 
our Neighbours,yet, they being forbidden by God, they 
are alfo Breaches of his Commandments, and fo Sins 
againft them. 


Sund. 5. Of Repentance, &e, Sy 

This Repentance is, in fliort, nothing but a turning 
from Sin to God, the cafting off all our 
former Evils, and, inftead thereof, con- A turning 
ftantly pra&ifing all thofe Chriftian Du- from Sin to 
ties, which God requires of us. And God. 
this is fo neceffary a Duty, that without 
it we certainly perifh : V/e have ChrilVs Word for it, 
Luke xiii. 5 . Except ye repent ', ye /ball all likevvife perifo. 

27. The Direclions for performing the feveral Parts 
of this Duty have been already given in the Prepara- 
tion to the Lord's Supper ; and thither I refer the 
Reader. Only I ihall here mind him, that 

it is not to be look'd upon as a Duty limes for 
to be praclifed only at the Time of Re- this Duty. 
ceiving the Sacrament. For this being 
the only Remedy againft the Poifon of Sin, we muft re- 
new it as often as we repeat our Sins, that 
is, daily. 1 mean, we muft every Day re- Dai'y. 
pent of the Sins of the Day. For what 
Chrift faith of other Evils, is true alfo of this, Sufficient to 
the Day is the Evil thereof '; we have Sins enough of 
each Day to exercife a daily Repentance, and therefore 
every Man muft thus daily call himfelf to Account. 

28. But as it is in Accounts, they who conftantly fet 
down their daily Expences, have yet fome fet Times of 
cafting up the whole Sum, as at the End 

of the Week, or Month ; fo mould it At fet times. 
alfo be here : We mould fet afide fome 
Times to humble our fclves folemnly before God for the 
Sins, not of that Day only, but of our whole Lives ; - 
and the frequenter thefe Times are, the better. For 
the oftner we thus call: up our Accounts with God, and 
fee what vaft Debts we run in to him, the more ' 
humbly fhail we think of our felves, and the more (hall 
third after his Mercy ; which two are the fpecial 
Things that moft qualify us for his Pardon. He there- 
fore that can affign himfelf one Day in the Week for " 
this Purpofe, will take a thriving Courfe for his Soul : 
Or, if any Man's State of ', ife be fo bufy, as not to 
afford him to do it fo often, let him yet come as near 
E 5 to 

88 The "Whole Duty of Man. 

to that Frequency, as is poflible for him, remembring 
always, that none of his worldly Employments can 
bring him in near fo gainful a Return, as this fpiritual 
one will do : And therefore it is very ill Hufbandry to 
purfue them, to the Neglect of this. 

29. Befides thefe conftant Times, there are likewife 

occafional times for the Performance of 
In the time of this Duty j fuch efpecially are the times 
Jffliclion. of Calamity and Affliction ; for when 

any fuch befal us, we are to look on it as 
a Meffage fent from Heaven to call us to this Duty; and 
therefore mull never neglect it when we are thus fum- 
moncd to it ; left we be of the Number of them, who 
defpife the Chajiifements of the Lord, Heb. xii. 5. 

30. There is yet another Time of Repentance, which, 

in the Practice of Men, hath gotten away 
Al Death, the Cuftom from all thofe, and that is, the 

time of Death, which, it is true, is a time 
very fit to renew our Repentance, but fure not proper 
to begin it ; and it is a moft defperate Madnefs for Men 
to defer it till then. For, to fay the mildefl of it, it is the 
venturing our Souls upon fuch miferable Uncertainties, as 
no wife Man would truft with any thingof the lead Value. 
Fox, firft, I would afk any Man that means to repent 
at his Death, how he knows he (hall have 
The Danger of an Hour's time for it ? Do we not daily 
deferring it fee Men matched away in a Moment ? 
till then. And who can tell that it (hall not be his 

own Cafe ? But, fecondly, fuppofe he 
have a more leifureiy Death, that fomeDifeafe give him 
Warning of its Approach, yet perhaps he will not un- 
derftand that Warning, but will (till flatter hiinfelf, as 
very often fick People do, with Hopes of Life to the 
lait ; and fo his Death may be fudden to him, though it 
Comes by never fo flow Degrees. But again, thirdly, 
if he do difcern his Danger, yet how is he fure he 
{hall then be able to repent? Repentance is a Grace of 
God, not at our Command ; and it is juft and ufual with 
God, when Men have a long time refufed and rejected 
that Grace, refifted all his Calls and Invitations toCon- 
verfion and Amendment, to give them over at laft to the 


Sund. 5. O/Repent ance, &c. 89 

Hardnefs of their own Hearts, and not to afford them 
any more of that Grace they have fo defpifed. Yet 
fuppofe, in the fourth place, that God, in his infinite Pa- 
tience,fhould ftill continue the Offer of that Grace to thee, 
yet thou that haft refitted, itmay be thirty, 
or forty, or fifty Years together, how The Difad- 
knoweft thou, that thou (halt put off that vantages of a 
Habit of Refiftance upon a fudden, and Death-Bed 
makeufe of the Grace afforded? Itisfure Repentance, 
thou haft many more Advantages towards 
the doing it now, than thou wilt have then. 

31. Forfirft, the longer Sin hath kept Poffeffion of 
the Heart, the harder it will be to drive 
it out. It is true, if Repentance were no- The Cufiomof 
thing but a prefent ceafing from the Ads Sin. 
of Sir, the Death-bed werefitteft for it, 
for then we are difabled from committing moft Sins ; 
but I have formerly (hewed you, Repentance contains 
much more than fo ; there muft be in it a fincere Hatred 
of Sin, and Love of God. Now how unlikely is it that 
he, which hath all his Life loved Sin, cheriihed it in his 
Bofom, and, on the contrary, abhorred God and Good- 
nefs, mould in an inftant quite change his Affeclions, 
hate that Sin he loved, and love God and Goodnefs, 
which before he utterly hated ? 

3 2. And fecondly, the bodily Pains that Bodily Pains. 
attend a Death bed will diftrac! thee, and 
make thee unable to attend the Work of Repentance, 
which is a Bufinefsof fuch Weight and Difficulty, as will 
employ all our Powers, even when they are at the freftieft. 
33. Confider thofe Difod vantages thou muft then 
ftruggle with, and then tell me, what Hope 
there is thou (halt then do that, which Danger of 
now upon much eafier Terms thou wilt Unfincerity. 
not ? But, in the third Place, there is a 
J)anger behind beyond all thefe, and that is, that the 
Repentance, which Death drives a Man to, will not be 
a true Repentance ; for in fuch a Cafe it is plain, it is 
only the Fear of Hell puts him on it, which, though it 
may be a good Beginning, where there is time after to 
perfect it, yet, where it goes alone, it can never avail 


90 The Whole Duty of Man. 

for Salvation. Now that Death-bed Repentances are 
often only of this fort, is too likely, whe.n it is obferved, 
that many Men, who have feemed to repent when they 
have thought Death approaching, have yet, after it hath 
pleafed God to reftore them to Health, been as wicked 
(perhaps worfe) as ever they were before ; which (hews 
plainly, that there was no real Change in them ; and then 
furely, had fuch a Man died in that feeming Repentance, 
God, who tries the Hearty would not have accepted it, 
which he faw was unfincere. When all thefe Dangers 
are laid together, it will furely appear a moft defperate 
Adventure for any Man to trufl to a Death-bed Repen- 
• tance. Nor is it ever the lefs for that Example of the 
penitent Thief, LukexxWi. 43. which is by many fomuch 
depended on. For it is fure, his Cafe and ours differ 
widely ; he had never heard of Chrift before, and fo more 
could not be expected of him* than to embrace him as 
foon as he was tendered to him : But we have had him 
offered, nay, preft upon us from our Cradles, and yet have 
rejected him. But if there were not this Difference, it is 
but a faint Hope can be raifed only from a fingle Ex- 
ample, and another we find not in the whole Bible. The 
Jfraelites, we read, were fed with Manna from Heaven; 
butwould you not think him flarkmad, that fhould, out 
of Expectation of the like, neglect to provide himfeifany 
Food ? Yet it is full as reafonable to depend upon this 
Example as the other. I conclude all in the Words of 
the wife Man, Ecclef. xii. 1. Remember thy Creator in 
the Days of thy Youth , before the evil Days come. 

34. To this Duty of Repentance Fafiing is very pro- 
per to be annexed . The Scripture ufually 
Tajling. joins them together. Among the Jews 

the great Day of Atonement was to be 
kept With Fafiing, as you may fee by comparing Levit* 
xvi. 29. with Jfaiah lviii. 5. and this by God's efpe- 
cial Appointment. And in the Prophets, when the 
People are called on to repent and humble themfelves, 
they are alfo called on to fafl. Thus it is, Joel ii. 12. 
Therefore now thus faith the Lord, 7urn ye unto me 
nuitb all your Heart, with Fafing, and with Weeping, 
&c. Yea, fo proper hath Fafiing been accounted to 


Sund. 5. O/Fasting, &V. 91 

Humiliation, that we fee even wicked Ahab would not 
omit it in his, i Kings xxi. 27. nor the Heathen A7»*- 
wites in theirs, Jonah iii. 5. Nor is it lefs fit, or lefs 
acceptable fince Chrifl, than it was before him ; for we 
fee,hefuppofes it as a Duty fometimes to be performed, 
when he gives Directions toavoid Vain glory in it, Matt, 
vi. 6. and alfo affures us, that if it be performed as it 
ought, not to pleafe Men but God, it will furely be re- 
warded by him. And accordingly we rind it pra&ifed by 
the Saints, Annafer<ved GodwitbFajling and Prayer : Luk. 
ii. 3 7. Where it is obfervable,rhatit is reckoned as a Ser- 
vice of God, fit to be joined with Prayers. And the Chri- 
flians ofthefiril times were generally very frequent in the 
Practice of it. Now, though Failing be efpecially proper to 
atimeofHumiliation,yet it is not fo reftrainedto it, but it 
may befeafonablewhenfoever we have any extraordinary 
thing to requeft from God. Thus, when E fiber was to en- 
deavour the Deliverance of her People from Deflru&ion, 
Jhe and all the Jews kept a folemn Fall, EJib.iv. 1 6. And 
thus, when Paul and Barnabas were to be ordained Apoflles, 
there was Falling joined to Prayer, Ads xiii. 3. And fo 
it will be very fit for us, whenfoever we have need of any 
extraordinary Directions or Affillance from God, whe- 
ther concerning our temporal or fpiritual Concernments, 
thus to quicken our Prayers by Failing. But above all 
Occafions, this of Humiliation feems mofl to require it ; 
for befides the Advantages of kindling our Zeal, which 
is never more neceffary than when we beg for Pardon 
of Sins, Falling carries in it fomewhat of Revenge, 
which is reckon'd as a fpecial Part of Repentance, zCor. 
vii. 1 1 . For by denying our Bodies the Refrelhment of 
our ordinary Food,we do inflidl fomewhat 
of Punifhmentupon ourfelves for our for- Fafiing a Re- 
mer Exce(Tes,or whatever other Sins we njenge upon 
at that time accufe our felves of; which bur felves. 
is a proper Effect of that Indignation, 
which eve-y Sinner ought to have againfl himfelf. And 
truly, he that is fo tender of himfelf, that he can ne^er 
find in his Heart fo much as to mifs a Meal, by way of 
Punifhment for his Faults, fhews he is not much fallen 
out with himfelf for committing them ; and fo wants that 


gz The Whole Ducy of Mm. 

Indignation, which the Apoftle, in the afore-named 
Texts mentions as a Part of true Repentance. 

35. There is no doubt, but fuch holy Revenges up- 
on ourfelves for Sins are very accep- 
Such Revenges table to God; yet we mud not think 
acceptable that either thofe, or any thing elfe we 

nvitb God. can do, jean make Satisfaction for our 

Offences ; for that nothing but the Blood 
of Chrift can do. And therefore on that, and not on 
any of our Performances we muft. de- 
Tet no Sat if- pend for Pardon. Yet fince that Blood 
faction for mail never be applied to any but penitent 

Sins. Sinners, we are as much concerned to 

bring forth all the Fruits of Repentance, 
as if our Hopes depended on them only. 

36. How often this Duty of Falling is to be perfor- 
med, we have no Direction in Scripture. 
Times ofFaft- That muft be allotted by Men's own Pie- 
ing. ty, according as their Health, or other 

Confiderations will allow. But as it is 
in Humiliation, the frequenter Returns we have of fet 
times for it, the better ; fo it is like wife in Failing, the 
oftner, the better; fo it be not hurtful either to our 
Healths, or to fome other Duty requir'd of us. Nay, 
perhaps Fafting may help fome Men to more of thofe 
times for Humiliation, than they would otherwife gain. 
For perhaps there are fome, who cannot, without a 
manifeft Hindrance to their Calling, allow a whole Day 
to that Work, yet fuch an one may at Jeaft afford that 
time he would otherwife fpend in eating : And fo Fading 
will be doubly ufeful towards fuch a Man's Eiumiliation, 
•both by helping him in the Duty, and gaining him 
time for it. 

37. 1 have now gone through the firft Branch of our 
Duty toGod, to wit, the acknowledging 
Second Branch him for our God. The fecond is, the 
of our Duty to having no other. Of which I need fay 
God. little, as it is a forbidding of that groffer 

fort of Heathenifti Idolatry, the Worfhip- 
ping of Idols ; which, though it were once common in 
the World, yet is now fo rare, that it is not likely 
any, that (hall read this, will be concerned in it. Only 

I muft 

Sund. 6. The Duty 0/ Sobriety. 93 

I mud fay, that to pay Divine Worfhip to any Crea- 
ture, be it Saint or Angel, yea, or the Image of Chritt 
himfelf, is a Tranfgrefiion againft this fecond Branch 
of our Duty to God ; it being the imparting that to a 
Creature, which is due only to God, and therefore is 
ftriftly to be abftained from. 

38. But there is another fort of Idolatry, of which 
we are generally guilty, and that is, when 
we pay thofe Affeclions of Love, Fear, Inward Ido- 
Truft, and the like, to any Creature in latry. 
a higher Degree than we do to God : For 
that is thefetting up that thing, whatfoever it is, for our 
God. And this inward kind of Idolatry is that which 
provokes God to Jealoufy, as well as the outward of 
worshipping an Idol. I might enlarge upon this, but 
becaufe fome feverals of it have been touched on in the 
former Difcourfe, I fuppofe it needlefs ; and therefore 
fhall now proceed to the fecond Head of Duty, that to 


Duty to our Se lves : Of Sobriety •, Of Hu- 
mility -, the great Sin of Pride ; Of Vain- 
glory, the Danger 1 Folly \ the Means to 
prevent it : Of Meekncfs, &c. 

Sect. i. 'npHIS Duty to Our Selves is by St. 
X Paul, in the forementioned Text, Tit. 
ii. 12. fummedup in this one Word,^- 
berly. Now by \$oberly~\ is meant our Duty to our 
keeping within thofe due Bounds which Selves. 
God hath fet us. My Bufinefs will there- 
fore be to tell you what are the Particulars of this So- 
briety : And that, firft, in refpecl of the Soul ; fecond- 
ly, in refpeft of the Body. The Sobriety of the Soul 
Hands in right governing its Paflions and Affeitions ; 
and to that are many Virtues required, I fhall give 
you the Particulars of them, 

2. The 

94 The Whole Duty 0/Man. 

2. The firft of them is Humility, which may well 

have the prime Place, not only in re- 
Humility. fpec"l of the Excellency of the Virtue, 

but alfo of its Ufefulnefs towards the 
obtaining of all the reft; this being the Foundation on 
which all others muft be built. And he that hopes to 
gain them without this, will prove but like that foolifh 
Builder Chrift fpeaks of, Luke vi. 49. Who built bis Houfe 
on the Sand. Of the Humility towards God, I have al- 
ready fpoken, and (hewed the Necemty of it. I am 
now to fpeak of Humility, as it concerns ourfelves, 
which will be found no lefs neceiTary than the former. 

3. This Humility is of two forts, the firft is, the 
having a mean and low Opinion of our felves ; the fe- 
cond is, the being content that others mould have fo of 
us. The flrft of thefe is contrary to Pride, the other 
to Vain- glory. And that both thefe are abfolutely ne- 
ceiTary to Chriftians, I am now to fhow you ; which 
will, I conceive, beft be done, by laying before you-, 
firft, the Sin ; fecondly, the Danger ; thirdly, the Fol- 
ly of the contrary Vices. 

4. And firft, for Pride ; the Sin of it is fo great, that 

it caft the Angels out of Heaven ; and 
The great Sin therefore, if we may judge of Sin by 
of Pride. the Punifhment, it was not only the firjt, 

but the greateft Sin, that ever the De- 
vil himfelf hath been guilty of : But we need no better 
proof of the heinoufnefs of it, than the extreme hate- 
fulnefs of it to God, which, befides that Inftance of his 
punifhing the Devil, we may frequently find in the 
Scriptures, Prov. xvi. 5. Every one that is proud in 
Heart, is an abomination to the Lo- d. And again, Chap. 
vi. 16. where there is mention of feveral things the Lord 
hates, a proud Look is fet as the firft of them ; fo Jam. 
iv. 6. God re/ijleth the proud ; and divers other Texts 
there are to the fame purpofe j which mews the great 
Hatred God bears to this Sin of Pride. Now fince it is 
certain, God, who is all Goodnefs, hates nothing but as 
it is Evil, it muft needs follow, that where God hates in 
fo great a Degree, there mull be a great Degree of Evil. 

5. But,. 

Sund. 6. The Sin of Pride, &c. 95 

5. But, Secondly, Pride is not only very finful, but 
very dangerous; and that, firft, in re- 
fpedl of drawing us to other fins ; fe- The Danger of 
condly, of betraying us to Punilhments. drawing into 
Firft, Pride draws us to other Sins, other Sins. 
wherein it (hews it felf indeed to be the 
direct contrary to Humility ; for as that is the Root of all 
Virtue, fo is this of all Vice. For he that is proud fets him- 
felf up as his own God, and fo can never fubmit himfelf 
to any other Rules or Laws than what he makes to him- 
felf. The ungodly , fays the Pfalmift, is fo proud, that he 
careth not for God, Pfal. x. 4. Where you fee, it is his 
Pride that makes him defpife God. And when a Man is 
once come to that, he is prepared for the Commiffion of 
all Sins. I might inftance in a Multitude of particular 
Sins, that naturally flow from this of Pride; as, firft, 
Anger ; which the wife Man fets as the Effect of Pride, 
Pro<v. xxi. 24. calling it, proud Wrath; Secondly, Strife 
and Contention ; which he again notes to be the Off- fpring 
of Pride, Prov. xiii. 10. Only by Pride cometh Conten- 
tion. And both thefe are indeed moft natural Effects of 
Pride ; for he that thinks very highly of himfelf, expecls 
much Submiffion and Observance from others ; and there- 
fore cannot but rage and quarrel whenever he thinks it 
not fufficiently paid. It would be infinite to mention ail 
the Fruits of this bitter Root ; I mall name but one more, 
and that is, that Pride not only betrays us to many fins, 
but alfo makes them incurable in us, for it hinders the 
Working of all Remedies. 

6. Thofe Remedies muft either come from God, or 
Man ,• if from God, they muft be either 
in the Way of Meeknefs and Gentle- Frujirating of 
nefs, or elfe of Sharpnefs and Punifh- Remedies. 
ment. Now if God by his Goodnefs ef- 
fay to lead a proud Man to Repentance, he quite mif- 
takes God's Meaning, and thinks all the Mercies he re- 
ceives are but the Reward of his cwn Defert ; and fo 
long, 'tis fure, he will never think he needs Repentance. 
But if, on the other Side, God ufe him more fharply, and 
lay Afflictions and Punifhments upon him, thofe in a 
proud Heart work nothing but Murmurings and hating 


96 The Whole Duty of Man. 

of God, as if he did him injury in thofe Puniftiments. 
As for the Remedies that can be ufed by Man, they 
again muft be either by way of Correction, orExhorta- 
tion. Corrections from Man will fure never work more 
on a proud heart, than thofe from God ; for he that can 
think God unjuft in them, will much rather believe it 
of Man. And Exhortations will do as little : For let a 
proud Man be admoniihed, though never fo mildly and 
lovingly, he looks on it as a Difgrace. And therefore, 
inftead of confefling or amending the Fault, he falls to 
reproaching his Reprover, as an over-hufy orcenforious 
Perfon ; and for that great and moft precious Aft of 
JCindnefs, looks on him as his Enemy. And now one., 
that thus ftubbornly refifts all Means of Cure, muft be 
concluded in a moft dangerous Eftate. 

7. But befides this Danger of fin, I told you there 
was another, that of Punifhment; and of 
Betraying to this there will need little Proof, when 
Punifhment. it is confidered, that God is the proud 
Man's profefTed Enemy, that he hates 
and refifts him, as appeared in the Texts fore-cited ; 
And then there can be little doubt, that he, which hath 
fo mighty an Adverfary, fhall be fure to fmart for it. 
Yet befides this general Ground of Conclufion, it may 
not be amifs to mention fome of thofe Texts, which 
particularly threaten this Sin, as, Prov. xvi. 18. Pride 
goetb before DejlrucJion, and an haughty Spirit before a 
Fall. Again, Pro<v. xvi. 5. Every one that is proud in 
Hearty is an Abomination to the Lord ; Though Hand 
join in Hand, yet he Jhall not be unpunijhed. The De- 
cree it feems is unalterable : And whatever Endeavours 
are ufed to preferve the proud Man, they are but vain, 
for he fhall not go unpunished. And this is very re- 
markable in the Story of Nebuchadnezzar, Dan. iv. 
who, though a King, the greateft in the world, yet 
for his Piide was driven from among Men, to dwell 
and feed with Beafts. And it is moft frequently feen, 
that this fin meets with very extraordinary Judgments, 
even in this Life. But if it fhould not, let not the proud 
Man think that lie hath efcaped God's Vengeance, for 
it is fure there will be a moft fad Reckoning in the 


Sund. 6. The Sin of Pride, 6?<\ 97 

next ; for if God fpared not the Angels for this Sin, 
but caft them into Hell, let noMan hope to fpeed better. 

8. In the third Place, I am to ftiew you the great 
Folly of this Sin ; and to do that, it will 

be neceflary toconfider thefeveral Things The Folly. 
whereof Men ufe to be proud ; they are of 
three Sorts, either thofe which we call the Goods of Na- 
ture, or the Goods of Fortune, or the Goods of Grace. 

9. By the Goods of Nature, I mean Beauty, Strength, 
Wit, and the like; and the being proud 

of any of thefe is a huge Folly ; for, firft, In refpeft of 
we are very apt to miftake and think the Goods of 
our felves handfome, or witty, when Nature. 
we are not ; and then there cannot be 
a more ridiculous Folly than to be proud of what we 
have not ; and fuch every one efteems it in another Man, 
though he never fuppofes it his own Cafe ; and fo never 
difcerns it in himfelf. And therefore there is nothing more 
defpicable among all Men, than a proud Fool ; yet no 
Man, that entertains high Opinions of his own Wit, but is 
in danger to be thus deceived, a Man's own Judgment of 
himfelf being of all others the leait to be trulted. But, Se- 
condly, iuppofe we be not out in our judgment, yet what is 
there in any of thefe natural Endowments, which is worth 
the being proud of, there being fcarce any of them which 
fome Creature or other hath not in a greater Degree than 
Man ? How much does the whitenefsof the Lilly, and the 
rednefsof the rofe exceed the white and red of the faireft 
Face ? What a multitude of Creatures is there that far fur- 
pafs a man in Strength and Swiftnefs? And divers others 
there are, which, as far as concerns any ufeful End of 
theirs, aft much more wifely than mod of us ; and are 
therefore fometimes in Scripture propofed to us by way of 
Example. It is therefore furely great Unreafonablenefs 
for us to think highly of our felves, for fuch Things 
as are common to us with Beads and Plants. But, 
Thirdly, if they were as excellent as we fancy them, yet 
they are not at all durable, they are impaired and loft 
by fundry means ; a Phrenzy will deftroy the rareft 
Wit ; a Sicknefs decay the freftieft Beauty, the greateft 

Strength ; 

98 The Whole Duty of Man. 

Strength ; or, however, old Age will be fure to do all. 
And therefore to be proud of them is again a Folly in 
this refpeft. But, lailly, whatever they are, we gave 
them not to our felves. No Man can think he did any 
thing towards the procuring his natural Beauty or Wit, 
and fo can with no Reafon value himfelf for them. 

10. In the fecond Place, the Folly is as great to be 

proud of the Goods of Fortune ; by 
the Goods of them, 1 mean Wealth, and Honour, 
Fortune. and the like; for it is lure they add no- 

thing of true worth to the Man ; fome- 
what of outward Pomp and Bravery they may help him 
to, but that makes no Change in the Perfon. You may 
load an Afs with Money, or deck him with rich Trap- 
pings, yet ftill you will not make him a whit the nobler 
kind of Beafl by either of them. Then Secondly, thefe 
are things we have no hold of, they vanifh many times 
e're we are aware : He that is rich to day, may be. poor 
to morrow ; and then wili'be the lefs pitied by all in his 
Poverty, the prouder he was when he was rich . Thirdly, 
We have them all but as Stewards, to lay out for our Ma- 
ker's Ufe, and therefore fhould rather think how to make 
our Accounts, than pride our felves in our Receipts. 
Laftly, whatever of thefe we have, they, as well as the 
former, are not owing to our felves ; but if they be lawful- 
ly gotten, we owe them only to God, whofe Blefling it i» 
that maketh rich, Pro<v. x. 22. If unlawfully, we have 
them upon fuch terms, that we have very little Reafon 
to brag of them. And thus you fee in thefe feveral Re- 
fpedfcs, the Folly of this fecond fort of Pride. 

1 1 . The third is that of Goods of Grace ; that is* 

any Virtue a Man hath. And here I 
Ihe Goods of cannot fay, but the things are very va- 
Grace. luable, they being infinitely more pre- 

cious than all the World ; yet neverthe- 
lefs, this is of all the reft the higher! Folly. And that 
not only in the foregoing Refpecl, that we help not 
our felves to it, Grace being of all things moft imme- 
diately God's Work in us j but efpecially in this, that 
the being proud of Grace is the fure Way to lofe it. 


Sund. 6. The Sin of Pride, &V. 99 

God, who gives Grace to the humble, will take it from 
the proud.; for if, as we fee in the Parable, Mattb. xxv, 
28. the Talent was taken from him who had only put it 
to noUfe at all, how fhall he hope to have it continued 
to him, that hath put it to fo ill, that, inftead of trading 
with it for God, hath trafficked with it for Satan ? And as 
he will lofe the Grace for the future, fo he will lofe all 
the Reward of it for the time pall. For let a Man have 
done never fo many good Acts, yet if he be proud of 
them, that Pride fhall be charged on him to his Deltrudlion, 
but the Good fhall never be remembred to his Reward. 
And this proves it to be a mod wretched Folly to be proud 
of Grace : It is like that of Children, that pull thofeThings 
in Pieces they are moft fond of, but yet much worfe than 
that of theirs ; for we not only lofe the Thing (and that the 
moft precious that can be imagined) but we muftalfo be 
eternally puni(hed for doing fo, there being nothing that 
fhall be fofadl/reckoned for in the next World as the Abufe 
of Grace: And certainly there can be no greater Abufe 
of it, than to make it ferve for an End fo direcliy con- 
trary to that for which it was given ; it being given to make 
us humble, not proud ; to magnify God, not our felves. 
i 2. Having mewed you thus much of this Sin, I fup- 
pofe it will appear very necelfary to be 
efc hewed ; to which Purpofe it will firft Means of Hu- 
be ufeful to confider what hath been al- mility, 
ready faid concerning it, and that fo fe- 
rioufly, as may work in thee not fome flight Difiike, 
but a deep and irreconcileable Hatred of the Sin. Se- 
condly, to be very watchful over thine own Heart, that 
it cherifh not any Beginnings of it; never fuffer it to 
feed on the Fancy of thy own Worth ; but, whenever 
any fuch thought arifes, beat it down immediately with 
the Remembrance of fome of thy Follies or Sins, and fo 
make this very Motion of Pride an Occafion of Humi- 
lity. Thirdly, never to compare thy felf with thofe 
thou thinkeit more foolifh or wicked than thy felf, that 
{q thou may ft, like the Pbarifee, Luke xviii. 11. extol 
thy felf for being the better; but if thou wilt compare, 
do it with the wife and godly ; aiid then thou wilt find 


ioo The Whole Duty of Man. 

thou corned fo far fhort as may help to pull down thy 
high Efteem of thy felf. Laftly, to be very earneft in 
Prayer, that God would root out all Degrees of this fin in 
thee, and make thee one of thofe poor in Spirit, Matt. v. 3 . 
to whom the Bleffing, even of Heaven it felf, is promifed. 

13. The fecond Contrary to Humility, I told you 

was Vain-glory ,• that is, a great Thirft 
Vain-glory, after the Praife of Men. And, firft, that 
this is a fin, I need prove no other- 
The Sin. wife than by the Words of our Saviour, 

John v. 44. How can ye believe, which 
receive Honour one of another? Where it appears, that 
it is not only a fin, but fuch a one, as hinders the re- 
ceiving of Chrift into the Heart ; for fo Believing there 
fignifies. This then, in the fecond Place, mews you 
likewife the great Dangeroufnefs of this fin ; for if it 
be that which keeps Chrift out of the 
'The Danger. Heart, it is fure, it brings infinite Dan- 
ger ; fince all our Safety, all our Hope 
of efcaping the Wrath to come, ftands in receiving him. 
But befides the Authority of this Text, common Expe- 
rience fhews, that where-ever this fin hath PofTeiTion, 
it endangers Men to fall into many others. For he that 
fo confiders the Praife of Men, that he muft at no 
Hand part with it, when- ever the greateft fins come to 
be inFafhion and Credit (as, God knows, many are novv- 
a-days) he will be fure to commit them, rather than 
run the Difgrace of being too fingle and precife. I doubt 
there are many Confciences can witnefs the truth of this, 
fo that I need fay no more to prove the Danger of this fin. 

14. The third thing I am to (hew, is the Folly of 

it ; and that will appear, firft, by con- 
7he Folly. fidering what it is we thus hunt after ; 

nothing but a little Air, a Blaft, the 
Breath of Men, it brings us in nothing of real Advan- 
tage, for I am made never the wifer nor the better for a 
Man's faying, I am wife and good. Befides, if I am 
commended, it muft be either before my Face, or be- 
hind my Back : If the former, it is very often Flattery, 
and fo the greateft Abufe that can be offered, and then 

I muft 

Sund. 6. Ibe Sin of Pride, &c. ioi 

I muft be very much a Fool to be pleafed with it : Bat 
if it be behind my Back, I have not then fo much as the 
Pleafure of knowing it, and therefore it is a ftrange Folly 
thus to purfue what is fo utterly gainlefs. But Secondly, It 
is not only gainlefs, but painful and uneafy alio. He that 
eagerly feeks Praife, is not at all Matter of himfelf, but 
muft fuit all his Actions to that End, and, inftcad of doing 
what his own Reafon and Confcience (nay, perhaps his 
worldly Conveniency) directs him to, he muft take Care 
to do what will bring him in Commendations ; and fo en- 
flave himfelf to every one that hath but a Tongue to 
commend him. Nay, there is yet a farther Uneafinefs 
in it, and tha*is, when fuch a Man fails of his Aim, 
when he milTes the Praife, and perhaps meets with the 
contrary Reproach, (which is no Man's Lot more of- 
ten than the Vain-glorious, nothing making a Man more 
defpifed) then what Difturbances and Difquiets, and 
even Tortures of Mind is he under ? A lively Inftance 
of this you have in Ahitbophel, 2 Sam. xvii. 23. who 
had fo much of this, upon Abfalom* defpifing his Coun- 
fel, that he chofe to rid himfelf of it by hanging himfelf. 
And fure thisPainfulnefs that thus attends this Sin, is fuf- 
ficient Proof of the Folly of it. Yet this is not all, it 
is farther very hurtful : For if this Vain-glory be con- 
cerning any good or Chriftian Action, itdeftroysall the 
Fruit of it : He that prays, or gives Alms to be feen of 
Men, Matt. vi. 2. muft takethatas his Reward, Verily I 
fay unto you, they have their Reward ; they muft expect: 
none from God, but the Portion of thofe Hypocrites, that 
love the Praife of Men more than the Praife of God. And 
this is a miferable Folly to make fuch an Exchange. Ic 
is like the Dog in the Fable, who feeing in the Water 
the Shadow of that Meat he held in his Mouth catch'd 
at the Shadow, and fo let go his Meat. Such Dogs, 
fuch unreafonable Creatures are we, when we thus let 
go our eternal Rewards of Heaven, to catch at a few 
good Words of Men. And yet we do not only lofe thofe 
eternal Joys, but procure to our felves the contrary, 
eternal Miferies ; which is fure the higheft Pitch of Fol- 
ly and madnefs. But if the Vain-glory be not concer- 
ning any virtuous Action, but only forhe indifferent 


102 The Whole Duty <?/Man. 

thing, yet even there alfoit is very hurtful, for Vain- 
glory is a Sin, that, wherefoever it is placed, endangers 
our eternal Eftate, which is the greateft of all mifchiefs. 
And even for the prefent it is obfervable, that of all o- 
ther Sins it Hands the raoft in its own Light, hinders 
it felf of that very thing it purfues. For there are very 
few that thus hunt after Praife, but they are difcerned to 
do fo, and That is fure to eclipfe whatever Praife-worthy 
Thing they do, and brings Scorn upon them inftead of 
Reputation. And then certainly we may juftly condemn 
this fin of Folly, which is fo ill a Manager even of its 
own Defign. 

15. You have feen how wretched a thing this Vain- 
glory is in thefe feveral Refpects j the fe- 
Helps again ft rious Confideration whereof may be one 
Vain-glory. good means to fubdue it, to which it will 
be neceffary to add, firft, a great Watch- 
fulnefs over thy felf; obferve narrowly whether in any 
Chriftian Duty thou at all confidereft the Praife of Men ; 
or even in the moil indifferent Action, look whether thou 
have not too eager a Defire of it ; and if thou iindeft thy 
felf inclined that Way, have a very ftrict Eye upon it ; 
and whenever thou findeft it ftirring, check and refift 
it ; fuffer it not to be the End of thy Actions : But in all 
matters of Religion, let thy Duty be the motive ; in all 
indifferent things of common Life, let Reafon direct thee ; 
and though thou mayfl fo far confider in thofe things the 
Opinion of Men, as to obferve the Rules of common De- 
cency, yet never think any Praife that comes in to thee 
from any thing of that kind worth the contriving for. 
Secondly, fet up to thy felf another Aim, <viz. that of 
pleafing God ; let that be thy Enquiry, when thou goeft 
about any thing, Whether it be approved by him ? And 
then thou wilt not be at Leifure to confider what Praife it 
will bring thee from Men. And furely, he that weighs of 
how much more moment it is to pleafe God, who is able 
eternally to reward us, than Man, whofe Applaufe can 
never do us any good, will furely think it reafonable to 
make the former his only Care; Thirdly, if at any time 
thou art praifed, do not be much over-joyed with it, nor 
think a jot the better of thy felf; but if it be Virtue 


Sund. 6. Vi rtue of Meek n ess, fcff. 103 

thou art praifed for, remember it was God that wrought 
it in thee, and give him the Glory, never thinking any 
Part of it belongs to thee ; if it be fome indifferent 
^Action, then remember that it cannot deferve Praife, as 
having no Goodnefs in it : But if it be a bad one (as 
amongil Men iuch are fometimes likelieft to be com- 
mended) then it ought to fet thee a trembling inltead 
of rejoicing ; for then that Woe of our Saviour's belongs 
to thee, Lukev'i. 26. Wo unto yowwhen Men/peak -well 
ef you, for fo did their Fathers to the falfe Prophets : 
And there is not a greater Sign of a hardned Heart, than 
when Men can make their Sins the Matter of their 
Glory. In the lait place, let thy Prayers affitt in the 
*Fight with this Corruption. 

16. A fecond Virtue is MEEKNESS; that is, a 
Calmnefs and Quietnefs of Spirit, con- 
trary to the Rages and Jmpatiencies of Mesknefs, 
Anger. This Virtue may be exercifed 

either in refpecl of God, or our Neighbour. That to- 
wards God I have already fpoken of under the Head of 
Humility; and that towards our Neighbour, I (hall 
hereafter. All I have here to fay of it is, how it be- 
comes a Duty to ourfelves ; that it does in refpecl of the 
great Advantage we reap by it ; which 
in mere Kindnefs to ourfelves, we are to Advantages 
look after. And to prove that it brings of it, 
us this great Advantage, I need fay no 
more, but that this Meeknefs is that, to which Chrifl 
hath pronounced a BlefTmg, Matt. v. 5. Blejfed are the 
Meek, and not only in the next World, but even in this 
too, they /ball inherit the Earth. Indeed, none but the 
meekPerfon hath the true Enjoyment of any thing in 
the World ; for the angry and impatient are like uck 
People, who, we ufe to fay, cannot enjoy the greatest 
Prolperities ; for, let Things be never fo fair without, 
they will raife Storms within their own Breafts. And 
furely, whoever hath, either in himfelf or others, ob- 
ferved the great Uneafinefs of this Paflion of Anger, 
cannot chufe but think Meeknefs a mod pleafant Thing. 

17. Befides, it is alfo a mod honourable thing, for 
it is that whereby we refemble Chrift, Learn of me, 

F faith 

104 The Whole Duty of Man. 

faith he, for 1 am meek and lowly in Heart, Matt. XI. 
29. It is alfo that whereby we conquer our felves, 
overcome our own unruly Paflions, which of all Victo- 
ries is the gieateft and moil noble. Laftly, it is that 
which makes us behave our felves like Men, whereas 
Anger gives us the fiercenefs and wildnefs of Savage 
Beaits. And accordingly the one is, by all, efleemedand 
loved, whereas the other is hated and abhorred, every 
Man (hunning a Man in rage as they would a furious 

1 8 . Farther yet, Meeknefs is the Sobriety of the mind, 
whereas Anger is the direct Madnefs ; it puts a Man 
wholly out of his own Power, and makes him do fuch 
things, as himfelf, in his fober Temper, abhors : How" 
many Men have done thofe things in their Rage, which 
they have repented all their Lives after ? And therefore, 
furely, as much as a Man is more honourable than a 
Beaft, a fober Man than a mad Man ; fo much hath 
this Virtue of Meeknefs the Advantage of Honour a- 
bove the contrary Vice of Anger. 

19. Again, Meeknefs makes any Condition tolerable 
and eafy to be endured. He that meekly bears any 
Suffering, takes off the Edge of it, that it cannot wound 
him ; whereas he that frets and rages at it, whets it, 
and makes it much (harper than it would be j nay, in 
fome Cafes, makes that fo, which would not elfe be fo 
at all, as particularly in the Cafe of reproachful Words, 
which, in themfelves, can do us no Harm, they neither 
hurt our Bodies, nor leiTen our Eftates ; the only Mif- 
chief they can do us, is to make us angry, and then our 
Anger may do us many more : Whereas he that 
meekly palfes them by, is never the worfe for them ; 
nay, the better, for he (hall be rewarded by God for 
that Patience. Much more might be (aid to recom- 
jnend this Virtue to us, in refpect of our own prefent 
Advantage ; but, I fuppofe, this may fuffice to perfuade 
Men to the Efteem of it. The harder Matter will be 
to gain them to the Practice of it, wherein Men pretend 
I know not what Difficulties of natural Conftitutions, 
and the like ; yet fure there is no Man of fo cholerick 
a Temper, but, if he did heartily fet about it, would 


Sund. 6. Virtue of Confideration. 105 

find it were not impoffible, in fome good Meafure, to 
fubdue it ; but then he muft be diligent in ufing Means 
to that End. Divers of thefe Means there are : I (hall 
mention fome few. 

20. As firft, the imprinting deep in our Minds the 
Lovelinefsand Benefits of Meeknefs, to- 
gether with the Uglinefs and Miichiefs Means of oh* 
of Anger. Secondly, to fet before us the taining it. 
Example of Chriil, who endured all Re 

proaches, yea, Torments, with perfect Patience ; that 
was led as a Sheep to the Slaughter, Ifa. liii. 7. that when 
be ivas reviled, reviled not again ; when he fuffered, 
threatned not, 1 Pet. ii. 23. And if he, the Lord of 
Glory, fuffered thus meekly and unjullly from his own 
Creatures, with what Face can we ever complain of 
any Injury done to us ? Thirdly, to be very watchful 
to prevent the very firfl Beginnings of Anger, and, to 
that Purpofe, to mortify all inward Peeviihnefs and Fro- 
wardnefs of Mind, which is a Sin in itfelf, though it 
proceed no farther ; but will alfo be fure, if it be che- 
rilhed, to break out into open Effects of Anger. There- 
fore whenever thou findeft the lead rifing of it within 
thee, make as much Hafte to check it, as thou wouldefl 
to quench a Fire in thy Houfe ; but be fure thou bring 
no Fuel to it, by entertaining any Thoughts that may 
increafe it. And at fuch Time, efpecially, keep a moll 
ftric"i Watch over thy Tongue, that it break not out 
into any angry Speeches; for that Breath will fan the 
Fire, not only in thine Adverfary, but thyfelf too ; 
therefore though thy Heart be hot within, ilifle tho 
Flame, and let it not break out : And the greater the 
Temptation is, the more earneftly lift up thy Heart to 
God, to aflilt thee to overcome it. Fourthly, often re- 
member how great Punifhments thy Sins have deferved ; 
and then, whether thy Sufferings be from God, or 
Man, thou wilt acknowledge them to be far fhort of 
what is due to thee, and therefore wilt be afhamed to be 
impatient at them. 

2 1 . The third Virtue is CONSIDERATION. And 
this in a moll fpecial Manner we owe to -, ^ , . , 
our Souls . For without it we (ball, as on ^ era l *"' 
rath unadvifed People ufe to do, ru(h them into in- 

F 2 finite 

jo6 The Whole Duty of Man. 

finite Perils. Now this Confideration is either of our 
State, or of our Actions. By our State 
Of our State. I mean, what our Condition is to God- 
ward, whether it be fuch that we may 
reasonably conclude ou.Teives in his Favour. This it 
much concerns us to confider and examine, and that not 
by thofe eafy Rules Men are apt to frame to themfelves, 
as whether they believe that Chrift died for their Sins, 
that they are of the Number of the Elect, and (hall cer- 
tainly be faved. If thcfe, and the like, were all that 
were required to put us into God's Favour, none but 
fome melancholy Perfons could ever be out of it : For 
we are apt enough generally to believe comfortably of 
our felves. But the Rules God hath given us in hisWorld, 
are thofe by which we mult be tried at 
The Rules by the laft Day, and therefore are certainly 
*wbicb to try the only fafe ones by which to try our 
eur State. felves now. And the Sum of thofe are, 

that whofoever continues in any one 
wilful Sin, is not in his Favour ; nor can, if he do (o 
die, hope for any Mercy at his Hand. 

22, Now it is highly necelTary we fhould confider 
what our Condition is in this Refpecl ; 
The Danger for fince our Life is nothing but a Puff 
of lnconfide~ of Breath in our Noftrils, which may, 
ration. for ought we know, be taken from us 

the next Minute, it nearly concerns us 
to know how we are provided for another World, that 
fo, in cafe we want at prefent that Oil in our Lamps 
wherewith we are to meet the Bridegroom, Matt. xxv. 
8. we may timely get it ; and not for Want of it, be 
ever fhut out, like thefoolifh Virgins, from his Prefence. 
The Neglett of this Confideration hath undone many 
Souls, fome by too eafy a Belief, that they were in a 
gocd Condition, without confidering, and trying them- 
felves by the foregoing Rule, but prefuming either upon 
fome flight outward Performances, or upon fuch a falfe 
Faith, as I even now defcribed ; others by their wretch- 
ed carelef6 going on, without fo much as afking them- 
felves what their Condition is, but hope they fhould do 
as well as their Neighbours, and fo never inquiring far- 

Sund. 6. Virtue 0/Confideration. 107 

ther ; which wretched Carelefnefs will as certainly undo 
the fpiritual, as the like would do the temporal Eftate ; 
yet in that every Man is wife enough to forefee, that a 
Man that never takes any Account of his Eltate, to fee 
whether he be worth fomething or nothing, will be fure 
to be a Beggar in the End. But in this far weightier 
Matter we can generally be thus improvident. 

23. The fecond Thing we are to confider is our 
Actions, and thofe either before or after 

the doing of them. In the firfl Place, Our Aclions* 
we are to confider before we act, and not 
todoany thing ralhlv or headily ; butnrft Before nue 
to advifewith our Confciences, whether do them. 
this be lawful to be done : For he that 
follows his own Inclination, and does every thing which 
that moves him to, (hall be fure to fall into a Multitude 
of ins. Therefore confider foberly.and be allured of the 
lawfulnefs of the Thing, before thou venture to do it. 
This Advifednefs is, in all worldly Things, accounted 
fo neceflary a Part of Wifdom, that no v^an is accounted 
wife without it: A ram Man we look upon as the next 
Degree to a Fool. And yet it is fure, there is not fo 
much Need of looking about us in any thing, as in what 
; concerns our Souls ; and that not only in relpecl of the 
great Value, of them above all Things elie, but alfo in 
regard of the great Danger they are in, as hath been 
(hewed more at large in the Beginning of this Treatife. 

24. Secondly, we are to confider the Anions when 
they are pail alfo ; that is, we are to 

examine whether they have been fuch After they 
as are allowable by the Laws of Chrift. are dme. 
This is very necefiary, whether they be 
good, or bad ; if they be good, the recalling them 
helpeth us to the Comfort of a good Conscience, and 
that Comfort again encourageth us to go on in the like ; 
andbefides,it rtirs us up to thankfulnefs to God, by whole 
Grace alone we are enabled to do them. But if they be 
bad, then it is efpecially necefibry that we thus exa- 
mine them, for, without this, it is impollible we Iho^ld 
ever come to Amendment ; for, unlefs we obferve them 
to have been amifs, we can never think it needful to 
F 3 amend, 

10S The Whole Duty of Man. 

amend, but mall ft ill run on from one Wickednefs f© 
another, which is the greateft Curfe any Man can lie 

25. The oftener therefore we ufe this Confideration, 

the better ; for the lefs likely it is that 
Frequency of any of our Sins (hall efcape our Know- 
Confi deration, ledge. It is much to be wilhed that 

every Man would thus every Night try 
the Actions of the Day, that fo, if he have done any 
Thing amifs, he may foon check himfelf for it, and 
fettle his Refolutions againft it, and not let it go on to 
a Habit and Courfe. And that he may alfo early beg 
God's Pardon, which will the eafier be had, the fooner it 
is afked ; every Delay of that being a great Increafe of 
the Sin. And furely, whoever means to take an Ac- 
count of himfelf at all will find this the eafier Courfe ; 
it being much eafier to do it fo, a little at a time, and 
while PafTages are frefh in his Memory, than to take 
the Account of a long Time together. Now if it be 

confidered, that every wilful Sin muft 
Danger of 0- have a particular Repentance before it 
mitti?ig it. can be pardoned, methinks Men mould 

tremble to fleep without that Repen- 
tance ; for what Affurancehath any Man that lies down 
in his Bed, that he (hall ever rife again ? And then 
how dangerous is the Condition of that Man, that fleeps 
in an unrepented Sin ? The weighing of thefe feveral 
Motives may be a Means, by God's Blefling, to bring us 
to the Practice of this Duty of Confideration in all the 
Parts of it. 


Sund. 7. Virtue 0/Contentednefs. 109 


Of Content ednefs, and the Contraries to it ; 
Murmuring, Ambition, Covetoufnefs, Envy. 
Helps to Content ednefs : Of Duties ivbicb 
concern our Bodies ; of Chaftity, &c. Helps 
to it -, of Temperance. 

Sea. i.qpHE Fourth Virtue is CONTENTED- 
X NESS ; and this iurely is a Duty we 
muft owe to ourfelves, it being that, 
without which it is impoflible to be hap- Content ednefs. 
py. ThisContentednefsis a Well-pleaf- 
ednefs with that Condition, whatever it is, that God hath 
placed us in ; not murmuring and repining at our Lot, 
but chearfully welcoming whatsoever God Tends. How 
-great, and withal how pleafant a Virtue this is, may 
appear by the Contrariety it hath to feveral great and 
painful Vices ; fo that where this is rooted in the Heart, 
it fubdues not only fome fuch fingle Sin, but a Clutter of 
them together. 

2. And, firft, it is contrary to all Murmuring in ge- 
neral, which is a Sin moll hateful to 

God, as may appear by his (harp Punifh- Contrary to 
ments of it on the Ifraelites in the Wjl- Murmuring. 
dernefs, as you may read in feveral Places 
of the Book of Exodus, and Numbers. And furely it if 
alfo very painful and uneafy to a Man's felf : For if, 
as the Pfaimift faith, it be a joyful and pleafant thing t» 
be thankful, we may, by the Rule of Contraries, con- 
clude, it is a fad and unpleafant thing to be murmuring ; 
and, I doubt not, every Man's own Experience wiU 
confirm the Truth of it. 

3. Secondly, it is contrary to Ambitio* : The am* 
bitious Man is always difliking his pre- 

fent Condition, and that makes him fo T$ Ambition; 
greedily to feek a higher ; whereas he 
that is content with his own, lies quite out of the Road 
©f this Temptation. Now Ambition is not only a great 

F4 &i» 

no The Whole Duty of Man. 

Sin in itfelf, but it puts Men upon many others ; there 
is nothing fo horrid, which a Man, that eagerly feeks 
Greatnels, will Hick at : Lying, Perjury, Murder,orany 
thing will down with him, if they feem to tend to his 
Advancement : And the Uneafinefs of it is anfwerable 
to the Sin. This none can doubt of that confiders what 
a Multitude of Fears and Jealoufies, Cares and Diffrac- 
tions there are that attend Ambition in its Progrefs, be- 
iides the great and publick Ruins that ufually befal it in 
the End. And therefore, fure, Contentednefs is in this 
refpect as well a Happinefs, as a Virtue. 

4. Thirdly, it is contrary to Covetoufnefs. This the 

Apoftle witnefleth, Heb. xiii. 5. Let your 
To Covet- Come* fat ion be without Covetoufnefs, and 
oufnefs. be content with Juch Wings as ye have, 

Where, you fee, Contentednefs is fet as the 
direct contrary to Covetoufnefs. But of this there needs 
no other Proof than common Experience ; for, we fee, 
the covetous Man never thinks he hath enough, and 
therefore can never be content ; for no Man can be faid 
to be fo, that thirfts after any thing he hath not. Now 
that thou may fee how excellent and neceffary a Virtue 
this is, that fecures us againft Covetoufnefs, it will not 
be amifs a little to confider the Nature of that Sin. 

5. That it is a very great Crime, is moft certain, for 

it is contrary to the very Foundation of 
Coietoufnefs all good Life ; I mean thofe three great 
contrary to our Duties to God, to our Selves, to our 
Duty to Gad. Neighbours. Firft, it is fo contrary to 

our Duty to God, that Chrift himfelf 
tells us, Luke xvi. 13. We cannot fer-ve God and Mam- 
mon : He that fets his Heart upon Wealth, muft ne- 
ceilarily take it off* from God : And this we daily fee 
in the covetous Man's Practice ; he is fo eager in the 
gaining of Riches, that he hath no Time or Care to 
perform his Duty to God ; let but a good Bargain, or 
Opportunity of Gain, come in his Way, Prayer and all 
Duties of Religion muft be neglecled, to attend it. Nay, 
when the committing the greateft Sin againft God may 
be likely either to get or fave him ought, his Love of 
Wealth quickly perfuades him to commit it. 

6. Secondly, 

Sund. 7. 0/CONTZNTEDNESS, (f?C. lit 

6. Secondly, it is contrary to the Duty we owe to our 
Selves, and that both in refped of our 

Souls and Bodies. The covetous Man To our /elves. 
defpifes his Soul, fells that to eternal De- 
ftructionfor a little Pelf : For fo every Man does that 
by any unlawful Means feeks to enrich himfelf : Nay, 
though he do it not by unlawful Means, yet if he hav« 
once fet his Heart upon Wealth, he is that covetous 
Perfon upon whom the Apoftle hath pronounced, Th.\t 
be Jball not inherit the Kingdom of God, 1 Cor. vi. 10. 
Nor doth he only offend againlt his Soul, but his Body 
too. For he often denies that thofe necelTary Refresh- 
ments it wants, and for which his Wealth (as far as it 
concerns himfelf) wa-s given him. This is fo conftantly the 
Curtomofrich Millers, that I need not prOveitto you. 

7. In the third Place, Covetoufnefs is contrary to the 
Duty we owe to our Neighbours : And 

that in both the Parts of it, Juftice, and To our Neigh- 
Charity. He that loves Money immo- hours. 
derately, will not care whom he cheats 
and defrauds, fo he may bring in Gain to himfelf; and 
from hence fpring thofe many Tricks of Deceit and 
Cozenage fo common in the World. As for Charity r 
that is never to be hoped for from a covetous Man, 
whodreads the leffening of his own He^ps,more than the 
ftarving of his poor Brother. You fee how great a Sin 
this ; s, that we may well fay of it as the Apoftle doth, 
1 Tim. vi. 10. The Love of Money is the Root of all 
Evil. And it is not much lefs uneafy than wicked ; 
for between the Care of getting, and the Fear of lofing, 
the covetous Man enjoys no quiet Hour. Therefore 
every Man is deeply concerned, as he tenders his Hap- 
pinefs either in this World, or the next, to guard him- 
felf againft this Sin, which he can noway do, but by 
polieffing his Heart with this Virtue of Contentednefs. 

8. In the fourth place, it is contrary to Envy ; for 
he that is content with his own Condition, 

hath no Temptation to envy another's.. Cvntentedne/s 
How unchriftian a Sin this of Envy is, contrary to 
fhall hereafter be lhevved : At the pre- Envy, 
fern I need fay no more, but that it »• 

F £ ttlfo 

H2 The Whole Duty <?/Man. 

alfo a very uneafy one, it frets and gnaws the very 
Heart of him that harbours it. But the worfe this Sin 
is, the more excellent ftill is this Grace of Contented- 
riefs, which frees us from it. I fuppofe, I have faid 
enough to make you think this a very lovely and defir- 
able Virtue. And fure it were not impoflible to be gain- 
ed by any, that would but obferve thefe few Directions. 
9. Fiift, to confider, that "whatever our Eftate and 
Condition in any refpe<ft be, it is that 
Helps to Con- which is allotted us by God, and there- 
tentednefs. fore is certainly the beft for us, he be- 

ing much better able to judge for U8 
than we for ourfelves : And therefore to be difpleafed 
at it, is in Effect to fay we are wifer than he. Secondly, 
Confider thoroughly the Vanity of all worldly Things ; 
how very little there is in them while we have them, 
and how uncertain we are to keep them ; but above all, 
in how little ftead they will ftand us at the Day of Death 
or Judgment, and then thou canft not think any of 
them much worth the defiring, and fo wilt not be dif- 
contented for want of them. Thirdly, Suffer not thy 
Fancy to run on Things thou haft not ; many have put 
themfelves out of Love with what they have, only by 
thinking what they want. He that fees his Neighbour 
poflefs fomewhat, which himfelf hath not, is apt to 
think, how happy he mould be, if he were in that 
Man's Condition ; and, in the mean time, never thinks 
of enjoying his own, which yet, perhaps, in many re- 
fpecls, may be much happier than that of his Neigh- 
bour's, which he fo much admires : For we look but 
upon the Outfide of other Men's Conditions ; and many 
a Man that is envied by his Neighbours, as a wonderful 
happy Perfon, hath yet fome fecret Trouble, which 
makes him think much otherwife of himfelf. There- 
fore never compare thy Condition in any thing with 
thofe thou counted more profperous than thyfelf ; but 
rather do it with thofe thou knoweft more unhappy, 
and then thou wilt find Caufe to rejoice in thine own 
Portion. Fourthly, Confider how far thou art from de- 
ferving any good thing from God, and then thou canfl: 
Aot but with Jacob, Gen.xxxii. ip. confefs, that thou 


Sund.7- O/DiLiGENCE, &c. ii^ 

art not worthy of the haft of thofe Mercies thou enjoyeft, 
and inftead of murmuring that they are no more, wilt 
fee Reafon to admire and praife the Bounty of God,. that 
they are fo many. Fifthly, Be often thinking of the Joy* 
laid up for thee in Heaven ; look upon that as thy home, 
on this World only as an Inn, where thou ait fain to take 
up thy Paftage : And then, as a Traveller experts not the 
fame Conveniencies at an Inn, that he hath at home ; fo 
thou haft Reafon to be content with whatever Entertain- 
ment thou findeft here, knowing thou art upon thy Jouiv 
ney to a Place of infinite Happinefs, which will make an 
abundant Amends for all the Uneafinefs and Hardftiip 
thou canft fuffer in the Way. Laftly, Pray to God, from 
whom all good Things do come, that he will, to all his 
other Bleflings, add this of a contented Mind, without 
which thou canft have no Tafte or Relifh of any other. 

10. A fifth Duty is DILIGENCE ; this is made up 
of two Parts, Watchfulnefs, and I nduf- ~... 

try, and boththefe we owe to our Souls. ' l i ence ' 

1 1. Firft, Watchfulnefs, in obferving all the Dangew 
that threaten them. Now fince nothing 

can endanger our Souls but Sin, this Watchfulnefs 
Watchfulnefs is principally to be imploy- againft Sift, 
ed againft that ; and as in a befieged 
City, where there is any weak Part, there it is neceflary 
to keep the ftrongeft Guard ; fo it is here, wherever 
thou findeft thy Inclinations fuch, as are moft likely to 
betray thee to Sin, there it concerns thee to be efpecially 
watchful. Obferve therefore carefully to what Sins ei- 
ther thy natural Temper, thy Company, or thy Courfe 
of Life do particularly incline thee, and watch thyfelf 
very narrowly in thofe ; yet do not fo lay out all thy 
Care on thofe, as to leave thyfelf open to any other ; 
for that may give Satan as much Advantage on the other 
Side ; but let thy Watch be general, againft all Sin, 
though in a fpecial Manner againft thofe, which are like 
ofteneft to aflault thee. 

12. The fecond Part of Diligence is Induftry, or La- 
bour ; and this alfo we owe to our 7 . . 
Souls, for without it, they will as little "Wpt* m~ 
profper as tht Vineyard of the Sluggard ; f r0Vt "S G ^"- 


H4 Tbg. Whole Duty of Man. 

which Solomon defcribes, Prov. xxiv. 30. For there is a 
Hufbandry of the Soul, as well as of the Eftate; and the 
End of the one, as of the other, is the increafing and 
improving of its Riches. Now the Riches of the Soul 
are either natural, or divine. By the natural I mean its 
Faculties of Reafon, Wit, Memory, and the like : By 
the Divine I mean the Graces of God, which are net the 
Soul's natural Portion, but are given immediately by 
God ; and both thefe we are to take Care to improve, 
they being both Talents intruded to us for that Purpofe- 

1 3 . The way of improving the natural is, by imploy - 

L T ing them fo, as may bring in moft Ho- 

Vf Nature. nQur tQ God . We muft nQt kt fhem ,j ft 

idle by us through Sloth, neither muft we overwhelm 
them with Intemperance,. ind brutifn Pleafures ; which is 
the Cafe of too many, but we muft imploy them, and fet 
them on Work : But then we muft be fure it be not in 
the Devil's Service : like many, who fet their Wit only 
to the profaning of God, or cheating their Neighbours, 
and fluff their Memories with fuch Filthinefs, as (hould 
never once enter their Thoughts. Our Ufe of them mull 
be fuch, a^ mr;y bring in moft Glory to God, moft Benefit 
to our Neighbours, and may beft fit us to make our Ac- 
counts, when God (ball come to reckon with us for them. 

14. But the other Part of the Soul's Riches is yet 

more precious, that is, Grace, and of 
Of Grace. this we muft be efpecially careful to 

hufbandand improve it. This is a Duty 
exprcfl'y commanded us by the Apoftle, 2 Pet. iii. 1 8. 
Grow in Grace. And again, in the firft Chapter of that 
Epiftle, Ver. 5. Give all Diligence to add to your Faith 
Virtue, and to Virtue Knowledge, &c. Now the efpe- 
cial Means of improving Grace is by imploy ing it, that is, 
by doing thofe Things for the enabling of us whereunto 
it was given us : This is a fure Means, not only in 
refpect of that Eaiinefs,, which a Cuftom of any thing 
brings in the doing of it ; but principally, as it hath 
the Promife of God, who hath promifed, Mattb. xxv. 
29.. That to him that hath (that ie,. hath made Ufe of 
what he hath) Jkall be given,, and he /hall {have Abun- 
dance. He that diligently and faithfully employs the 


Sand. 7. O/Diligenge, &c. 115 

firft Beginnings of Grace, fliall yet have more ; and he 
that in like manner hufbands that more, (hall yet have 
a greater degree ; fo that what Solomon faith of tempo 
ral Riches, is alfo true of fpiritual, 7he Hand of the 
Diligent maheth Rich. 

15. Therefore whenever thou findeft any good Mo- 
tions in thy Heart, remember, that is a 

Seafon for this fpiritual Hufbandry : If To improve 
thou haft but a Check of Confcience a- good Motions 
gainft any Sin thou liveft in, drive that 
on till it come to an Hatred ; and then that Hatred, till ii 
comes to Refolution ; then from that Refolution, procee. 
to fome Endeavours againft it. Do this fai hfully 2m- 
flncerely, and thou (halt certainly find the Grace of God 
aflifting thee, not only in every of thefe Steps, but alfo 
enabling thee to advance ftill higher, till thou come tC 
fome Victory over it. Yet to this induftry thou mult 
not fail to add thy Prayers alfo ; there being a Promife, 
That God will give the Holy Spirit to tktm that ask it, 
Matt. vii. .11. And therefore they that aflc it not, 
have no Reafon to expect it. But it muft be afked with 
fuch an Earneftqefs, as is fome way anfwerable to the 
Value of the Thing, which being infinitely more pre- 
cious than all the World, both in refpeft of its own 
Worth, and its Ufefulnefs to us, we mult beg it with 
much more Zeal and Earneftnefs, than all temporal 
Bleflings. or elfe we (hew ourfelves Defpifers of it. 

16. Having directed you to the Mean* of improving 
Grace, I mall, to quicken you to it, 

mention the great Danger to the contra- The Danger of 
xy ; and that is, not, as in other Things, the contrary. 
the lofmg only thofe further Degrees, 
which our induftry mighfhave helped us to, but it is 
the lofing even of what we already have ; For from 
him that hath not (that is again, hath not made Ufe 
of what he hath)y#a // be taken away even that which he 
hath, Matt. xxv. 29. God will withdraw the Grace 
which he fees fo neglected, as we fee in that Parable; 
the Talent was taken from him that had only hid it m 
a Napkin, and had brought in no gain, to his Lord. 
And this is a mofi: fad Punifhment, the greateft that can 
feefai any Man* before, he come* to Hell ; indeed it is 


1 1 6 The Whole Duty of Man. 

fome kind of foretafte of it, it is the delivering him up 
to the Power of the Devil, and it is the banifhing him 
from the Face of God, which are not the leaft Parts of 
the mifery of the damned : And it is alfo the binding 
a Man over to that fuller Portion of Wretcbednefs in 
another World ; for that is the laft Doom of the un- 
profitable Servant, Matth. xxv. 30. Caji ye the unpro- 
fitable Servant into outer Darknefs, there Jhall be weeping 
and gna/hing of Teeth. You fee, there are no light 
Dangers that attend this Neglect of Grace, and there- 
fore if we have any Love, nay, any common Pity, to 
our Souls, we mufl fet ourfelves to this Induftry. I 
have now done with thofe VIRTUES which refpect 
our SOULS; I come now to thofe which concern our 

17. The firft of which is CHASTITY, or PURI- 

TY ; which may well be fet in the Front 
Chaftity, of the Duties we owe to our Bodies; fince 

the Apoflle, 1 Cor. vi. 18. fets the con- 
trary, as the fpecial Sin againft them ; He that com- 
miiteth Fornication, Sinneth againji his o*vn Body. 

18. Now this Virtue of Chaftity confilis in a perfect: 
abftaining from all kinds of Uncleannefs, not only that 
of Adultery and Fornication, but all other more unna- 
tural Sorts of it, committed either upon ourfelves, or 
with any other. In a Word, all Acts of that kind are 
utterly againft Chaftity, fave only in lawful Marriage. 
And even there Men are not to think themfelves let 
loofe to pleafe their Brutilh appetites, but are to keep 
themfelves within fuch Rules of Moderation, as agree 
to the Ends of Marriage, which being thefe two, the 
Begetting of Children, and the avoiding of Fornicati- 
on, nothing mult be done which may hinder the firft of 
thefe Ends ; and the fecond aiming only at the fubduing 
of Lull, the keeping Men from any finful Effects of it, 
it is very contrary to that End to make Marriage an Oc- 
cafion of heightning and inflaming it. 

19. But this Virtue of Chaftity reacheth not only to 

rr , ' r the restraining of the groffer Act, but 
Uncleannefs for- tQ ^ j Qwer d . k fctg a guard 

ttddemntbeve- ^ according to that of 

yhmift degree. QUf SavJour ^ ^ //# y 2 ^ &fhti hoim 


Simd. 7. Virtue r/CHASTiTY,^. 117 

eth on a Woman to luft after her, bath committed adultery 
nvith her already in his Heart', and upon our Hand, as 
appears by what Chrilt adds in that Place, If thy Hand 
offend thee, cut it off: ver. 30. So alfo upon our 
Tongues, that they fpeak no immodeft or filthy Words, 
Let no corrupt Communication proceed out of your Mouth, 
Eph. iv. 29. Nay, upon our very Thoughts and 
Fancies, we muft not entertain any foul and filthy De- 
fires, notfo much as the imagination of any fuch Thing. 
Therefore he that forbears the grofler Acl, and yet 
allows himfelf in any of thefe, it is to be fufpecled, 
that it is rather fome outward Reftraint that keeps him 
from it, than the Confcience of the Sin : For if it were 
that, it would keep him from thefe too, thefe being 
Sins alfo, and very great ones in God's Sight: Eefides, 
he that lets himfelf loofe to thefe, puts himfelf in very 
great Danger of the other, it being much more eafy to 
abftain from all, than to fecure againil the one, when 
the other is allowed. But above all, it is to be confi- 
dered, that even thefe lower Degrees are fuch, as make 
Men very odious in God's Eyes, who feeth the Heart, 
and loves none that are not pure there. 

20. The Lovelinefs of this Virtue of Chaftity needs 
no other way of defcribing, than by con- 

fidering the Loathfomnefs and Mifchiefs The Mifchiefs 
of the contrary Sin, which is, firft, of it, 
very brutifh; thofe Defires are but the 
fame that the Beafts have, and then how far are they 
funk below the Nature of Man, that can boalt of their 
Sins of that kind, as of their fpecial excellency ? when, 
if that be the Meafure, a Goat is the more excellent 
Creature. But indeed they that eager- 
ly purfue this Part of Beftiality, do To the Soul, 
often leave themfelves little, befides 
their Human Shape, to difference them from Beads ; 
this Sin fo clouds the Underftanding, and defaceth the 
reafonable Soul. Therefore Solomon very well defcribes 
the young Man that was going to the Harlot's Houfe, 
Prov. vii. 22. He goeth after her, as an Ox goeth to the 

21. Nor, fecondly, are the Effects of it better to the 


n8 The Whole Duty of Man. 

Body than to the Mind. The many 
To the Body. foul and filthy, befides painful Difeafes, 

which often follow this Sin, are fufficient 
WitneiTes how mifchievous it is to theBody. And alas ! 
how many are there that have thus made themfelves 
the Devil's Martyrs? fuffer'd fuch Torments in the 
Purfuit of this Sin, as would exceed the Invention of 
the greateft Tyrant r Surely, they that pay thus dear 
for Damnation, very well deierve to enjoy the Purchafe. 

22. But, thirdly, befides the natural Fruits of this^ 

Sin, it is attended with very great and 
'The Judgments heavy Judgments from God ; the moil 
of God againji extraordinary and miraculous Judgment 
it. that ever befel any Place, Fire and 

Brimftone from Heaven upon Sodom and 
Gomorrha, Was for this Sin of Uncleannefs; and many 
examples likewife of God's Vengeance may be obfer- 
ved on particular Perfons, for this Sin. The Inceft of 
Ammon coft him his Life, as you may read, 2 Sam- 
xiii. Zimri and Coxbi were flain in the very Ac~i, Numb. 
xxv. 8. And no Perfon that commies the like, hath any 
AfTurance it mail not be his own cafe. For how fecret- 
]y foever it be committed, it cannot be hid from God, 
who is the fure Avenger of al! fuch Wicked-nefs. Nay, 
God hath very particularly threatned this Sin, 1 Cor. 
iii. 17. If any Man defile the Temple of God, him JbaW 
God deflroy. This Sin of uncleannefs is a kind of Sa- 
crilege, a polluting thofe Bodies which God hath cho^- 
fen for his Temples, and therefore no Wonder if it be 
thus heavily punimed. 

23. Lailly, this Sin fhuts us out from the Kingdom of 

Heaven, wherein no impure thing can 
Itjhuts out enter. And we never find any Lift of 
from Heaven, thofe Sins which bar Men thence, but 

this of Uncleannefs hatha fpecial Place 
in it. Thus it is Gal. v. 19, and fo again, 1 Cor. 
vi. 9. If we will thus pollute ourfelyes,. we are fit 
Company only for thofe Black Spirits, the Devil and 
his Angels ; and therefore with them we mud expett our 
Portion, where our Flames of Lull ihall end in Flames 
of Fir«. 

24. All 

Sand. 7. Virtue of Chastity. 119 

24. All this laid together may furely recommend the 
Virtue of Chaftity to us ; for the pre- 
ferving of which we muft be very care- Helps to Chaftity. 
ful, firit, to check the Beginnings of 
the Temptation, to call away the very firft Fancy of 
Luft with Indignation; for if you once fall to parly and 
talk with it, it gains ftill more upon you, and then it will 
be harder to refiit ; therefore your way in this Temp- 
tation is to fiie rather than fight with it. This is very 
neceffary, not only that we may avoid the Danger of 
proceeding to Aft the Sin, but alfo in refpect of the 
prefent Fault of entertaining fuch Fancies, which of it- 
felf, though it mould never proceed farther, is, as hath 
been fhewed, a great Abomination before God. Se- 
condly, have a fpecial Care to flie Idlenefs, which 
is the proper foil for thefe filthy weeds to grow in, and 
keep thyielf always bufied in fome innocent or vir- 
tuous Imployment; for then thefe Fancies will be lefs 
apt to offer themfelves. Thirdly, never fuffer thyielf to 
recal any unclean Paflages of thy former Life vwth De- 
light, for that is to Adt over the Sin again, and will be 
fo reckoned by God : Nay, perhaps, thus deliberately 
to think of it, may be a greater guilt than a raih acting 
of it : For this both (hews thy Heart to be fet upon 
Filthinefs, and is alfo a preparation to more Acls of it. 
Fourthly, forbear the Company of fuch light and wan- 
ton Perfons, as either by the Filthinefs of their Dif- 
courfe, or any other Means, may be a Snare to thee. 
Fifthly, pray earneitly, that God would give thee the 
Spirit of Purity, efpecially at the time of any prefent 
Temptation. Bring the unclean Devil to Chrilt to be 
call: out, as did the Man in the Gofpel ; and if it will not 
be call out with Prayer al >ne, add Fa: ing to it ; but be 
fure thou do not keep up tne Flrme by any high or im- 
moderate Feeding. The lall Remedy, when the for- 
mer proves vain, is Marriage, which becomes a Duty to 
him that cannot live innocently without it. But even 
here there muft be Care taken, left this, which fhould be 
for his good, become to him an Occafion of falling, for 
want of Sobriety in the Ufe of Marriage. But this I 
have touched on already, and therefore need add no 


120 The "Whole Duty of Man. 

more, but an earneft Entreaty, that Men would confi- 
der feriouily of the Foulnefs and Danger of tlm Sin 
of Uncleannefs, and let not the Commonnefs of it 
leften their Hatred of it ; but rather make them abhor 
that (hamelefs Impudence of the World, that can make 
light of this Sin agninft which God hath pronounced 
fuch heavy Curfes ; Whoretnongers and Adulterers God 
will judge, Heb. xiii. 4. And fo he will certainly do all 
forts of unclean Perfons whatfoever. 

25. The fecond VIRTUE that concerns our Bodies, 

is TEMPERANCE : And the Exercifes 
Temperance. of that are divers ; as, firft, Temperance 
in Eating; fecondly, in Drinking; third- 
ly, in Sleep; fourthly, in Recreation ; fifthly, in Ap- 
parel. I fhail fpeak of them feveral- 
Jn Eating. \y : and firft, of Temperance in Eat- 
ing. This Temperance is obferved, 
Ends of Eat- when our Eating is agreeable to thofe 
ing. Ends, to which Eating is by God and 

Nature defigned ; thofe are firft, the 
Being ; fecondly the Well-being of our Bodies. 

26. Man is of fuch a Frame, that Eating becomes 

necefiary to him for the preferving his 
Preferring tf Life ; Hunger being a natural Difeafe, 
Life. which will prove deadly, if not pre- 

vented ; and the only Phyfick for it is 
Eating ; which is therefore become a neceffary Means 
of keeping us alive. And that is the firft End of Eat- 
ing ; and as Men ufe not to take Phyfick for Pleafure, 
but Remedy, fo neither mould they Eat. 

27. But, fecondly, God hath been fo bountiful, as 

to provide not only for the Being, but 
Of Health. the Well-being of our Bodies ; and there- 
fore we are not tied to fuch Striclnefs, 
that we may eat no more than will juft keep us from 
flarving, but we may alfo eat whatfoever, either for 
kind or quantity, moft tends to the Health and Wel- 
fare of them : Now that Eating, which is agreeable to 
thefe Ends, is within the Bounds of Temperance ; as, 
on the contrary, whatfoever is contrary to them, is a 
Tranfgreffion aeainft it; he therefore that fets up to 


Sund .7. Of T E M P E R AN C E !»E AT I N G . 1 2 1 

himfelf other Ends of Eating, as either the pleafing of 
his Taile, or (what is yet worfe) the pampering of his 
Body, that he may the better ferve his Luft, he di- 
rectly thwarts and croffes thefe Ends of God; for 
he that hath thofe Aims, doth that which is very con- 
trary to Health, yea, to Life it felf, as appears by the 
many Difeafes, and untimely Deaths, which Surfeiting 
and Uncleannefs daily bring on Men. 

28. He therefore that will prattife this Virtue of 
Temperance, mull neither eat fo much, „ . . ~ 
nor of any fuch fort of Meats (provi- * * . 
ded he can have other) as may be hurt- t eranc 
ful to his Health. What the Sorts or eattn Z % 
Quantities fhould be, is impoffible to fet down, for that 
differs according to the feveral Conftitutions of Men ; 
fome Men may with Temperance eat a great deal, be- 
caufe their Stomachs require it; when another may be 
guilty of Intemperance in eating but half fo much, be- 
caufe it is more than is ufeful to him. And fo alfo for 
the Sorts of Meat, it may be Nicenefs and Luxury for 
fome to be curious in them, when yet fome Degree of 
it may be neceiTary to the Infirmities of a weak Stomach, 
which not out of Wantonnefs, but Difeafe, cannot eat 
the coarfer Meats. But I think it may in general be 
faid, that, to healthful bodies, the plaineft Meats are 
generally the moil wholefome. But every Man muft, 
in this, be left to judge for himfelf; and that he may do 
it aright, he muft be careful that he never fufFer himfelf 
to be enflaved to his Palate, for that will be fure to 
fatisfy itfelf, whatfoever becomes of Health or Life. 

29. To fecure him the better, let himconfider, firft, 
how unreafonable a thing it is, that the 
whole Body fhould be fubjecl to this Means of it* 
one Senfe of Tailing, that it muft run 
all Hazards only to pleafe that. But it is yet much 
more fo, that the Diviner Part, the Soul, mould alfo 
be thus enflaved : And yet thus it is in an intemperate 
Perfon, his very Soul muft be facrificed to this brutifti 
Appetite; for the Sin of Intemperance, though it be 
acled by the Body, yet the Soul muft (hare in the eter- 
nal punifhment of it. Secondly, confider how extreme 


122 The Whole Duty of Man. 

fliort and vanifhing this Pleafure is, it is gone in a mo- 
ment; but the pains that attend the excefs of it, are 
much more durable; and then furely it agrees not with 
that common Reafon, wherewith as Men, we are en- 
dued, to fet our Hearts upon it. But then, in the third 
Place, it agrees yet worle with the Temper of a Chri- 
ftian, who mould have his Heart fo purified and refined 
with the Expectation of thofe higher and fpiritual Joys 
he looks for in another World, that he mould very 
much defpife thofe grofs and brutiih Pleafures, which 
Beafts are as capable of as we ; and to them we may 
well be contented to leave them, it being the higheft 
their Natures can reach to : But for us, who have fo 
much more excellent Hopes, it is an intolerable Shame 
that we fhould account them as any Part of our Hap- 
pinefs. LalUy, the Sin of Gluttony is (o great and 
dangerous, that Chrift thought fit to give an efpecial 
warning againft it: Take heed to yourf elves, that your 
Hearts be not overcharged with f art citings &C. Luke 
xxi. 34. And you know what was the End of the rick 
Glutton, Luke xvi. He that had fared deiicioujly every 
Day, at laft wants a Drop of Water to cool his Tongue. So 
much for the firit Sort of Temperance, that of Eating. 


Of Temperance in Drinking-, Falfe Ends of Drink- 
ing^ viz. Good- Fe/Iowjhip, putting away Cares , &c. 

Sect. i. ' | ^HE feccnd is Temperance in Drink- 
X ing : And the Ends of Eating and 
Tempe- Drinking being much the fame, I can 

ranee in give no other direct Rules in this, than 

Drinking. what were given in the former; to wit, 
That we Drink neither of fuch Sorts of 
Liquors, nor in fuch Quantities, as may not agree with 
the right Ends of Drinking, the preierving our Lives 
and Healths; only in this there will be need of putting 
in one Caution; For our Underftand ing being in more 
danger to be hurt by Drinking than Meat, we mutt, ra- 
ther take Care to keep that fafe, and rather not drink 


Sund.8.0/ Temper ance /»Drinking.i2^ 

what we might fafely in refpettof our Health, if it be 
in danger to diftemper our Reafon. This I fay, be- 
caufe it is poflible forne Men's Brains may be fo weak, 
that their Heads cannot bear that ordinary Quantity of 
Drink, which would do their Bodies no Harm. And 
whoever is of this Temper, muft ftriclly abftain from 
that Degree of Drink, or that Sort of it, which he finds 
hath that Effecl ; yea, though it do in other refpe&s ap- 
pear not only fafe, but ufeful to his Health. For though 
we are to preferve our Healths, yet we are not to do it 
by a Sin, as Drunkennefs moft certainly is. 

2. But, alas ! of thofe Multitudes of Drunkards we 
have in the World, this is the Cafe but v ir v j r 
of very few ; moft of them going far be- n ■ i • * * 
yond what their Health requires, yea, rin in &' 

or can bear; even to the utter Deftruclion thereof. And 
therefore it is plain, Men have let up to themfelves fome 
other Ends of Drinking, than thofe allowable ones fore- 
mentioned : It may not be amifs a little to explain what 
they are, and withal to mew the Unreafonablenefs of 

3. Thefirft, and moft owned, is that which they call 
good Fellovvfliip ; one Man drinks to 

keep another Company at it. But I Good Felloixj- 
would afk fuch a one, Whether, if that Jbip. 
Man were drinking rank Poifon, he 
would pledge him for Company ? If he fay, he would 
not, I mult tell him, that by the very fame, nay, far 
greater Reafon, he is not to do this. For immoderate 
Drinking is that very Poifon ; perhaps it doth not al- 
ways work Death immediate (yet there want not many 
Inftances of its having done even that, very many have 
died in their drunken Fit) but that the Cuftom of it does 
ufually bring Men to their Ends, is paft doubt ; and 
therefore, though the Poifon work ilowly, yet it is ftill 
Poifon. But, however, it doth at the prefent work that 
which a wife Man would more abhor than Death ; it 
works Madnefsand Frenzy, turns the Man into a Beaft, 
by drowning that Reafon which fhould difference him 
from one. Certainly the Effefts of Drink are fuch, that 
had being drunk been firft injoined as a Punifhment, we 
(hould have thought hfm a more than ordinary Tyrant 
that had invented it. 4. A 

i24 tte Whole Duty 0/Man. 

4. A fecond End of Drinking is faid to be the main- 

taining of Friendfhip and Kindnefs a- 
Preferving of mongftMen. But this is ftrangely un- 
Kindnefs. reafonable, that Men mould do that to- 

wards the maintaining of Friendfhip 
which is really the greateft Mifchief that can be done to 
any Man. Did ever any think to befriend a Man, by 
helping to deftroy his Eftate, his Credit, his Life ? Yet 
he that thus drinks with a Man, does this, and much 
more ; he ruins his Keafon, yea, his Soul, and yet this 
muft be called the way of prefervingof Friendfhip. This 
is fo ridiculous, that one would think none could own 
it, but when he were actually drunk. But befides, 
alas ! Experience fhews us, that this is fitter to beget 
Quarrels, than preferve Kindnefs; as the many drunken 
Brawls we every Day fee, with the Wounds, and fome- 
times Murders, that accompany them, do witnefs. 

5. A third End is faid to be the chearing of their 
n • */, Spirits, making them merry and jolly. But 

\tirit) ng fure if the Mirth be fuch ' that Reaf ° n muft 
* trl * be turned out of Doors, before it begin, it 

will be very little worth : One may fay with Solomon, 
Ecclef. ii. 2. Ihe Laughter offucb Fools is Madnefs. And 
fure they that will be drunk to putthemfelves in this Tem- 
per, muft,by the fame Reafon, be glad of a Frenzy, if they 
could but be fure it would be of the merry Sort. But little 
do thefe merry Folks think what Sadnefs they are all 
this while heaping uptothemfelves ; often in this World, 
when by fome mad Pranks they play in their Jollity, they 
bring Mifchief upon themfelves ; but however certainly 
in another, where this Mirth will be fadly reckoned for. 

6. A fourth End is faid to be the putting away of 
-, . Cares; but I fhallafk, What thofe Cares 
Putting away ^ ? B e they fuch as fhould be put a- 

way ? Perhaps they are fome Checks 
and Remorfes of Confcience, which muft be thus charm- 
ed. And I doubt this hath proved too effectual with 
many to the laying them afleep. But this is the 
wickedeft Folly in the World ; for if thou thinkeft not 
thefe Checks to have fomething confiderable in them, 



why do they trouble thee ? But if they do, it is impof- 
fible thou canft hope this can long fecure thee from 
them. Thou mayeft thus flop their Mouths for awhile, 
but they will one Day cry the louder for it. Suppofe a 
Thief or a Murderer knew he were purfued to be 
brought to Juftice, would he, think you, to put away 
the Fear of being hanged, fall to Drinking, and in the 
mean time take no Care for his Efcape ? or would you 
not think him defperately mad, if he did ? Yet this is 
the very Cafe here : Thy Confcience tells thee of thy 
Danger, that thou mud e're long be brought before 
God's Judgment Seat: And is it not Madnefs for thee, 
inftead of endeavouring to get thy Pardon, to drink 
away the Thought of thy Danger ? But, in the fecond 
place, fuppofe tliefe Cares be fome worldly ones, and 
fuch as are fit to be put away ; then for Shame do not 
fo difgrace thy Reafon, thy Chriitianity, as not to let 
them be as forcible to that End as a little Drink. Thy 
Reafon will tell thee, it is vain to care, where Care 
will bring no Advantage ; and thy Chriftianity will di- 
rect thee to one, on whom thou mayeft fafely caji ell 
thy Cares, for he careth for thee, I Pet. v. 7. And 
therefore, unlefs thou meanefl to renounce being both a 
Man and a Chriftian, never betake thee to this pitiful 
Shift to rid thee of thy Cares. But befides, this will not 
do the Deed neither, for though it may at the prefent, 
whilft thou art in the Height of the drunken Fit, keep 
thee from the Senfe of thy Cares, yet when that is over, 
they will return again with greater Violence j and if 
thou haft any Confcience, bring a new Care with them, 
«ven that which arifeth from the Guilt of fo foul a Sin. 

7. A fifth End is faid to be the palling away of Time. 
This, though it be as unreafonable as p - 
any of the former, yet, by the way, it yf"* anva y 
ferves to reproach Idlenefs, which is, it °J ime ' 
feems, fo burdenfome a thing, that even the vileft Im- 
ployment is preferred before it. But this is in many a 
very falfe Plea : For they often fpend time at the Pot, 
not only when they have nothing elfe to do, but even 
to the Neglecl of their molt neceffary Bufmefs. How- 
eve^ it is in all a molt unreafonable one, for there is no 


126 The Whole Duty 0/Man. 

Man but he may find fomevvhat or other to imploy him- 
felf in. If he have little worldly Bufinefs of his own, 
he may yet do fomewhat to the Benefit of others : But 
however, there is no Man but hath a Soul, and if he 
will look carefully to that, he need not complain for 
want of Bufinefs. Where there arefo many Corruptions 
to mortify, fo many Inclinations to watch over, fo many 
Temptations (whereof this of Drunkennefs is not the 
lead) to refift, the Graces of God to improve and ftir 
up, and former Neglects ofallthefe to lament, fure 
there can never want fufficient Imploy ment ; for all 
thefe require Time ; and fo Men at their Deaths find : 
For thofe that have all their Lives made it their Bufinefs 
to drive away their Time, would then give all the 
World to redeem it. And fure, where there is much 
Leifure from worldly Affairs, God expe&s to have the 
more Time thus imployed in fpiritual Exercifes. But 
it is not likely thofe meaner fort of Perfons, to whom 
this Book is intended, will be of the Number of thofe 
that have much Leifure, and therefore I {hall no farther 
infift on it ; only I fhall fay this, that what Degrees of 
Leifure they at any time have, it concerns them to im- 
ploy to the Benefit of their Souls, and not tobefiow it to 
the Ruin of them, as they do'who fpend it in Drinking. 
8. A fixth End is faid to be the preventing of that 
Reproach, which is by the World caft 
Preventing on thofe that will in this be ftricter than 
Reproach. their Neighbours. But in anfwer to this, 

" I fhall firftafk, What is the Harm of fuch 
Reproach ?. Sure it cannot equal the leaft of thofe Mif- 
chiefs Drunkennefs betrays us to. Nay, if we will take 
©ur Saviour's Word, it is a Happinefs : Bleffed, faith he, 
areye,ivben Men Jhall revile you, and fay all manner of 
Evil againji you for my fake, Matt. v. x I. And St. Peter 
tells us, 1 Pet. iv. 14. If ye be reproached for the Name 
of Chriji, happy are ye. And fure to be reproached for 
Obedience to any Command of Chrift's, is to be re- 
proached for his Name. Secondly, let it be remem- 
bred, that at our Baptifm we folemnly renounced the 
World ; and fhall we now fo far confider it, as for a 
few Scoffs of it, to run our felves on all the temporal 


Sund. 8 .O/Tem perance /«Dr tn kin g . 1 2 7 

Evils before mentioned ; and which is much worfe, the 
Wrath of God, and Eternal Dcftrudion ? But, thirdly* 
if you fear Reproach, why do ye do that which will bring 
Reproach upon you from all wife and good Men, whofe 
Opinion alone is to be regarded ? And it is certain, Drink- 
ing is the Way to bring it on you from all fuch. And to 
comfort thy lelf againft that, by thinking thou art ftill 
applauded by the foolifh and worfe Sort of Men, is as if 
all the mad Men in the World fhould agree to account 
themfelves the only fober Perfons, and all others mad ; 
which yet fure will never make them the lefsmad, nor 
others the lefs fober. Laftly, Confider the heavy Doom 
Chrift hath pronounced on thofe that are afhamed of 
him ; and fo are all thofe that for fear of Reproach (hall 
fhrink from their Obedience to him, AJsrk, viii, 38. 
Whofceverfhall be ajb.imed of me and of my Words in this 
adulterous and finful Generation, of himjhall the Son of 
Man be ajbamed, nvhen he cometh in the Glory of his Fa- 
ther, with the holy Angels. There is none but will at that 
Day defire to be owned by Chrift : But whoever will not 
here own him, that is, cleave faft to his Commands, not- 
withstanding all the Scorns, nay, Perfecutions of the 
World, (hall then certainly be caft off by him. And 
he that will adventure thus to maintain his Credit among 
a Company of Fools and mad Men, deferves well to have 
it befal him. But, after all this, it is not fure that even 
thefe will defpife thee for thy Sobriety : It is poffible they 
may feem to do fo to fright thee out of it; but if their 
Hearts were fearched, it would be found they do, even 
againft their Wills, bear a fecret Reverence to fober Per- 
fons ; and none fall more often under their Scorn and De- 
fpifing, than thofe that run with them to the fame Excefs 
of Riot ; for even'he that flicks not to be drunk himielf, 
will yet laugh at another that he fees (o. 

9. There is afeventhEnd, which though every Man 
thinks too bafe to own, yet it is too plain 
it prevails with many, and that is, the Pleafure of 
bare Pleafure of the Drink : But to the Drink. 
thefe, I confefs, it will not be fit to fay 
much ; for he that is come to this lamentable degree 
of Sottifhnefs, is not like to receive Benefit by any thing 
G thac 

12 3 The Whole Duty of Man. 

that can be faid ; Yet let me tell even this Man, that 
lie, of all others, hath the moft Means of difcerning 
his Fault; for this being fuch a Ground of Drinking, 
as no Body will own, he is condemned of himfelf, yea, 
and all his Fellow drunkards too; for their denying it 
is a plain Sign they acknowledge it a moft abominable 
thing. And if Efau were called a profane Perfon, Heb. 
xii. 1 6. (or /el ling but his Birth right for a Mefs of Pottage, 
and that too when he had the Necefiity of Hunger upon 
him, what Name of Reproach can be bad enough for 
him, who fells his Health, his Reafon, his God, his Soul, 
for a Cup of Drink \ and that when he is fo far from 
needing it, that perhaps he hath already more than he 
can keep ; I fhall fay no more to thefe fort of Perfons, 
but let me warn all thofe that go on in this Sin, on any 
of the former Grounds, that a little time will bring them 
even to this which they profefs to loath; it being daily 
feen, that thofe, which were firft drawn into the Sin 
for the Love of the Company, at laft continue in it for 
Love of the Drink. 

10. 1 can think but of one End more, that is, that 

of Bargaining. Men fay, it is necelTary 
Bargaining. for them to drink, in this onerefpecl of 

Trading with their Neighbours: Bar- 
gains being moft conveniently to be ftruck up at fuch 
Meetings. But this is yet a worfe End than all the reft, 
for the Bottom of it is an Aim of cheating and defraud- 
ing others. We think, when Men are in Drink, we fhall 
the better be able to over- reach them ; and fo this adds 
the Sin of Cozenage and Defrauding to that of Drun- 
kennefs. Now that this is indeed the Intent, is mani- 
feft; for if it were only the difpatch of Bargains were 
aimed at, we fnould chufe to take Men with their Wits 
about them : Therefore the taking chem when Drink 
hath dillempered them, can be for nothing but to make 
Advantage of them. Yet this often proves a great Fol- 
ly, as well as a Sin; for he that drinks with another, in 
hopes to over- reach him, doth many times prove the 
weaker brain'd, and becomes drunk^firft, and then he 
gives the other that Opportunity of cheating him, which 
he defigned for the cheating of the other. Now this 


End of drinking is fo far from becoming an Excufe, 
that it is a huge Heightning of the Sin : For if we may 
not drink intemperately upon any Occafion, much lefs 
upon fo wicked a one, as is the cozening and defrauding 
of our Brethren. 

1 1 . I fuppofe I have now fhewed you the Unreafon- 
ablenefs of thofe Motives, which are or- 
dinarily brought in Excufe of this Sin. I Degrees of 
am yet farther to tell you, that it is not this Sin. 
only that huge degree of Drunkennefs, 
which makes Men able neither to go nor fpeak, which is 
to be looked on as a Sin ; but all lower degrees, which 
do at all work upon the Understanding, whether by dull- 
ing it, and making it lefs fit for any Imployment, or by 
making it too light and airy, apt toapifh and ridiculous 
Mirth ; or, what is worfe, by inflaming Men into Rage 
and Fury. Thefe, or whatever elfe make any Change 
in the Man, are to be reckoned into this Sin of Drunken- 
nefs. Nay, farther, the drinking beyond the natural Ends 
of drinking, that is, beyond moderate Rcfrefhment, is a 
Sin, though, by the Strength of a Man's Brain, it makes 
not the leaft Change in him ; and therefore thcfe that 
are not actually drunk, yet can fpend whole Days, or 
any confiderable Part of them in drinking, are fo far 
from being innocent, that that greater Woe belongs to . 
them, which is pronounced, I/a. v. 22. againft thofc 
that are mighty to drink. For though fuch a Man may 
make a Shift to preferve his Wits, yet that wit lerves 
him to very little Purpofe, when his Imployment is Hill 
but the fame with him that is the moit fottiihly drunk, 
that is, to pour down drink. 

1 2. Nay, this Man is guilty of the greatefl Wafte ; 
Firft, of the good Creatures of God : 
That Drink, which is by God's Provi- The great guilt 
dence intended for the refreshing and re- of the -/hong 
lieving of us, is abufed and mifpent, Drinkers. 
when it is drunk beyond that Meafure 
which thofe Ends require: And fure there is not the 
meaneft of thefe Creatures we enjoy, but the Abufe of 
them (hall one day be accounted for ; and he that drinks 
longeft, hath the moft of that Guilt. But in the fscond 
G 2 Place, 

130 The Whole Duty of Man. 

Place, this is a Wade of that which is much more pre- 
cious, our Time, which is allowed us by God to work 
out our Salvation in, and muft be Aridity reckoned for ; 
and therefore ought every Minute of it to be moil thrif- 
tily hufbanded to that End in Aclions of good Life j but 
when it is thus laid out, it tends to the direct contrary, 
even the working out our Damnation. Befides, he that 
thus drinks, though he efcape being drunk himfelf, he is 
yet guilty of all the Drunkennefs that any of his Com- 
pany fall under; for he gives them Encouragement to 
drink on by his Example, efpecially if he be one of any 
Authority ; but if he be one, whofe Company the reft are 
fond of, his Company is then a certain enfnaring of them ; 
for then they will drink too, rather than lofe him. There 
is yet a greater Fault that many of thefe ftronger-brain'd 
Drinkers are guilty of, that is, the fetting themfelves 
purpofely to make others drunk, playing, as it were, a 
Prize at it, and counting it Matter of Triumph and Vic- 
tory to fee others fall before them. This is a moft horrible 
Wickednefs j it is the making our felves the Devil's Fac- 
tors, endeavouring all we can to draw our poor Bre- 
thren into eternal Mifery, by betraying them to fo griev- 
ous a Sin ; and therefore it may well be reckoned as the 
higheft Step of this Vice of drinking, as having in it 
the Sin of mifchiefing others added to the Excefs in our 
felves. And though it be look'd upon in the World as 
a Matter only of Jeft and Merriment to make others 
drunk, that we may fport our felves with their ridiculous 
Behaviour, yet that Mirth will have a fad Conclufion, 
there being Woe exprefsly threatned by God to this 
very Sin, Ileb. ii. 15. Woe unto him that givetb his 
Neighbour Drink : that putteji thy Bottle to him, and 
makeji him drunken al/o, that thou mayeft look on their 
Nakednefs. And fure he buys his idle Paftime very 
dear, that takes it with fuch a Woe attending it. 
13,1 have now gone through the feveral Motives to, 
and degrees of this Sin of Drunkennefs, 
The great Mif' wherein I have been more particular, 
thief s of this becaufe it is a Sin fo ftrangely reigning 
Sjn P amongft us: No Condition, no Age, or 

fcarce Sex free from ii, to the great 

Sund.8.0/TEMPERANCE /»D R INKING. 13 t 

Dilhonourof God, Reproach of Chriftianity, and Ruirr 
not only of our own Souls hereafter, but even of all 
our prefent Advantages and Happinefs in this Life ; there 
being no Sin whieh betrays each fingle Committer to 
more mifchiefs in his Underftanding, his Health, his Cre- 
dit, his Eftate, than this one doth. And we have Reafon 
to believe this Sin is one of thofe common crying Guilts, 
which have long lain heavy upon this Nation, and pulled 
down thofe many fad Judgments we have groaned under. 

14. Therefore, Chriftian Reader, let me now intreat, 
nay, conjure thee, by all that Tendernefs 
and Love thou oughteit to have to the Exhortation 
Honour of God, the Credit of thy to forfake it, 
Chriftian Profeffion, eternal Welfare of 
thine own Soul, the Profperity of the Church and Na- 
tion, whereof thou art a Member ; nay, by that Love, 
which certainly thou haft to thy own temporal Welfare, 
to think fadly of what hath been fpoken ; and then 
judge whether there be any Pleafure in this Sin, which 
can be any tolerable recompence for all thofe Mifchiefs it 
brings with it. I am confident no Man in his Wits can 
think there is; and if there be not, then be afhamed to 
be any longer that Fool, which (hall make fo wretched 
a Bargain, but begin at this inftant a firm and faithful 
Refolution, never once more to be guilty of thisfwinifh 
Sin, how often foever thou haft heretofore fallen into it; 
and in the Fear of God betake thee to a Uriel Tempe- 
rance, which when thou naft done, thou wilt find thou 
haft made not only a gainful, but a pleafant Exchange: 
For there is no Man that hath tried both Courfes, but 
his own Heart will tell him, there is infinitely more pre- 
fent Comfort and Pleafure in Sobriety and Temperance, 
than ever all his drunken Reveliings afforded him. 

1 5. The main Difficulty is the firft breaking off the 
Cuftom ; and that arifes partly from our 
felves, partly from others. That from The difficult it* 
our felves may be of two Sorts ; the nrfl of doing fo 
is, when, by the Habit of Drinking, we confidtred. 
have brought fuch falfe Thirfts upon our „ . KT r 
felves, that our Bodies feem to require it : y tm J'g *"*■>' 
A*d this wants nothing but a little Pati- W Urtnktng.- 
G 3 ence 

132 The Whole Duty of Man. 

ence to overcome. Do but refrain fome few Days, and 
it will afterwards grow eafy; for the Hard nefs arifing 
only from Cuftom, the breaking off that does the Bufi- 
nefs. If thou fay, it is very uneafy to do fo, confider,. 
whether if thou hail fome Difeafe which would certain- 
ly kill thee, if thou didll not for fome little time refrain 
immoderate Drinking, thou wouldeft not rather forbear 
than die. If thou wouldeft not, thou art fo brutifh a 
Sot, that it is in vain to perfuade thee : But if thou, 
wouldeft, then confider how unreafonable it is for thee 
not to do it in this Cafe alfo. The Habit of Drinking 
may well pafs for a mortal Difeafe, it proves fo very of- 
ten to the Body, but will moft certainly to the Soul; 
and therefore it is Madnefs to flick at that Uneafinefs 
in the Cure of this, which thou wouldeft fubmit to in a 
lefs Danger. Set therefore but a refolute Purpofe to en- 
dure that little Trouble for a fmall time, and this firft 
Difficulty is conquer'd : For after thou haft a while re- 
frained, it will be perfectly eafy to do fo ilill. 

16. The fecond Difficulty is, that of fpending the 

Time, which thofe that have made 
Want of Ith- Drinking their Trade and Bufinefs^ 
floyment. know fcarce how to difpofe of. But the 

very naming of this Difficulty direcls to 
the Cure: Get thee fome Bufinefs, fomewhat to imploy 
thy felf in, which, as I have already (hewed, will be 
eafily found by all Sorts of Perfons; but thofe meaner, 
to whom I now write, can fure never want it ready at 
hand, they being generally fuch as are to be maintain- 
ed by their Labour; and therefore to them I need only 
give this Advice, To be diligent in that Bufinefs they 
have, to follow that clofe as they ought ; and they will 
have little occafion to feek out this way of fpending 
their Time. 

17. There is another fort of Difficulty, which I told 

you arifes from others, and that is either 
Perfuajions from their perfuafions, or Reproaches. 
and Reproach- It is very likely, if thy old Compani- 
es of Men, ons fee thee begin to fall off, they will 

fet hard to thee, to bring thee back to 
thy old Courfe ; they will urge to thee the Unkindnefs 


of forfaking the Company of thy Friends, the Sadnefs 
of renouncing all th3t Mirth and Jollity, which Good- 
fellows (as they call them) enjoy ; and if thou canft not 
thus be won, they will affright thee with the Reproach 
of the World, and fo try if they can mock thee out of 
thy Sobriety. 

j 8. The Way to overcome this Difficulty, is to fore- 
fee it; therefore, when thou firft enter- 
eil on thy Courfe of Temperance, thou The Means of 
art to make account thou ih::lt meet with refijiing than* 
thefe (perhaps many other) Temptations ; 
andNmat thou mayell make a right Judgment whether 
they be worthy to prevail with thee, take them before- 
hand and weigh them; confider whether that falfe Kind- 
nefs that is maintained among Men by Drinking, be 
worthy to be compared with that real 
and everlaiting Kindnefs of God, which Weigh the Ad- 
is loft by it ; whether that foolifh vain <vantages<u-'ub 
Mirth bear any Weight with the pre- the Hurt. 
fent Joys' of a good Conference here, 
or with thofe greater of Keaven hereafter. Ladly, 
Whether the unjuit Reproach of wicked Men, the 
Shame of the World, be fo terrible, as the jult Re- 
proof of thine own Confcience at the prefent, and that 
eternal Confufion of Face that (hall befal all thofe that 
go on in this Sin, at the lail Day ; weigh all thefe, I 
fay, I need not fay in the Balance of the Sanctuary, 
but even in the Scales of Common Reafon ; and fure 
thou wilt be forced to pronounce, that the Motives to 
Temperance infinitely outweigh thofe againit it. When 
thou halt thus adVifedly judged, then fix thy Refolu- 
tibn accordingly; and whenever any of thefe Temp- 
tations come to lUgge* thee, remember thou hall for- 
merly weighed them, knoweft the jult Value of them, 
and that they are a moll unworthy Price for thofe pre- 
cious Advantages thou muft give in Exchange for tnem. 
And therefore hold rail thy Resolution, and with In- 
dignation rejeel all Motives to the contrary. . 

19. But be fure thou thus reject them at their very 

firft ' 
G 4 

124 2"^ Whole Duty of Man. 

flrft Tender, and do not yield in the Ieaft 
JRejecl the Degree; for if once thou giveft Ground, 

Temptations thou art loft ; the Sin will by little and 
at the 'very little prevail upon thee. Thus we may 
beginning. fee many, who have profeffed to be re- 

folved upon great Temperance, yet, for 
want of this Care, have adventured into the Company 
of Good fellows: When they have been there, they 
have at the firft been over-intreated to take a Cup, after 
that another, till at laft they have taken their Rounds 
as freely as any of them, and in that Flood of Drink 
drowned all their fober Refolutions. Therefore, who- 
ever thou art, that doft really defire to forfake the Sin, 
take care to avoid the Occafions and Beginnings of it. 
To which end it will be good openly to declare and own 
thy Purpofes of Sobriety, that fo thou mayeft difcou- 
rage Men from aflaulting thee. Bui if either thou art 
aihamed to own it, or feemeft to be {o, they will quick- 
ly make ufe of that (hame to bring thee to break it. 

20. If thou be thus wary to keep thee from the iirft 

Beginnings, thou art then fure never to be 
The Security overtaken with this Sin; for it is like the 
of doing fe. keeping the Out-works of a befieged City, 

which fo long as they are ftoutly defended, 
there is no Danger; but if they be either furprized or 
yielded, the City cannot long hold out. The Advice 
therefore of the Wife Man is very agreeable to this Mat- 
ter, Eccluf.xix. l.Hetkat defpifeth fm all things Jh all pe- 
rijk by little and little. But becaufe, as the Pfalmift faith, 
P/al. cxxvii. 1 . Except the Lord keep the City, the Watch- 
man txakttb but in vain : Therefore to this Guard of thy 
felf acid thy moft earnell Prayers to God, that he will 
alfo watch over thee, and by the ftrength of his Grace 
enable thee to refill all Temptations to this Sin. 

21 . If thou do, in the Sincerity of thy Heart ufe thefe. 

Means,, there is no doubt but thou wilt 
The Efficacy of be able to overcome this Vice, how long^ 
ibefe Means, foever thou haft been accuftomed to it :. 
if not hinder- Therefore, if thou do ftill remain under 
ed by Love of the Power of it, never excufe thy felf 
the Sin, by the Impoflibility of the Taik : But: 


Sund.8.0/TEMPERANCE/#DRIN£l , NG. I 35' 

rather accufe the Falfenefs of thy own Heart, that hath 
Hill fuch a Love to this Sin, that thou wilt not fet 
roundly to the Means of fubduing it. 

22. Perhaps the great Commonnefs of the Sin, and 
thy particular Cuftom of it, may have 
made it fo much thy Familiar, thy' Bo- That Love 
fom Acquaintance, that thou art loath makes a Man: 
to entertain hard Thoughts of it; very loath to be- 
unwilling thou art to think that it means lieve it dan- 
thee any hurt, and therefore art apt to gerous. 
fpeak Peace to thyfelf, to hope that this 
is either no Sin, or at mod but a Frailty, fuch as will 
not bar thee out of Heaven: But deceive not thyfelf, 
for thou mayefl as well fay there is no Heaven, as that 
Drunkennefs fhall not keep thee thence ; I am fure the 
fame Word of God, which tells us there is fuch a Place of 
Happinefs, tells us alfo that Drunkards are of the Num - 
ber of thofe that fhall not inherit it, 1 Cor. vi. 10.. And- 
again, Gal. v. 21. Drunkennefs is reckoned among 
thofe Works of the Flefh, which they that do, /hall not 
inherit the Kingdom of God. And indeed had not thefe 
plain Texts, yet mere Reafon would tell you the fame, 
that that is a Place of infinite Purity, fuch as Flefh and 
Blood, till it be refined and purified, is not capable of,, 
as the Apoftle tells us, 1 Cor. xv. 53* and if as we are- 
mere Men we are too grofs and impure for it, we mufl 
fure be more fo, when we have changed ourfelves into 
Swine, the fouleft of Beafts : We are then prepared 
for the Devils to enter into, as they did into the Herd, 
Matt. v. 13. and that not only fome one or two, but 
a Legion, a Troop, and Multitude of them. And of 
this we daily fee Examples; for where this Sin of 
Drunkennefs hath taken PofTeffion, it ufually comes as 
an Harbinger to Abundance of others ; each Aft of 
Drunkennefs prepares a Man not only for another of 
the fame Sin, but of others ; Luft and Rage, and ali 
brutifh Appetites are then let loofe, and fo a Man 
brings himfelf under that Curfe, which was the faddeft 
David knew how to foretel to any i The Falling from 
oneJVUkedneft to another ^ P/al. lxix ; 27. If all tmV 
be notenoug^ taaf&ight thee out of thi* drunken Fit*, 
G* 5, thw 

j 36 The Whole Duty of Man. 

thou mayeft ft II 1 wallow in thy Vomit, continue in thi s 
fottifli, fenfelefs Condition, till the Flames of Hell roufe 
thee, and then thou wilt, by fad Experience, find what 
now thou wilt not believe, That the End of thofe Things, 
(as the Apoftle faith, Rom. vi. 21.) is Death. God in 
his infinite Me : c/ timely awake the Hearts of all that 
are in this Sin, that by a timely Forfaking it, they may 
fly from the Wrath to come. I have now done with this 
fecond Part of Temperance, concerning Drinking. 


Temperance in Sleep : The Rule of it, &c, 
Mifchiefs of Sloth, of Recreations \ Cautions 
to be obferved in them : Of Apparel, &c. 

Sect. ii'TpHE third Part of Temperance 
JL concerns Sleep: And Temperance 
Sleep. in that alfo muft be meafured by the End for 
which Sleep was ordained by God, which was 
only the Refrefhing and fupporting of our frail Bodies ; 
which beingof fuch a Temper, that continual Labour and 
Toil tires and wearies them out, Sleep comes as a Me- 
dicine to that Wearinefs, as a Repairer of that Decay, 
that fo we may be enabled to fuch Labours as the Duties 
of Religion, or the Works of our Calling require of 
us. Sleep was intended to make us more profitable, not 
more idle ; as we give reft to our Beafts, not that we 
are pleas'd with their doing nothing, but that they may 
do us the better Service. 

2. By this therefore you may judge what is tempe- 
rate Sleeping ; to wit, that which tends 
Ike Rule of to the refrefhing and making us more 
Temperance lively and fit for Action ; and to that 
therein. End a moderate Degree ferves belt. It 

will be impofTible to fet down juft how 
many Hours is that moderate Degree, becaufe, as in 
Eating, fo in Sleep, fome Conftitmions require more 


Sund. 9. O/Tem pera nce in Sleep. 137 

than others: Every Man's own Experience mull in this 
judge for him : But then let him judge uprightly, and 
not confult with his Sloth in the Cafe ; for that will 
Hill, with Solomon's Sluggard, cry, A little more Sleep* 
a little more Slumber, a little more folding of the Hands 
to Sleep, Prov. xxiv. 33. but take only fo much as he 
really finds to tend to the End fore- mentioned. 

3. He that doth not thus limit himfelf, falls into fe- 
veral Sins under this general one of 

Sloth : As firlr, he wafles his Time, that The many 
precious Talent which was committed Sim that fol- 
io him by God to improve; which he laivtbeTt 
that fleeps away, doth like him in the greffion of it. 
G of pel, Matt. xxv. 1 8. Hide it in the 
Earth, when he mould be trading with it : And you 
know what was the Doom of that unprofitable Servant, 
ver. 30. Cajiye him into outer Darfoefs. He that gives 
himfelf to Darknefs of Sleep here, mall there have 
Darknefs without Sleep, but with weeping and gnafking 
of Teeth. Secondly, he injures his Body : Immoderate 
Sleep fills that full of Dileafes, makes it a very Sink of 
Humours, as daily Experience fhews us. Thirdly, he 
injures his Soul alfo, and that not only in robbing it 
of the Service of the Body, but in dulling its proper 
Faculties, making them ufelefs and unfit for thole I in- 
payments to which God hath defign'd them ; of all 
which ill Hufbandry the poor Soul mutt one Day give 
account. Nay, laftly, he affronts and defpifes God 
himfelf in it by crofiing the very End of his Creation, 
which was to ferve God in an active Obedience : But 
he that fleeps away his Life, directly thwarts and con- 
tradicts that; and when God faith, Man is born to La- 
bour, his Practice faith the direct contrary, that Man is 
born to reft. Take heed therefore of giving thyfelf to 
immoderate Sleep, which is the committing of fo many 
Sins in one. 

4. But befides the Sin of it, it is alfo very hurtful in 
other Refpects ; it is the fure Bane of 

thy outward Eilate, wherein the fluggifh Other Mif- 
Perfon (hall never thrive, according to chiefs of Sloth* ■ 
that Obfervation of the Wife Man, Prov. 


138 The Whole Duty of Man. 

xxiii. 21. Drontjtnefs Jhall cover a Man with Rags;. 
that is, the flothful Man fhall want convenient cloath- 
ing ; nay, indeed it can fcarce be fa id that the Sluggard: 
lives. Sleep, you know, is a kind of- Death, and he that 
gives himfelf up to it what doth he but die before. his 
Time ? Therefore, if untimely Death be to be looked 
upon, as a Curfe, it mull needs be a ftrange Folly to. 
choofe that from our own Sloth which we. dread fo, 
much from God's Hand. 

5. The fourth Part of Temperance concerns Rbcre-. 

at ions, which are fometimes necef- 
Temperance in fary both to the Body and the Mind, 
Recitations,. of a Man, neither of them being able 

to endure a conftant Toil, without fome- 
what of Refrefliment between ; and therefore this is a 
very lawful Ufe of them.: But to make it fo, it will be 
neceffary to obferve thefe Cautions., 

6. Firtt, we muft take Care that the Kind; of them, 

be lawful* that, they be fuch as have 
Cautions to~ht nothing of Sin in them; we muft not, 
thfer<ved in to recreate ourfelves, do any thing 

them, which is diihonourable to God, or inju- 

rious to our Neighbour, as they do* 
who make profane, filthy, or backbiting Difcourfe their- 
Recreation. Secondly, we muft take Care that- we ufe 
it with Moderation, and to do fo* we muft firft be fure 
not to fpend too much Time upon it, but remember,, 
that the End of- Recreation is to fit us for.Buftnefs, not 
to be itfelf a Bufinefs to us. Secondly, we muft not 
be too vehement and earned in it, nor fet our Hearts 
too much upon it j for that will both enfnare us to the ; 
ufing too much of. it,. and it will divert and take off our: 
Minds from our more neceffary Imployments, like School- 
hoys, who, after a Play -time, know not now to fet them- 
felves to their Books again.. Laftly, we muft not fet 
up. to ourfelves any other End of Recreations but that, 
lawful one, of giving us moderate Refrefliment. 

7. A^ firft, we are not to ufe Sports only to pafs a- 

way our Time, which we ought to ftudy. 

X{n4utEndfof how to-, redeem, not ilingaway; and 

•Sjtartt.. wheaisisjeraembrediiow great a.Work: 


S'und. 8. Of Sports, &c. 139 

we have here to do, the making cur Calling and Elcfii* 
onfurei thefecuring our Title to Heaven hereafter, and 
how uncertain we are what Time (hall be allowed us 
for that Purpofe ; it will appear our Time is that which, 
of all other Things, we ought moft induftrioufly to im- 
prove; And therefore, fure, we have little need of 
contriving Ways of driving that away, which flies fo 
fall of it felf, and is fo impoflible to recover. Let them 
that can fpend whole Days and Nights at Cards and 
Dice, and idle Paftimes, confider this, and withal 
whether they ever bellowed Quarter of that Time to- 
wards that great Bufinefs of their Lives, for which 
all their Time was given them ; and then think, 
what a woful Reckoning they are like to make, when 
they come at laft to account for that precious Treafure 
of their Time. Secondly, we muft not let our Cove- 
toufnefs have any thing to do in our Recreations ; if 
we play at any Game, let the End of doing it be 
merely to recreate our felves, not to win money ; and 
to that Purpofe be fure never to play for any confider- 
able Matter; for if thou do, thou wilt bring thyfelf 
into two Dangers, the one of Covetoufnefs, and a greedy 
Defire of winning ; the other of Rage and Anger at 
thy ill Fortune, if thou happen to lofe : Both which 
will be apt to draw thee into other Sins befides them- 
felves.. Covetoufnefs will tempt thee to cheat and 
cozen in gaming, and Anger to fwearing and curfing, 
as common Experience fhews us too often. If thou 
find thyfelf apt to fall into either of thefe in thy Ga- 
ming, thou muft either take fome Courfe to fecure thy- 
felf againft them, or thou muft not permit thyfelf to 
play. at. all. For though moderate Play be in itfelf 
not unlawful, yet if it be the Occaiion of Sin, it. is fo 
to thee, and therefore muft not be ventured on.. For 
if Chrfft commands us fo ftri&ly to avoid Temptations, 
that if our very Eyes or Hands offend us (that is, prove 
Snares to us) we muft rather part with them, than to 
be drawn to Sin by them, how much rather muft we 
part with any, of thefe unnecefTary fports, than run the : 
Hazard of>offending v God by them?r He that fo plays,, 
lays his-. Soui to.Stake, which is too great a Prize to be 


140 Ihe Whole Duty of Man. 

played away. Befides he lofes all the Recreation and 
Sport he pretends to aim at, and, inftead of that, lets 
himfelf to a greater Toil than any of thofe Labour? are, 
he was to eafe by it. For fure the Defires and Fears 
of the Covetous, the Impatience and Rage of the an- 
gry Man, are more real Pains than any the moll labo- 
rious Work can be. 

8. The laft Part of Temperance is that of APPA- 

REL ; which we are again to meafure 
Temperance in by the Agreeablenefs to the Ends for 
Apparel. which Clothing fhould be ufed. Thofe 

are efpecially thefe three j firft, the 
Apparel de- hiding of Nakednefs : This was the firft 
fignedfor co- Occafion of Apparel, as you may read, 
-wring of Gen. iii. 21. and was the EfFecl of the 

Shame. firlt Sin; and therefore when we re- 

member the Original of Clothes, we 
have fo little Reafon to be proud of them, that on the 
contrary, we have Caufe to be humbled and afbamed, as 
having loft that Innocency, which was a much greater 
Ornament than any the moll: glorious Apparel can be. 
From this End of Clothing we are likewife engaged 
to have our Apparel modeft, fuch as may anfvver this 
End of covering our fhame; and therefore all immodeft 
Fafhionsof Apparel, which may either argue the Wan-, 
tonnefs of the. Wearer, or provoke that of the Beholder, 
are to be avoided. 

9. A fecond End of Apparel' is the fencing the Bo- 

dy from Cold, thereby to preferve the 
Fencing from Health thereof. And this End we mult 
Cold. likewife obferve in our Clothing : We 

muft wear fuch kind of Habits, as may 
keep us in that convenient Warmth, which is necefiary 
to our Healths. And this is tranfgrelTed, when, out of 
the Vanity of being in every fantaftick Fafhion, we put 
ourfelves in fuch Clothing, as either will not defend us 
from Cold, or is fome other Way fo uneafy, that it is 
rather a Hurt than a Benefit to our Bodies to be fo clad. 
This is a moft ridiculous folly, and yet that which Peo- 
ple that take a Pride in their Clothes, are ufually guilty 

10. A 

/ind. 9. Of Apparel, &c. 141 

10. A third End of Apparel is the diftinguifhing or 
lifferencing of Perfons; and that, firft, 
in refped of Sex; Secondly, in refpecl DiftinBion of 
of Qualities. Firft, Clothes are to make Perfons. 
j» Difference of Sex; this hath been ob- 
ferved by all Nations, the Habits of Men and Women 
have always beemdiverfe. And God himfelf exprefly 
provided for it among the Jews, by commanding that 
the Man mould not wear the Apparel of the Woman, 
nor the Woman of the Man. But then, Secondly, 
there is alfo a Diftinclion of Qualities to be obferved in 
Apparel: God hath placed fome in a higher Condition 
than others ; and in Proportion to their Condition, it 
befits their Clothing to be. Gorgeous Apparel, our Sa- 
viour tells us, is for Kings Courts, Luke vii. 25. Now 
this End of Apparel mould alfo be obferved. Men and 
Women fhould content themfelves with that Sort of 
Clothing, which agrees to their Sex and Condition, not 
driving to exceed or equal that of a higher Rank, nor 
yet making it Matter of Envy among thofe of their 
own Eftate, vying who fhall be fineft. But let every Man 
clothe himfelf in fuch fober Attire, as befits his Place 
and Calling, and not think himfelf difparaged, if ano- 
ther of his Neighbours have better than he. 

II. And let all remember, that Clothes are things 
which add no true Worth to any ; and therefore it is an 
intolerable Vanity, to fpend any confiderable Part either 
of their Thoughts, Time, or Wealth upon them, or 
to value themfelves ever the more for them, or defpife 
their poor Brethren that want them. But if they defire 
to adorn themfelves, let it be, as St. Peter advifeth 
the Women of his Time, 1 Pet. iii. 4. In the bidden 
Man of the Heart t even the Ornament of a meek and 
quiet Spirit. Let them clothe themfelves as richly as 
is poflible with all Chriftian Virtues, and that is the 
Raiment that will fet them out lovely in God's Eyes, 
yea, and in Men's to<<; who, unlefs they be Fools 
and Idiots, will more value thee for being good, than 
Fine. Andfure one plain Coat thou putteft upon a poor 
Man's Back, will better become thee, than twenty 
rich ones thou fhalt put upon thine own. 

12. 1 

142 The Whole Duty of Man. 

12. I have now gone through the feveral Parts of 
Temperance ;, I fhall now, in Conclufi- 
Too mucbSpa- on, add this general Caution, that 
ring a Fault, though in all thefe Particulars I hav<5 
as well as taken notice only of the one Fault of 

Excefs.. Excefs, yet it is poffibje there may be 

one on the other Hand : Men may deny 
their Bodies that which they neceffarily require to their 
Support and Well-being. ^This is, I believe,, a Fault 
not fo common as the other ; yet we fometimes fee fome 
very niggardly Perfons, that are guilty of it, that cannot 
find in their Hearts to borrow fo much from their Chefts, 
as may fill their Bellies, or clothe their Backs : And- 
that are fo intent upon the World, fo moiling and 
drudging in it, that they cannot afford themfelves that 
competent Time of Sleep, or Recreation, that is ne- 
ceffary. If any that hath read the former Part of this- 
Difcourfe, be of this Temper, let him not comfort him- 
felf that he is not guilty of thofe Exceffes there com- 
plained of, and therefore conclude himfelf a good Chri- 
iftian, becaufe he is not intemperate j for whoever is 
this covetous Creature, his abftaining fhall not be count- 
ed to him as the Virtue of Temperance ;- for it is not 
the Love of Temperance, but Wealth, that makes him; 
refrain; and that is fo far from being Praife- worthy, 
that it is that great Sin which the Apoftle tells us, r 
<fim. vi. 10. is the Root of all Evil. Such a Man's 
Body will one Day rife in Judgment againft him, for 
defrauding it of its due Portion, thofe moderate Refrem- 
ments and Comforts which God hath allowed it. Tins 
is an Idolatry beyond that of offering the Children to 
Molech, Lev< xx. 3. They offered but their Children, but 
this covetous Wretch facrifices himfelf to his God Mam- 
mon, whilft he often deftroy s his Health, , his Life, yea, . 
finally his Soul too, to fave his Purfe, I have now 
done with the Second Head of Duty, that to our Selves,, 
contained by) the: Appfile under the ^ word foberly, 


Sund. io, Of J v stick to our Neighbour. 143 

Of Duties to our Neighbour. Of Jujiice y 
negative, pofitive. Of the Sin of Murder, 
of the Heinoufnef of it, the Puni/bments of 
it, and the ftrange Difcoveries thereof. 
Of Mai mingy &c. 

I Come now to the third Part of Du- Sect. r. 
ties, thofe to our NEIGHBOUR, 
which are by the Apoftle fummed up in Duty to our 
grofs in the Word RighteoufneJs> by Neighbour. 
which is meant not only bare Juftice, but 
all kind of Charity alfo; for that is now by the Law 
of Chrift become a Debt to our Neighbour, and it is a 
Piece of Unrighteoufnefs to defraud him of it. I (hall 
therefore build all the particular Duties we owe to our 
Neighbour on thofe two general ones, Juftice and 

2. I begin with Juftice, whereof there are two Parts, 
the one Negative, the other Pofitive. 

The Negative Juftice is to do no Wrong Jujlice. 
or Injury to any : The Pofitive Juftice 
is to do Right to all ; that is, to yield them whatfo- 
ever appertains or is due unto them. I (hall firft fpealc 
of the Negative Juftice, the not injuring 
or wrongingany. Now, becaufe a Man Negative. 
k capable of receiving wrong in feveral 
Refpe&s, this firft Part of Juftice extends itfelf into fe» 
veral Branches, anjwerable to thofe Capacities of Injury. 
A Man may be injured either in his Soul, his Body, his 
Pofleffions, or Credit ; and therefore this Duty of Ne- 
gative Juftice lays a Reftraint on us in every of thefe, 
that we do no Wrong to any Man in refped, either 
©f his Soul, his Body, his Pofleffions, or his Credit. 

3. Firft, This Juftice ties us to do no hurt to hi* 
Soul. And here my firft Work mult be, 

to examine, what Harm is it that the To the Soul. 
Soul can receive ? It is, we know, an 


144 *the Whole Duty of Man. 

invifible Subftance, which we cannot reach with our 
Eye, much lefs with our Swords and Weapons : yet for 
all that it is capable of being hurt and wounded, and that 
even to Death. 

4. Now the Soul may be confidered either in a natural 

or fpiritual Senfe : In the natural it fig- 
In the natural niiies that which we ufually call the 
Senfe. Mind of a Man ; and this, we all know, 

may be wounded with Grief or Sadnefs, 
as Solomon faith, Pro<v. xv. 13. By Sorrow of Heart, the 
Spirit is broken. Therefore whoever doth caufelefly af- 
flict or grieve his Neighbour, he tranfgrefies this Part of 
Juilice, and hurts and wrongs his Soul. This Sort cf In- 
jury malicious and fpiteful Men are very often guilty of; 
they will 'do Things, by which themfelves reap no good, 
nay, often much Harm, only that they may vex and 
grieve another. This is a mod favage, inhumane Hu- 
mour, thus to take Pleafure in the Sadnefs and Afflic- 
tions of others ; and whoever harbours it in his Heart 
may truly be faid to be pofleiled with a Devil ; for it is 
the Nature only of thofe accurfed Spirits, to delight in- 
the Miferies of Men ; and till that be caft out, they 
are fit only to dwell as the pofleiTed Perfon did, Mark v. 
2. Among Graves and Tombs, where there are none 
capable of receiving Affliction by them. 

5. But the Soul may be confidered alfo in the fpiri- 

tual Senfe ; and fo it fignifies that im- 
In the Spiri- mortal Part of us which mufl live eter- 
tuaL nally, either in Blifs or Woe in another 

World. And the Soul thus underftood 
is capable of two Sorts of Harm : Firit, that of Sin ; 
Secondly, that of Punifhment. The latter whereof is 
certainly the Confeqaent of the former. And therefore, 
though God be the Inflicler of Punifhment, yet fince 
it is but the Effect of Sin, we may juftly reckon that he 
that draws a Man to Sin, is likewife the Betrayer of 
him to Punifhment, as he that gives a Man a mortal 
Wound, is the Caufe of his Death : Therefore under 
the Evil of Sin both are contained, fo that I need fpeak 
only of that. 

6. And . 0/ Just ice to our Neighbour. 145 

6. And fure there cannot be a higher Sort of Wrong, 
than the bringing this great Evil upon ~ . 

the Soul. Sin is the Difeafe and Wound « .. ,» > 

of the Soul, as being the direct contrary ' , e .% re ■ 
to Grace, which is the Health and Sound- " n J r J' 
nefs of it : Now this Wound we give to every Soul, whom 
we do, by any Means whatfoever, draw into Sin. 

7. The Ways of doing that are divers ; I Ihall men- 
tion fome of them, whereof though fome 

are more direct than others, yet all tend Direcl Means 
to the fame End. Of the more direct of it. 
ones, there is, firft, the commanding of 
Sin, that is, when a Perfon that hath Power over ano- 
ther, (hall require him to do fomething which is unlaw- 
ful : An Example of this we have in Nebuchadnezzar's 
commanding the Worfhip of the golden Image, Dan. iii. 
4. and his Copy is imitated by any Parent or Mafter, 
who (hall require of his Child or Servant to do any un- 
lawful Act. Secondly, there is counfelling of Sin, when 
Menadvifeand perfuade others to any Wickednefs: Thus 
yob's Wife counfelled herHufband to curfeGod,^^. ii. 
9. And Ahithophel advifed Abfaiom to go in to his Fa- 
ther's Concubines, 2 Sam. xvi. 2 1 . Thirdly, there is en- 
ticing and alluring to Sin, by fetting before Men the 
Pleasures or Profits they mail reap by it. Of this fort of 
Enticement Solomon gives Warning, Prov.'i. 10. My 
Son, if Sinners entice thee, confent thou not ; if they fay, 
Come with us, let us lay ivait for Blood, let us lurk privily 
for the Innocent without a Caufe, &c. and Verfe the 1 yh, 
you may fee what is the Bait, by which they leek to al- 
lure them ; Wejhallfind all precious Subftance; ixjejball 
fill our Houfes njuith Spoil; cafi in thy Lot among us, let us 
all have one Purfe. Fourthly, there is Afliftance in Sin ; 
that is, when Men aid and help others, either in contriving 
or acting a Sin. Thus Jonadub helped Amman in plotting 
the ravifhing of his Sifter, 2 Sam. xiii. Ail thefe are direct 
Means of bringing this great Evil of Sin upon our Bre- 

8. There are alfo others, which though they feem 
more indirect, may yet be as effectual 
towards that ill End : As firft, Example Indirect. 


146" The Whole Duty of Man. 

in Sin ; he that fets others an ill Pattern, does his Part to 
make them imitate it, and too often it hath that Effedt ; 
there being generally nothing more forcible to bring 
Men into any finful Pra&ice, than the feeing it ufed 
by others ; as might be inftanced in many Sins, to which 
there is no other Temptation, but their being in Famion. 
Secondly, there is Encouragement in Sin, when either by 
approving, or eKe, at leaft, by not (hewing a Diflike, 
we give others Confidence to goon in their Wickednefs. 
A third Means is by juftifying and defending any (inful 
A&. of another's; for by that we do not only confirm him 
in his Evil, but endanger the drawing others to the like, 
who may be the more inclinable to it, when they ihall 
hear it fo pleaded for. Laftly, the bringing up any Re- 
proach upon itridl and Chriftian Living, as thofe do, who 
have the Ways of God in Derifion : This is a Means to 
affright Men from the Practice of Duty, when they fee 
it will bring them to be fcorned and defpifed : This is 
worfe than all the former, not only in reif eel of the 
Man who is guilty of it (as it is an Evidence of the great 
Profanenefs of his own Heart) but alfo in regard of 0- 
thers, it having a more general ill Effect than any of the 
former can have ; it being the betraying Men, not only 
to fome fmgle Acls*of Difobedience toChrift, but even 
to the catting off all Subjection to him. By all thefe 
Means we may draw on ourfelves this great Guilt of 
injuring and wounding the Souls of our Brethren. 
9. It would be too long for me to inftance in all the 
feveral Sins, in which it is ufual for Men 
Men ought fadly to enfnare others ; as Dr-unkennefs, Un- 
to con ftder whom cleannefs, Rebellion, and a Multitude 
they have thus more. But it will concern every Man 
injured* for his own Particular, to confider fadly 

what Mifchiefs of this kind he hath 
done to any, by all or any of thefe Means, and to weigh 
well the Greatnefs of the Injury. Men are apt to boaft: 
of their Innocency towards their Neighbours, that they 
have done Wrong to no Man ; but God knows, many 
that thus brag, are of all others the moft injurious Per- 
fons. Perhaps they have not maimed his Body, nor 
ftolen his Goods j. but alas !. the Body is but the Cafe 

and- Of Just ice to our Neighbour. 147 

and Cover of a Man, and the Goods fome Appurte- 
nances to that ; it is the Soul is the Man, and that they 
can wound and pierce without Remorfe, and yet with 
the Adulterefs, Prom. xxx. 20. fay, They have done no 
Wickednefs ; but glory of their Friendly Behaviour to 
thofe, whom they thus betray to eternal Ruin. For 
whomfoever thou haft drawn to any Sin, thou haft done 
thy Part to afcertain to thofe endlefs Flames. And 
then think with thy felf how bafe a Treachery this is : 
Thou wouldft call him a treacherous Villain, that 
mould, while he pretends to embrace a Man, fecretly 
ftab him : but this of thine is as far beyond that, as 
the Soul is of more Value than the Body, and Hell 
worfe than Death. And remember yet farther, that 
befides the Cruelty of it to thy poor Brother, it is alfo 
moft dangerous to thy felf; it being that againft which 
Chrift hath pronounced a Woe, Matt, xviii. 7. And 
Verfe 6. he tells us, that whoever Jhall offend (that is, 
draw into Sin) any of thofe little ones, it were better for 
him that a Mill-fione were hanged about his Neck, and 
that he were droivned in the Depth of the Sea. Thou 
mayeft plunge thy poor Brother into Perdition ; but as 
it is with Wreftlers, he that gives another a Fall, com- 
monly falls with him ; fo thou art like to bear him 
Company to that Place of Torment. 

10. Let therefore thy own and his Danger beget in 
thee a Senfe of the Greatnefsof this Sin, 
this horrid Piece of Injuftice to the pre- Heartily to 
cious Soul of thy Neighbour. Bethink bewail it. 
thy felf ferioufly, to whom thou haft been 
thus cruel, whom thou haft enticed to Drinking, ad- 
vifed to Rebellion, allured to Lull, ftirred up to Rage, 
whom thou haft afiifted or encouraged in any ill Courfe, 
or difcouraged and dilheartened by thy profane Scoffings 
at Piety in general, or at any con fcion able ftricl walk- 
ing of his in particular ; and then draw up a Bill of 
Indiclment, accufe and condemn thy felf as .1 €<zm, a 
Murderer of thy Brother ; hearta) and deeply bewail 
all thy Guilts of this Kind, and refolve n ver once a. ore 
to be a Stumbiing-block, as St. Paul calls it, Rom. 
xiv. in thy Brother's Way. 

11. But 

i4.S The Whole Duty of Man. 

ii. But this is not all, there muft be fome Fruits of 
this Repentance brought forth. Now in 
Endeavour to all bins of Injuftice Reftitution is a ne- 
repair it. ceflary Fruit of Repentance, and fo it is 

here ; thou haft committed an Act (per- 
haps many) of high Injuftice to the Soul of thy Brother; 
thou haft robbed it of its Innocency, of its Title to Hea- 
ven ; thou muft now endeavour to reftore all this to it 
again, by being more earneft and induftrious to win him 
to Repentance, than ever thou wert to draw him to Sin: 
Ufe now as much Art to convince him of the Danger, 
as ever thoudidft to flatter him with the Pleafures of his 
Vice : In a Word, countermine thy felf, by ufing all 
thofe Methods and Means to recover him, that thou didft 
to deftroy him ; and be more diligent and zealous in it ; 
for 'tis neceffary thou fhouldft, both in regard of him 
and thy felf, Firft, in refpecl of him ; beceaufe there 
is in Man's Nature fo much a greater Promptnefs and 
Readinefs to Evil, than to Good, that there will need 
much more Pains and Diligence to inftil the one in- 
to him, than the other : Befides, the Man is fup- 
pofed to be already accuftomed to the contrary, which 
will add much to the Difficulty of the Work. Then,, 
in refpecl of thy felf, if thcu be a true Penitent, thou 
wilt think thy felf obliged, as St. Paul did, to labour 
more abundantly ; and wilt be afhamed, that when thou 
art trading for God, bringing back a Soul to him, thou 
fhouldeft not purfue it with more Earneftnefs, than while 
thou wert an Agent of Satan's ; befides, the Remem- 
brance that thou wert a Means of bringing this poor 
Soul into this Snare, muft neceflarily quicken thy Dili- 
gence to get him out of it. So much for the firft Part of 
Negative Juftice, in refpecl of the Souls of our Brethren. 
12. The fecond concerns the Bodies ; and to thofe 
alfo this Juftice binds thee to do no 
Negative Juftice Wrong nor Violence. Now of Wrongs 
to the Body. to the Body, there may be feveral De- 
grees, the higheft of them is Killing, 
In refpecl of taking away the Life ; this is forbid iri 
the Life. the very Letter of the Sixth Command- 

ment, Tboufbalt do no Murder. 

13. Murder Several Ways ^Murder. 140 

13. Murder may be committed either by open Vio- 
lence, when a Man either by Sword, or 
any other Inftrument, takes away ano- Several Ways 
ther's Life, immediately and direiSUy ; of being guilty 
or it may be done fecretly and treache- of Murder. 
roufly, as David murder ed Uriah, not 
with his own Sword, but with the Sword of the Chil- 
dren of Amman, 2 Sam.xl. 17. And Jezebel Naboth, by 
a falfe Accufation, 1 Kings xxi. 1 3. And fo divers have 
committed this Sin of Murder by Poifon, falfe Witnefs, 
or fome fuch concealed Ways. The former is com- 
monly the Effect of afudden Rage, the latter have fe- 
veral Originals ; fometimes it proceeds from fomc 
old Malice fixed in the Heart towards the Perfon, fome- 
times from fome covetous and ambitious Defires ; fuch 
an one Hands in a Man's Way to his Profit or Prefer- 
ment, and therefore he muil be removed : And fome- 
times again it is to cover Shame, as is the Cafe of 
Strumpets, that murder their. Infants, that they may not 
betray their Filchinefs. But befides thefe more direct 
Ways of Killing, there is another, and that is, when 
by our Perfuafions and Enticements we draw a Man to 
do that, which tends to the fhortning of his Life, and 
is apparent to do Co. He that makes his Neighbour 
drunk, if by that Drunkennefs the Man comes to any 
mortal Hurt, which he would have efcaped, if he had 
been fober, he that made him drunk is not clear of his 
Death ; or if he die not by any fuch fudden Accident, 
yet if Drinking call him intoaDifeafe, and that Diieafe 
kill him, I know not how he that drew him to that 
Excefs can acquit himfelf of his Murder in the Eyes of 
God, though human Laws touch him not. I wi(h thofe, 
who make it their draw in Cuftomers to that 
Trade of Debauchery, would confider it. There is yet 
another Way of bringing this Guilt upon ourfelves, and 
that is by inciting and (lirring up others to it, or to that 
Degree of Anger and Revenge, which produces it. And 
he that fets two Perfons at Variance, or feeing them 
already fo, blows the Coals, if Murder enfue, he certain- 
ly hath his Share in the Guilt ; which is a Confedera- 
tion that ought to affright all from having any thing to do 
in the kindling or encreafing of Contention. 

14. Now 

150 The Whole Duty 0/Man. 

14. Now for the Heinoufnefs of this Sin of Murder* 

I fuppofe none can be ignorant, that it is 
The Heinoufnefs of the deepeft Dye, a moll loud crying 
«f the Sin. Sin. This we may fee in the firft Act of 

this kind that ever was committed, A~ 
beP& Blood crieth from the Earth, as God tells Cain, 
Gen. iv. 10. Yea, the Guilt of this Sin is fuch, that it 
leaves a Stain even upon the Land where it is commit- 
ted, fuch as is not to be warned out but by the Blood of 
the Murderer, as appears, Deut. xix. 1 2, 13. The Land 
cannot be purged of Blood, but by the Blood of him that 
fhed it ; And therefore though in other Cafes the flying 
to the Altar fecured a Man, yet in this of wilful Murder 
no fuch Refuge was allowed, but fuch an one was to be 
taken even thence and delivered up to Juftice, Exod* 
xxi 14. Thou Jha/t take him from my Altar, that he may 
die. And it is yet farther obfervable, that the only two 
Precepts, which the Scripture mentions, as given to 
Hoah after the Flood, were both in relation to this Sin ; 
that of not eating Blood, Gen. ix. 4. being a Ceremony, 
to beget in Men a greater Horror of this Sin of Murder, 
and {o intended for the preventing of it. The other 
was for the Funifhment of it, Gen. ix. 6. Be that 
fheddeth Man s Blood, by Manfhall his Blood be fhed : 
And the Reafon of this Striclnefs is added in the next 
Words, For in the Image of God made he Man ; where 
you fee that this Sin is not only an Injury to our Brother, 
but even the higheft Contempt and Defpite towards God 
himlelf ; for it is the defacing of his Image, which he 
hath damped upon Man. Nay, yet farther, it is the 
ufurping of God's proper Right and Authority : For it 
is God alone that hath Right to difpofe of the Life of 
Man ; it was he alone that gave it, and it is he alone 
that hath Power to take it away : But he that murders a 
Man does, as it were, wreft this Power outof God's Hand, 
which is the higheft Pitch of rebellious Prefumption. 

15. And as the Sin is great, fo likewife is the Punifh- 

ment ; we fee it frequently very great 
The great Pu- and remarkable, even in this World 
nifhment at- (befides thofe mod fearful Effeds of it 
tending it. in the next) Blood not only cries, but 


Sund. io. Several Ways of Murder. 151 

it cries for Vengeance ; and the great God of Recom- 
pence, as he ftiles himfelf, will not fail to hear it: Ve- 
ry many Examples the Scripture gives us of this : Akab 
and Jezebel, that murdered innocent Nabo/b, for gree- 
dinefs of his Vineyard, were themfelves flain; and the 
Dogs licked their Blood in the Place where they had 
fned his, as you may read in that Story; fo Abfmlom, 
that flew his Brother Ammon, after he had committed 
that Sin, fell into another, that of Rebellion againft his 
King and Father, and in it miferably periihed. Rechab 
and Baanah t that flew lfobojketb, were themfelves put 
to Death, and that by the very Perfon they thought to 
endear by it. Many more Inftances might be given of 
this out of the Sacred Story, and many alfo out of Hu- 
man, there having been no Age but hath yielded mul- 
titudes of Examples of this kind, fo that every Man may 
furnifh himfelf out of the Obfervations of his own Time. 
16. And it is worth our Notice, what ftrange and 
even miraculous Means it hath often 
pleafed God to ufe for the Difcovery of Tbeftrangedif- 
this Sin ; the very brute Creatures have cowries of it. 
often been made Instruments of it ; nay, 
often the extreme Horror of a Man's own Conference 
hath made him betray himfelf: So that it is not any 
Clofenefs a Man ufes in the acling of this Sin, that can 
fecure him from the Vengeance of it; for he can 
never (hut out his own Confcience, that will, in fpite 
of him, be privy to the Facl, and that very often proves 
the Means of difcovering it to the World ; or if it 
fhould not do that, yet it will fure aft Revenge on him, 
it will be fuch a Hell within him, as will be worfe than 
Death : This we have feen in many, who, after the 
Commiflion of this Sin, have never been able to enjoy 
a minute's reft ; but have had that intolerable Anguifh 
of Mind, that they have chofen to be their own Mu^ 
derers, rather than live in it. Thefe are theufual EiFecls 
of this Sin even in this World; but thofe in another 
are yet more dreadful, where furely the higheft Degrees 
of Tormenc belong to this high Pitch of Wickednefs : 
For if, as our Saviour tells us, Matt. v. 22. Hell -fire 
be the portion of him that (hall but call his Brother Fool, 
H what 

152 The Whole Duty 0/Man. 

what Degree of thofe Burnings can we think proportio- 
nable to this fo much greater an Injury ? 

17. The Confideration of all this ought to poflefs us 
with the greateft Horror and Abomina- 
Wemuji tion of this Sin, and to make us ex- 

luateb dili- tremely watchful over ourfelves that we 
gently againft never fall into it, and to that End, to 
all approaches prevent all thofe Occafions, which may 
tf this Sin. infenfibly draw us into this Pit. I men- 
tioned at firft feveral Things which are 
wont to be Originals of it, and at thofe we muft begin, 
if we will furely guard ourfelves. If therefore thou 
wilt be fure never to kill a Man in thy Rage, be fure 
never to be in that Rage, for if thou permitteft thyfelf 
lo that, thou canft have no Security againft the other ; 
Anger being a madnefs that fuffers us not to confider, 
or know what we do, when it has once poffeffed us. 
Therefore, when thou findell thyfelf begin to be in- 
flamed, think betimes whither this may lead thee, if 
thou letteft loofe to it, and immediately put the Bridle 
upon this headftrong Paflion ; fo again, if thou wilt be 
fure thy Malice mall not draw thee to it, be fure never 
to harbour one malicious 1 nought in thy Heart : For 
if it once fettle there, it will gather fuch Strength, that 
within a while thou wilt be perfectly under the Power 
of it, fo that it may lead thee even to this horrible Sia 
at its Pleafure; be therefore careful at the very firft Ap- 
proach of this treacherous Gueft, to fhut the Doors a- 
gainft it, never to let it enter thy Mind : So alio, if thou 
wilt be fure thy Covetoufnefs, thy Ambition, thy-Luft, 
or any other finful Defire, (hall not betray thee to it, 
be fure thou never permit any of them to bear any 
Sway with thee ; for if they get the Dominion, as they 
will foon do, if they be once entertained in the Heart, 
they will be paft thy Controul, and hurry thee to this or 
any other Sin that may ferve their Ends. In like man- 
ner, if thou wouldeft not be guilty of any of the mortal 
effects of thy Neighbour's Drunkennefs, be fure not to 
entice him to it, nor accompany him at it ; and to that 
Purpofe, do not allow thyfelf in the fame Pra&ice; for 
if thou do, thOU wilt be labouring to get Company at it. 


Sund. 10. Several W a Y$of Murder. 155 

Laftly, if thou wilt not be guilty of the Murder com- 
mitted by another, take heed thou never give any En- 
couragement to it, or contribute any thing to that Ha- 
tred, or Contention, that may be the Caute of it. For 
when thou haft either kindled or blowed the Fire; what 
knoweft thou whom it may confume? Bring always as 
much Water as thou canft, to quench, but never bring 
one drop of Oyl to increafe the Flame. The like may 
be faid of all other Occafions of this Sin, not here men- 
tioned ;' and this careful preferving ourfelves from thefe 
is the only fure Way to keep us from this Sin: There- 
fore, as ever thou wouldelt keep thyfelf innocent from 
the great Offence, guard thee warily from all fuch Inlets, 
thofe Steps and Approaches towards it. 

18. But although Murder be the greater!, yet it is not 
the only injury that may be done to the 

Body of our Neighbour ; there are ethers Maiming a 
which are alfo of a very high Nature ; great Injury, 
the next in degree to this is Maiming him, 
depriving him of any Member, or at ieaft of the Ufe of 
it ; and this is a very great Wrong and Mifchief to him, 
as we may difcern by the Judgment of God himfelf, in 
the Caie of the Bond-fervant, who fliould by his Maf- 
ter's Means lofe a Member, Exod. xxi. 26. the Free- 
dom of his whole Life was thought but a reafonable Re- 
compence for it: He Jhall let him go free, faith the 
Text, for bis Eye; nay, though it were a lefs confide- 
rable Part, if it were but a Tooth, which of all others 
may be loft with the leaft Damage, yet the fame 
Amends was to be made him, <ver. 27. 

19. But we need no other Way of meafuring this 

Injury, than the Judgment of every <r , ? ... 
A/i • l- /-. i- tT • l j That which 

Man in his own Caie: How much does ,. 

every Man dread the lofs of a Limb? j.^j r 

fo that if he be, by any Accident or Dif- u-^/if 

eafe, in danger of it, he thinks no Pains tm J e J ■ 

nor Coft too much to preferve it. And then, how great 

an Jnjuilice how contrary to that great Rule of doing 

as nve <wo u ld be done unto, it is for a Man to do that to 

another, which he fo unwillingly iurFers himfelf. 

H 2 But 

154 ^ Whole Duty of Man. 

But if the Perfon be poor, one that muft labour for 
his Living, the Injury is yet greater, 
Yetnx-oifeifthe it is fuch as may, in Effect, amount to 
Man be pear, the former Sin of Murder; for as the 
Wife man fays, Eccluf. xxxiv. 21. The 
poor "Man s "Bread is his Life: and he that deprives him 
thereof is a Blood-Jhedder. And therefore he that de- 
prives him of the Means of getting his Bread, by dif- 
abling him from Labour, is finely no lefs guilty. In 
the Law it was permitted to every Man that hath fuf- 
tained fuch a Damage by his Neighbour, to require the 
Magiftrate to inflift the like on him, Eye for Eye, 
Tpoth for Tooth, as it is Exod. xxi. .24. 

20. And though unprofitable Revenge be not now 

•Kj rr r allowed to us Chriftians, yet fure it is 

eC y J!/ the Part of every one, who hath done 

f a ? n & y~. ° a this Injury, to make what Satisfaction 

j a tsjac ion j.^ - n ^ p owcr . > t j s true> fo e canno t 

reftore a Limb again (which, by tr>e 
way, mould make Men wary how they do thofe Mif- 
chiefs, which it is fo impoffible for them to repair) but 
yet he may fatisfy for fome of the ill Effects of that 
Lofs. If that have brought the Man to want and Pe- 
nury, he may, nay, he muft, if he have but the leaft 
Ability, relieve and fupport him, yea, though it be by 
his own extraordinary Labour; for if it be a Duty of 
us all to be Eyes to the Blind, and Feet to the Lame, 
as Job fpeaks, much more muft we be fo to them, 
whom ourfelves have made Blind and Lame. There- 
fore, whoever hath done this Injury to any of his poor 
Brethren, let him know, he is bound to do all that is 
poflible towards the repairing of it; if he do not, 
every new Suffering that the poor Man's Wants bring 
upon him, becomes a new Charge and Accufation againit 
him, at the Tribunal of the Juft Judge. 

21 . There are yet other degrees of Injury to the Bo- 
dy of our Neighbour. I (hall mention 
Wounds and only two more, Wounds and Stripes; 
Stripes Inju- A Man may wound another, which 
ties alfo. though it finally caufe lofs neither of 

Life or Limb, is yet an indangering 


Sund. 10. Several W a ys c/Murd e r. 155 

of both ; and the like may be faid of Stripes: Both of 
which however are very painful at the prefent, hay? 
perhaps very long after: And Pain, of all temporal. 
Evils, is to be accounted the greateft; for it is not only 
an Evil in itfelf, but is it fuch an one, that permits us 
not, whilit we are under it, to enjoy any other Good; 
a Man in Pain having no Tafte of any the grearelt De- 
lights. If any Man defpife thefe as li^ht Injuries, let 
him again aik himfelf, how he would like it, to have 
his own Body flafhed or bruifcd, and put to pafs under 
thofe painful Means of Cure,, which are many time* 
neceffary in fuch Cafes? I prefame there is no man 
would willingly undergo this from another, and why 
then moulded thou offer it to him ? 

22. The truth is, this ilrange Cruelty to others is 

the EfTeft of a great Pride and Haugh- — . . n , 

tinefs of Heart; we look upon others . / 

• 1 r l .u . l- 1 • to others the 

with iuch contempt, that we think it no vtr a c 

matter how they are ufed ; we think they J*' ' 
mult bear blows from us, when in the 
mean time we are fo tender of ourfelves, that we can- 
not hear the leail Word of Difparagement, but we are 
all on a Flame. The Provocations to thefe Injuries are 
commonly fo flight, that -did not this inward Pride 
difpofe us to fuch an Angrinefs of Hum >ur, that we take 
Fire at every Thing, it were impoffible we (hould be 
moved by them. Nay, fome are advanced to fuch a 
Wantonnefs of Cruelty, that, without any Provocation 
at all, in cool Blood, as they fay, they can thus wrong 
their poor Brethren, and make it part of their Paftime 
and Recreation to caufe pain to others. Thus fome 
tyrannous Humours take fuch a Pleafure in tormenting 
thofe under their Power, that they are glad when they 
can but find a pretence to punifh them, and then do ic 
without all Moderation: And others will fet Men toge- 
ther by the Ears, only that they may have the Sport 
of feeing the Scuffle ; like the old Romany that 
made it one of their publick Sports to fee Men kill one 
another ; and fure, we have as little Chriilianity as they, 
if we can take delight in fuch Spectacles. 

23, This Savagenefs and Cruelty of Mind is fo un- 

H 3 becoming 

156 The Whole Duty of Man. 

becoming the Nature of a Man, that he is not allowed 
to ufe it even to his Beaft; how intolerable is it then 
towards thofe that are of the fame Nature, and, which 
is more, are heirs of the fame eternal Hopes with us ? 
They that fhall thus tranfgrefs againft their Neighbours 
in any of the foregoing Particulars, or whatever elfe is 
hurtful to the Bcdy, are unjuft perfor.s, want even this 
loweftfort of Juftice, the Negative, to their Neighbours, 
in rei'pecl of their Bodies. 

24. Neither can any Man excufe himfelf by faying, 
what he has done was only in return cf fome injury of- 
fered him by the other: For fuppofe it be fo, that he 
have indeed received fome confiderable Wrong, yet can- 
not he be his own revenger, without injury to that Man, 
who is not, by being thine Enemy, become thy Vaflal 
or Slave, to do with him what thou lift ; thou haft never 
the more Right of Dominion over him, becaufe he hath 
done thee Wrong; and therefore, if thou hadft no Power 
over his Body before, 'tis certain thou haft none now; 
and theiefore thou art not only uncharitable (wh»ch yet 
v/ere Sm enough to damn thee) but unjuft in every Act 
of Violence thou doll to him. Nay, this Injuftice 
afcends higher, even to God himfelf, who hath referved 
Vengeance as his own peculiar Right; Vengeance h mim % 
1 will repay ', faith the Lord, Rom. xii. 19. And then 
he that will a& Revenge for himfelf, what does he but 
ei croach upon this fpecial Right and Prerogative of God, 
fn?tch the Sword, as it were, out of his Hand, as if 
he knew better how to weild it ? Which is at once a 
Robbery and Contempt of the Divine Majefty. 


Of Juflice about the Pcfjefftons of our 'Neigh- 

hour : Againft injuring him, as concerning 

his Wife, his Goods. Of OppreJ/ion. Theft. 

Of paying of Debts, &c. 

Sect. I. 'Hr^HE third Part of Negative Juftice 

JL concerns the PoiTefhons of our 

His Voffeffions. Neig hboursi what I mean by Pofleffions, 

I cannot 

Sund>u. 0/ Adultery. 157 

I cannot better explain, than by referring you to the 
Tenth Commandment, the End of which is to bridle all 
covetous Appetites and Deiires towards the PofTeffions of 
our Neighbour. There we find reckoned up not only 
his Houfe, Servants, and Cattle, which may all pais 
under the one general Name of his Goods or Riches, 
but particularly his Wife, as a principal Part of his 
PofTeffions: and therefore, when we confider this Duty 
of Negative Juftice, in refpecl of the PoiTeflions of our 
Neighbour, we mult apply it to both, his Wife as well 
as his Goods. 

2. The efpecial and peculiar Right that every Man 
hath in his Wife, is fo well known, that 

it were vain to fay any thing in proof of His Wife. 
it ; the great impatience that every Huf- 
band hath to have this Right of his invaded, fhewft 
that it is fufficiently underftood in the World ; and there- 
fore none that does this injury to another, can be ig- 
norant of the greatnefs of it. The corrupting of a 
Man's Wife, enticing her to a ftrange Bed, is by all 
acknowledged to be the worft fort of Theft, infinitely 
beyond that of the Goods. 

3. Indeed there is in this one a Heap of the greateft 
Injuftices together ; fome towards the 

Woman, and fome towards the Man; 'The enticing a 
Towards the Woman , there are the great- Mans Wif$ 
eft imaginable : It is that Injuftice to her the greateji 
Soul, which was before mentioned as Injujlice. 
the higheft of all others, 'tis the rob- 
bing her of her Innocency, and fetting her in a Courfe 
of the horrideft Wicked nefs, (no lefs 
than Luft and Perjury together) from To the Woman, 
which it is probable the may never return, 
and then it proves the damning of her eternally. Next 
it is, in refpecl of this World, the robbing her of her 
credit, making her abhorred and defpifed, and her ve- 
ry Name a Reproach among all Men ; and befides, it 
is the depriving her of all that Happinefs of Life, which 
arifes from the mutual Kindnefs and Affection that is be- 
tween Man and Wife, inftead whereof, this brings in 
a loathing and abhorring of each other, from whence 
H 4 flow 

i$S The Whole Duty of Man." 

flow multitudes of mifchiefs, too many to rehearfe ; in 
all which the Man hath his Share alfo. 

4. But befides thofe, there are to him many and high 

Injuftices; for it is, firft, the robbing 
To the Man. him of that, which of all other Things 

he accounts moll precious,, the Love and 
Faithfulnefs of his Wife, and that alfo wherein he hath 
fuch an incommunicable Right, that himfelf cannot, if 
he would, make it over to any other j and therefore fure 
it cannot, without the utmoft Injuftice, be torn from him 
by any. Nor is this all, but it is farther the ingulfing 
him (if ever he come to difcern it) in that mod torment- 
ing Paffion of Jealoufy, which is of all others the moft 
painful, and which oft puts Men upon the moftdefperate 
Attempts, it being, as Solomon fays, Prom* vi. 34. The 
Rage of a Man. It is yet farther the bringing upon him 
all that Scorn and Contempt, which by the unjuft mea- 
fures of the World falls on them, which are fo abufed, 
. and which is by many eileemed the moft infufferable Part 
of the Wrong ; and though it be true, that it is very 
unjuft he mould fall under Reproach, only becaufe he 
is injured, yet, unlefs the World could be new moulded,, 
it will certainly be his Lot, and therefore it adds much 
to the injury. Again, this may indeed be a Robbery, 
in the ufual Senfe of the Word j for, perhaps, it may 
be the thrufting in the Child of the Adulterer into his 
Family, to fliare both in the Maintenance and Portions 
cf his own Children : And this is an arrant Theft: Firft, 
in refpec~l of the Man, who furely intends not the pro- 
viding for another Man's Child ; and then in refped of 
the Children, who are by that Means defrauded of fo 
much as that goes away with. And therefore, who- 
ever hath this Circumitance of the Sin to repent of,. 
cannot do it effectually, without reftoring to the Family 
as much as he hath by this means robbed it of. 

5. All this put together will fure make this the great- 

eft and moft provoking Injury that can 
The moft irre- be done to a Man, and (which heightens 
parable. it yet more) it is that, for which a Man 

can never make Reparation j for un- 
lefs it be in the Circumftance before- mentioned, there is 


Sur.d. ii. Of Adultery. 159 

no Part of this Sin, wherein that can be done; to this 
Purpoie it is obfervable in the Jetvijk Law, that the 
Thief was appointed to rellore four fold, and that freed 
him; but the Adulterer, having no PolEbility of mak- 
ing any Reftitution, any Satisfa&ion, he mult pay his 
Life for his Offence, Lev. xx. 10. And though now- 
a-days Adulterers fpeed better, live many Days to renew 
their Guilt, and, perhaps, to laugh at thofe whom they 
have thus injured, yet let them be ailuied there muft 
one Day be a fad Reckoning, and that whether they 
repent or not: If by God's Grace they do come to Re- 
pentance, they will then find this to be no cheap Sin ; 
many Anguilhes of Soul, Terrors, and Perplexities of 
Confcience, Groans, and Tears, it muft coft them. 
And indeed, were a Man's whole Life fpent in thefe 
penitential Exercifes, it were little enough to wipe off 
the Guilt of any .one fingle Act of this Kind : What 
over-whelming Sorrows then are requifite for fuch a 
Trade of this Sin, as too many drive? Certainly it is 
fo great a Tafk, that it is highly neceiTary for all that are 
fo concerned, to fet to it immediately, left they want 
Time to go through with it; for let no Man flatter him- 
fe\f that the Guilt of a Courfe and Habit of fuch a Sin 
can be warned away with a fingle Ad of Repentance; 
no, he muft proportion the Repentance to the Fault, and 
as one hath been a Habit and Courfe, fo muft the other 
alfo. And then how ftrange a Madnels is it for Men to 
run into this Sin, (and that with fuch painful Purfuits as 
many do) which he knows muft at the beft Hand, that 
is, fuppofing he do repent of it, coft him thus dear ? But 
then, if he do not repent, infinitely dearer: Itloleshim 
all his Title to Heaven, that Place of Purity, and gives 
him his Portion in the Lake of Fire, where the Burnings 
of his Luft {hall end in thofe everlafting Burnings. For 
how clofely fo ever he hath acted this Sin, be it fo that he 
may have laid with the Adulterer, in Job xxiv. 15. No 
Eye feeth me ; yet it is fure he could not, in the greateft 
Obfcurity, fhelter himfelf from God's Sight, with whom 
the Darknefs is no Darknefs, Pfal. cxxxix. 12. And he 
it is, who hath exprefly threatned to judge this Sort of 
Offenders, Heb, xiii. 4. Adulterers God will Judge. 
H 5 God 

160 The Whole Duty of Man. 

God grant, that all, that live in this foul Guilt, may fo 
feafonably and fo thoroughly judge themfelves, that they 
may prevent that fevere and dreadful Judgment of his. 

6. The fecond Thing to which this Negative Juftice 

to our Neighbour's Poffeffions reacheth, 
His Goods, is his Goods ; under which general Word, 

is contained all thofe feveral Sorts of Things, 
as Houfe, Land. Cattle, Money, and the like, in which 
he hath a Right and Property : Thefe we are, by the Rule 
of this Juftice, to fuffer him to enjoy, without feeking 
either to work him Damage in any of them, or to get any 
of them to ourfelves : I make a Difference between thefe 
two, becaufe there may be two feveral Grounds or Motives 
of this Injuftice; the one Malice, the other Covetcufnefs. 

7. The malicious Man defires to work hisNeighourV 

Mifchief, though he get nothing by it 
Malicious In- himfelf: It is frequently feen, that Men 
juftice. will make Havock and Spoil of the Goods 

of one to whom they bear a Grudge, 
though they never defign to get any thing to themfelves 
by it, but only the Pleafure of doing a Spight to the o- 
ther. This is a moft hellifti Humour, dire&ly anfvver- 
able to that of the Devil, who bellows all his Pains and 
Induftry, not to bring in any good to himfelf, but on- 
ly to ruin and undo others; And how contrary it is to 
all Rules of Juftice, you may fee by the Precept given 
by God to the Jews concerning the Goods of an Ene- 
my ; where they were fo far from being allowed a Li* 
berty of Spoil and Deftruclion, that they are exprefly 
bound to prevent it, Exod. xxiii. 4, 5. If thou meet thine 
Enemy $ Ox or his Afs going afray, thoufhaltfurely bring 
it back to him again : If thou fee the Afs af him that 
bateth thee lying under his Burden, and nvouldeft forbear 
to help him, thou fhalt fur ely help with him. Where you 
fee it is a Debt we owe to our very Enemies, to pre- 
vent that Lofs and Damage, which by any Accident he 
is in Danger of, and that even with fome Labour and 
Pains to ourfelves. How horrible an Injuftice is it 
then, purpofely to bring that Lofs and Damage on him ? 
Whoever is guilty of this, let him never excufe himfelf 
Vy faying, tie hath not enrich'd himfelf by the Spoil o£ 


Sund. it. O/Oppr ession, &c. i6i 

his Neighbour, that he hath nothing of it cleaves to hi* 
Finger, for fure this malicious Injuftice is no leis a 
Fault than the covetous one ; nay, I fuppofe, in refpecT: 
of the Principle and Caufe from which it flows, k may 
be greater, this Hatred of another being worle than the 
immoderate Love of our felves : Whoever hath thus 
mifchieved his Neighbour, he is as much bound to re- 
pair the Injury, to make Satisfaction for the Lofs, as if 
he had enriched himfelf by it. 

8. But on the other Side, let not the covetous De- 
frauder therefore judge his Sin light, 

becaufe there is another that in fomeone Covetous In' 
refped; outweighs it ; for perhaps, in o- jnjlice. 
thers, his may caft the Scales; certainly 
it does in this one, that he that is unjuft for GreeJineft 
of Gain, is like to multiply more A6ls of this Sin, than 
he that is fo out of Malice ; for it is impoflibleany Man 
mould have fo many Objecls of his Malice, as he may 
have of his Covetoufnefs : There is no Man at fo ge- 
neral a Defiance with all Mankind, that he hates every 
body ; but the covetous Man hath as many Obje&s of 
his Vice, as there be things in the World he counts va- 
luable. But I (hall no longer itand upon this Compan- 
ion, it is fure they are both great and crying Sins, alid 
that is Ground enough of abhorring each. Let us de- 
fcend now to the feveral Branches of this fort of cove- 
tous Injuftice;. it is true, they may all bear the Name of 
Robbery, or Theft, for in effect they are all fo ; yer, 
for Method's fake, it will not be amifs to diftinguifh 
them into thefe three ; Oppreffion, Theft, and Deceit. 

9. By Oppreflion I mean that open and bare-faced 
Robbery of feizing upon the Poffeflions of 

others, and owning and avowing the doing Opprejfion. 
fo. For the doing of this there are feveral 
Inftruments j as firlt, that of Power, by which many 
Nations and Princes have been turned out of their Rights, 
and many private Men out of their Eftates. Sometimes 
again Law is made the Inftrument of it j he that co- 
vets his Neighbour's Lands or Goods, pretends a Claim 
to them, and then by corrupting of Juffice, and Bribes 
and Gifts, or elfe over-ruling it by Greatnefs and Au- 

162 <Lhe Whole Duty of Man. 

thority, gets Judgment on his Side : This is a high 
Oppreffion, and of the worft fort, thus to make the 
Law, which was intended for the Protection and De- 
fence of Men's Rights, to be the Means of overthrow- 
ing them ; and it is a very heavy Guilt that lies both on 
him that procures, and on him that pronounces fuch a 
Sentence ; yea, and on the Lawyer too, that pleads 
fuch a Caufe ; for by fo doing he affifts in the Oppref- 
fion. Sometimes again the very Neceffities of the op- 
prefTed are the Means of his Oppreffion : Thus iris in 
the Cafe of Extortion and griping Ufury ; a Man is in 
extreme Want of Money, and this gives Opportunity to 
the Extortioner to wreft unconfcionably from him ; to 
which the poor Man is forced to yield, to fupply his 
prefent Wants. And thus alfo it is often with exacting 
Landlords, who, when their poor Tenants know not 
how to provide themfelves elfewhere, rack and fcrew 
them beyond the Worth of the Thing. All thefe, and 
many the like, are but feveral Ways of acting this one 
Sin of Oppreffion. which becomes yet the more heinous 
by how much the more helplefs the Perfon is that is thus 
opprefTed : Therefore the Oppreflion of the Widow and 
Facherlefs, is in Scripture mentioned as the Height of 
this Sin. 

i o. It is indeed a mod crying Guilt, and that againft 
which God hath threatned his heavy 
Cod's Vwge- Vengeance, as we read in divers Texts ofScripture; thus it is, £z*i. xviii. 1 1. 
He that hath oppreffed the poor, and hath /polled by Fa- 
ience, hejhalljurely die, his Blood Jball he upon him ; and 
the fame Sentence is repeated againft him, ver. 18. In- 
deed God hath io peculiarly taken upon him the Protec- 
tion of the Poor and OpprefTed, that he is engaged, as it 
were, in Honour to be their Avenger; and accordingly, 
Pfal. xii. we fee God folemnly declares his Resolution 
of appearing for them, ver. 5. For the Opprejfton of the 
Poor, for the Sighing of the Needy, now will Iarife, faith 
the Lord, 1 will Jet him in Safety from him. The Advice 
therefore of Solomon is excellent, /Voi/.xxii. 22. Rob not 
the Poor, becaufe he is poor ; neither opprefs the JifflicJed 
in the Gate, for the lord will plead their Caufe, and 


Sund. ii. Kinds of Theft. 163 

fpoilthe Soul of thofe that foiled them : They are like 
in the End to have little Joy of the Booty it brings 
them in, when it thus engages God againft them. 

1 1 . The fecond fort of this Injuftice is Theft : And 
of that alfo there are two Kinds ; the 

one, the with- holding what we lhould Theft, 
pay j and the other, taking from our 
Neighbour what is already in his PofTefTion. 

12. Of the firft Sort is the not paying of Debts, 
whether fuch as we have borrowed, or ^ 

fuch as by our own voluntary Promife *, r a y in g 
are become our Debts ; for they are e- w ** / ™ebor- 
qually due to him that can lay either of 
thefe Claims to them ; and therefore the with-holding 
of either of them is a Theft, a keeping from my Neigh- 
bour that which is his : Yet the former of them is ra- 
ther the more injurious, for by that I take from him that 
which he once actually had (be it Money, or whatever 
elfe) and fo make him worfe than I found him. This is 
a very great, and very common Injuftice. Men can 
now a days with as great Confidence deny him that afks 
a Debt, as they do him that afks an Alms ; nay, many 
times 'tis made Matter of Quarrel for a Man to demand 
his own : Befides the many Attendances the Creditor is 
put to in Purfuitof it, are a yet further Injury to him, 
by wafting his Time, and taking him off from other Bu- 
finefs j and fo he is made a Lofer that way too. This 
is fo great Injuftice, that I fee not how a Man can look 
upon any thing he pofTefTes as his own Right, whilft he 
thus denies another his. It is the Duty of every Man 
in Debt, rather to ftrip himfelf of all, and caft himfelf 
again naked upon God's Providence, than thus to fea- 
ther his Neftwith the Spoils of his Neighbours. And 
furely it would prove the more thriving Courfe, not only 
in refpedl of the Bleffing which may be expected upon 
Juftice, compared with the Curfe that attends the con- 
trary, but even in worldly Prudence alfo : For he that 
defers paying of Debts, will at laft be forced to it by 
Law, and that upon much worfe Terms than he might 
have done it voluntarily, with a greater Charge, and 
with fuch a Lofs of his Credit, that afterward, in his 


164 The Whole Duty of Man. 

greateft Neceffities, he will not know where to borrow. 
But the fure way for a Man to fecure himfelf from the 
Guilt of this Injuftice is never to borrow more than he 
knows he hath Means to repay, unlefs it be of one, who, 
knowing his Difability, is willing to run the Hazard. 
Otherwife he commits this Sin at the very time of bor- 
rowing ; for he takes that from his Neighbour, upon 
Promife of paying, which he knows he is never likely to 
reftore to him, which is a flat Robbery. 

The fame Juftice, which ties Men to pay their own 
Debts, ties al:b every Surety to pay 
What vje are thofe Debts of others for which he ftands- 
bound for. bound, in cafe the Principal either can- 
not, or will not ; for by being bound he 
hath made it his own Debt, and mull in all Juftice an- 
fwer it to the Creditor, who, it is prefurned, was drawn 
to lend on Confidence of his Security, and therefore is 
directly cheated and betrayed by him, if he fee him not 
fatisfied. If it bethought hard, that a Man mould pay 
for that which he never received Benefit by, I fhalr 
yield it, fo far as to be juft Matter of Warinefs to every 
Man, how he enter into fuch Engagements ; but it can 
never be made an Excufe for the breaking them. 

As for the other Sort of Debt, that which is brought 
upon a Man by his own voluntary Pro- 
What we have mife, that alfo cannot, without great In- 
promifed. juftice, be with-holden ; for it is now 

the Man's Right, and then 'tis no Mat- 
ter by what Means it came to be fo. Therefore we fee 
David makes it Part of the Defcription of a juft Man, 
Pfal. xv. 4. that he keeps his Promifes ; yea, though- 
they were made to his own Dif advantage : And furely, 
he is utterly unfit to afeend to that holy Bill there 
fpoken of, either as that Signifies the Church here, or 
Heaven hereafter, that does not punctually obferve this 
Part of Juftice. To this Sort of Debt may be reduced 
the Wages of the Servant, the Hire of the Labourer : 
And thewith-holding of thefe is a great Sin ; and the 
Complaints of thofe that are thus injured afeend up to 
God j Behold (faith St. James, ch. v. 4.) the Hire of 
the Labourers, which have reaped down your Fields, 


Sund. 12. O/Stealing, &c. 165 

which is of you kept back by Fraud, crieth : and the 
Cries of them ivhich have reaped, are entered into the 
Ears of the Lord of Sabaoth. And Deut. xxiv. 14. 15. 
we find a ftrift Command in this Matter, Ihou /halt not 
oppre/s an hired Servant that is poor and needy, dt his 
Day thou (halt give him his Hire, neither /hall the Sun 
go dovon upon it, for he is poor and fetteth his Heart upon 
it ; left he cry againjl thee to the Lord, and it be Sin 
unto thee. This is one of thofe loud clamorous Sins, 
which will not ceafe crying, till it bring down God's 
Vengeance; and therefore, though thou haft no Juf- 
tice to thy poor Brother, yet have at leait {0 much 
Mercy to thyfelf, as not to pull down Judgments on 
thee by thus wronging him. 


Of Theft : Stealing ; of Deceit in Trujl, in 
Traffic k •, of Reftitution, &c. 

Sect. i. HT"*HE fecond Part of Theft is the taking 

JL from our Neighbour 
that which is already in his Pofleffion : Stealing the 
And this may be done either more vio- Goods of our 
lently and openly, or elfe more clofely Neighbour. 
and flily ; the firit is the Manner of thofe 
/^j^bat rob on the Way, or plunder Houfes, where by Force 
^fflfey take the Goods of their Neighbour ; the other is 
the Way of the pelfering Thief, that takes away a 
Man's Goods unknown to him : I (hall not difpute 
which of thefe is the worft, 'tis enough that they are^ 
both fuch Ads of Injuftice,as make Men odious to God, 
unfit for human Society, and betray the A&ors to the 
greateft Mifchiefs, even in this World, Death itfelf 
being by Law appointed the Reward of it : And there 
are few that follow this Trade long, but at laft 
meet with that Fruit of it* lam fuxe, \is Madnefs for 


1 65 The Whole Duty of Man. 

any to believe he (hall always fteal fecurely ; for he is 
to contend with the Induftry of all thofe, whom he (hall 
thus injure, whofe Loffes will quicken their Wits for 
the finding him out ; and, which is infinitely more, he 
is to ftruggle with the Juftice of God, which doth 
ufually purfue fuch Men to Deftruclion, even in this 
World j witnefs the many ftrange Difcoveries that have 
been made of the craftieft Thieves. But however, if 
he were fecure from the Vengeance here, I am fure no- 
thing but Repentance and Reformation can fecure him 
from the Vengeance of it hereafter. And now when 
thefe Dangers are weighed, 'twill fure appear, that th« 
Thief makes a pitiful Bargain ; he fteals his Neigh- 
bour's Money or Cattle, and in Exchange for it he mull 
pay his Life or his Soul, perhaps both : Ar.d if the 
nvbole World be too mean a Price for a Sou/, as he tells 
us, Mark viii. 36. who belt knew the Value of them, 
having himfelf bought them ; what a llrange Madnefs is 
it, to barter them away for every petty Trifle, as many 
do, who have got fuch a Habit of Stealing, that not the 
meaneft, worthlefs Thing can efcape their Fingers ? Un- 
der this Head of Theft may be ranked the Receivers of 
ftolen Goods, whether thofe that take them, as Part- 
ners in the Theft, or thofe that buy them, when they 
know or believe they are flolen. This many (that pre- 
tend much to abhor Tr.eft) are guilty of, when they 
can, by it, buy the thing a little cheaper than the com- 
mon Rate. And here aifo comes in the concealing of 
any Goods a Man finds of his Neighbour's, which 
whomever reflores not, if he know, or can learn out, the 
Owner, is no better than a Thief; for he with-holds 
from his Neighbour that which properly belongs to 
him : And fure 'twill not be uncharitable to fay, that 
he that will do this, would likewife commit the groffer 
Theft, were he by that no more in Danger of the Law, 
than in this he is. 

The third Part of Injuftice is Deceit ; and in that 
there may be as many Acts as there are 
Deceit. Occafions of Intercourfe and Dealing 

between Man and Man. 

2. It 

Sund.i2. O/Deceit in Trust, i6y 

2. It were impoflible to name them all, but I think 
they will be contained under thefe two general Deceits, 
in Matters of Trult, and in Matters of Traffick, or Bar- 
gaining : Unlefs it be that of G<zot/'«£, which therefore 
here, by the way, I mull tell you, is as much a Fraud 
and Deceit as any of the reft. 

3. He that deceives a Man in any Trull that is com- 
mitted to him, is guilty of a great Injuftice ; 

and that the moll treacherous Sort of one, In Truft. 
it is the joining of two great Sins in one, 
Defrauding, and Prcr*ife freaking; for in all Trulls 
there is a Promife implied, if not exprefled ; for the 
very accepting of the Truil contains under it a Promife 
of Fidelity. Thefe Trulls are broken fometimes to the 
living, fometimes to the dead ; to the Living there are 
many Ways of doing it, according to the feveral Kinds 
of the Trull ; fometimes a Trull is more general, like 
that of Potipbar to Jrfcph, Gen. xxxix. 4. A Man com- 
mits to another all that he hath ; and thus Guardians 
of Children, and fometimes Stewards, are intrulled ; 
fometimes again it is more limited and reilrained to fome 
one fpecial Thing : A Man intrufts another to bargain 
or deal for him in fuch a Particular, or he puts fome 
one Thing into his Hands, to manage and difpofe : Thus 
among Servants, 'tis ufual for one to be intrulled with 
one Part of the Mailer's Goods, and another with ano- 
ther Part of them. Now in all thefe, and the like Cafes, 
whofoever ads not for him that intrufts him, with the 
fame Faithfulnefs that he would for himfelf, but (hall 
either carelefly lofe, or prodigally imbezzle the Things 
committed to him, or elfe convert them to his own Ufe, 
he is guilty of this great Sin of betraying a Truft to the 
Living. In like Manner, he that, being intrulled with 
the Execution of a dead Man's Teftament, aits not ac- 
cording to the known Intention of the dead Man, but 
enriches himfelf by what is afligned to others, he is 
guilty of this Sin, in refpeft of the dead; which is fa 
much the greater, by how much the dead hath no 
Means of remedy and Redrefs, as the Living may have. 
It is a kind of robbing of Graves, which is a Theft of 
which Men naturally have kX!a a Honor, that he mull 


i68 The Whole Duty of Man. ■ 

be a very hardned Thief that can attempt it. But either 
of thefe Frauds are made yet more heinous, when either 
God or the Poor are immediately concerned in it ; that 
is, when any thing is committed to a Man, for the Ufes 
either of Piety or Charity : This adds Sacrilege to both 
the Fraud and the Treachery, and fo gives him Title 
to all thofe Curfes that attend thofe feveral Sins, which 
are fo heavy, that he that for the prefent Gain will ad- 
venture on them, makes as ill, nay, a much worfe Bar- 
gain than Gehazi, z Kings v. 27. who, by getting the 
Raiment of Naaman, got his Lefrofy too. 

4. The fecond Sort of Fraud is in Matters of Traffick 

and Bargain, wherein there may be De- 
In Traffick. ceit both in the Seller and Buyer ; that 

of the Seller is commonly either in con- 
cealing the Faults of the Commodity, or elfe in over- 
rating it. 

5. The Ways of concealing its Faults are ordinarily 

thefe ; either firft, by denying that it 
The Seller s hath any fuch Fault, nay, perhaps, com- 
concealing the mending it for the dired contrary Qua- 
Faults of his lity ; and this is downright Lying, and 
Ware. fo adds that Sin to the other ; and if 

that Lye be confirmed by an Oath, as it 
is too ufually, then theyet greater Guilt of Perjury comes 
in alfo ;_ and then what a Heap of Sins is here gathered 
together ? abundantiy enough to fink a poor Soul to 
DePtruction, and all this only to fkrew a little more Mo- 
ney out of his Neighbour's Pocket, and that fometimes 
fo very little, that 'tis a Miracle that any Man that 
thinks he hath a Soul, can fet it at fo miferable and 
contemptible a Price. A fecond Means of concealing 
is by ufing fome Art to the Thing to make it look fair, 
and to hide the Faults of it ; and this is acting a Lye, 
though it be not fpeaking one, which amounts to the 
fame Thing, and has furely in this Cafe as much of the 
Intention of Cheating and Defrauding, as the raoft im- 
pudent forfwearing can have. A third Means is the 
picking out ignorant Chapmen : This is, I believe, an 
Art too well known amc 4 g Tradefmen, who will not 
bring out their faulty Waies to Men of Skill, but keep 


Sund. i2. O/Deceit in Traffick. 169 

them to put off to fuch, whofe Unfkilfulnefs may make 
them pafiable with them. And this isftill the fame De- 
ceit with the former 5 for it all tends to the fame End, 
the cozening and' defrauding ef the Chapman ; and 
then it is not much odds, whether I make ufe of my 
ow 1 Art, or his Weaknefs, for the Purpofe. This is 
certain, he that will do juflly, mull let his Chapman 
know what he buys j and if his own Skill enable him 
not to judge (nay, if he do not a&ually find out the 
Fault) thou art bound to tell it him ; o herwife thou 
makeft him pay for iomewhat which is not there, he 
prefuming there is that good Quality in it, which thou 
knowelt is not : And therefore thou mayeft as honeft- 
ly take his Money fur fome Goods of another Man's, 
which ihou knowelt thou canft never put into his Pof- 
feilion, which I fuppofe no Man will deny to be an ar- 
rant Cheat. To this Head of Concealment may be 
referred that Deceit of fulfe Weights and Meafures : 
For that is the concealing from the Buyer a Defect in 
the Quantity, as the other was in the Quality of the 
Commodity, and is agiin the making him pay for what 
he hath not. This Sort of Fraud is pointed at particu- 
larly by Solomon, Prov. xi. I. with this Note upon it, 
That // is an Abomination to the lord. 

6. The fecond Pait of Fraud in the Seller lies in 
Over-rating the Commodity : Though he 
have not difguifed or concealed the Faults His Over- 
of it, and fo have dealt fairly in that re- rating it. 
fpe&, yet if he fet an unreafonable Price 
upon it, he defrauds the Buyer. I call that an un- 
reafonable Price, which exceeds the true Worth of the 
Thing, confidered with thofe moderate Gains which 
all Tradefmen are prefumed to be allowed in the Sale.< 
Whatever is beyond this mud, in all Likelihood, be 
fetched in by fome of thefe Ways ; as, nrit, by taking 
Advantage of the Buyer's Ignorance in the Value of the 
Thing, which is the fame with doing it in the Good- 
nefs, which hath already been (hewed to be a Deceit : 
Or, fecondly, by taking Advantage of his Neceffity : 
Thou findeft a Man hath prefent and urgent Need of 
fuch a Thing, and therefore takeft this Opportunity to 


170 Ttoe Whole Duty of Man. 

fet the Bice upon him. But this is that very Sin of 
Extortion and Oppreffion fpoken of before; for it is 
fure nothing can juftly raife the Price of any thing, but 
either its becoming dearer to thee, or its being fome 
way better in itfelf : But the Neceffity of thy Brother 
caufes neither of thefe ; his Nakednefs doth not make 
the Clothes thou felled him, (land thee in ever the 
more, neither doth it make them any way better ; and 
therefore to rate them ever the higher, is to change the 
way of Trading, and fell even the Wants and Neceffi- 
tiesof thy Neighbour, which fure is a very unlawful 
Vocation; Or, thirdly, it may be by taking Advan- 
tage of the Indifcretion of the Chapman. A Man per- 
haps earneftly fancies fuch a thing; and then fuffers that 
Fancy (o to over-rule his Reafon, that he refolves to 
have it upon any Terms. If thou findeft-this in him, 
and thereupon raifeft thy Rate, this is to make him buy 
his Folly, which is of all others the deareft Purchafe : 
It is fure his Fancy adds nothing to the real Value, no 
more than his Neceffity did in the former Cafe, and 
therefore mould not add to the Price. He therefore 
that will deal juftly in the Bufinefs of felling* mull not 
catch at all Advantages, which the Temper of his Chap- 
man may give ; but confider foberly what the Thing is 
worth, and what he would afford it for to another, of 
whom he had no fuch Advantage, and accordingly rate 
it to him at no higher a Price. 

7. On the Buyer's Part there are not ordinarily fo' 

many Opportunities of Fraud : Yet it is 
Fraud in poffible a Man may fometimes happen to 
the Buyer, fell fomewhat, the Worth whereof he is 

not acquainted with, and then it w r ill be 
as unjuft for the Buyer to make Gain by his Ignorance, 
as in the other Cafe it was for the Seller : But that 
which often falls out is the Cafe of Neceffity, which may* 
as probably fall on the Seller's Side, as the Buyer's. 
A Man's Wants compel him to fell, and permit him 
not to flay to make the beft Bargain, but force him- to 
take the firit OfFer j and here for the Buyer to grate 
upon him, becaufe he fees him in that Strait, is the 
fame Fault which I before ihewed it to be in the Seller. 

8. In 

Sund.i2. Of Deceit z>/Tr aff ick. 171 

£. In this whole Bufmefs of Trafnck there are fo 
many Opportunities of Deceit, that a 
Man had need fence himfelf with a very Many Tempta- 
firm Refolution, nay, Love of Juftice, tions to Deceit 
or he will be in Danger to fall under in Trajfick. 
Temptation ; for, as the wife Man fpeaks, 
Eccluf. xxvii. 2. A-i a Nail flicks fafi between the Join- 
ing* of the Stones, fo doth Sin (lick faft between buying 
and felling. It is fo interwoven with all Trades, fo 
mixt with the very firft Principles and Grounds of them, 
that it is taught together with them, and fo becomes 
Part of the Art: So that he is now a-days fcarce 
thought fit to manage a Trade, that wants it ; while he 
that hath mod of this black Art of defrauding, ap- 
plauds and hugs himfelf, nay, perhaps, boafts to others 
how he hath over-reached his Neighbour. 

What an intolerable Shame is this, that we Chriftians, 
who are by the Precepts of our Mailer 
fet to thofe higher Duties of Charity, The Common' 
mould, inftead of praclifing them, quite nefs of ln~ 
unlearn thofe common Rules of Juftice, jujiice a Re- 
which meer Nature teaches? For, I proach to 
think I may fay, there are none of thofe Cbrijlianity. 
feveral Branches of Injullice towards the 
PojTeflions of our Neighbour, which would not be ad- 
judged to be fo by any fober Heathen. So that, as St. 
Paul tells thofe of the Circumcifion, that the Name of 
God <was blafpbemed among the Gentiles, by that Un- 
agreeablenefs that was betwixt their Practice and their 
Law, Rom. ii. 24. fo now may it be faid of us, that 
the Name of Cbrijl is blajpbemed among the Turks and 
Heathens, by the vile and fcandalous Lives of us, who 
call our felves Chriftians, and particularly in this Sin of 
Injullice. For Shame, let us at laft endeavour to wipe 
off th's Reproach from our Profeflion, by leaving thefe 
Pradices, to which methinks this one fingle Coniidera- 
tion mould be enough to perfuade us. 

9. Yet 

172 the Whole Duty of Man. 

9. Yet befides this, there want not others j among 
which one there is of fuch a Natuie. as may 
It is not the prevail with the arrameft Worldling, and 
way to en- that is, that this Courfe doth not really tend 
rich, a Man. to the enriching of him ; there is a fecret 
Curfe goes along with it, which, like a 
Canker, eats out all the Benefit was expe&ed from it. 
This no Man can doubt, that believes the Scripture, 
where there are Multitudes of Texts to this Purpofe : 
Thus Prov. xxii. 16. He that oppreffeth the Poor to en- 
creafe his Riches \ fhailfurely come to mount. So Hahak. ii. 
6. Woe to him that increafeth that which is not his ! bow 
long ? And to him that ladethhimfelf with thick Clay ; 
Shall they not rife up fuddenly that Jhall bite thee ? and 
awake that Jhall vex thee? and thoujhalt be for Booties 
unto them. This is commonly the Fortune of thofe that 
fpoil and deceive others, they at laft meet with fome 
that do the like to them. But the Place in Zecbary is 
moll full to this Purpofe, Chap. v. where, under the Sign 
of a flying Roll, is fignined the Curfe that goes forth 
againft this Sin, ver. 4. I will bring it forth, faith the 
Lord of Hofs, and it Jhall enter into the Houfe of the 
Thief and into the Houje of him that fwearetbfalfe'y 
by my Name ; and it Jhall confume it, with the Timber 
thereof and with the Stones thereof. Where, you lee 
Theft and Perjury are the two Sins againft which this 
Curfe is aimed ^and they too often go together in the 
Matter of defrauding) and the Nature of this Curfe is 
to confume the Houfe; to make an utter Deftruclion of 
all that belongs to him, that is guilty of either of thefe 
Sins. Thus, whilft thou art ravening after thy Neigh- 
bour's Goods or Houfe, thou art but gathering Fuel to 
burn thine own. Andahe Effect of thefe Threatnings 
of God we daily fee in the ftrange Improfperoufnefs 
of ill gotten Eftates, which every Man is apt enough to 
obferve in other Men'? Cafes : He that fees his Neigh- 
bour decline in his Eftate, can prefently call to mind, 
This was gotten by Oppreflion or Deceit ; yet fo fottilh 
are we, fo bewitched with the Love of Gain, that he that 
makes this Obfervation, can feldom turn it to his own 
Ufe, is neverthelefc greedy or unjult himfelf,for all that 
Vengeance he difcerns upon others. 10. But 

Sund. 12. Of Deceit in Tr affick. 173 

10. But alas ! if thou couldeft be fure that thy unjuft 
Pofleffions fhould not be torn from thee, 
yet, when thou remembereft how dear It ruins the 
thou muft pay for them in another Soul eternally. 
World, thou halt little Reafon to brag 
of thy Prize. Thou thinkeft thou haft been very cun- 
ning, when thou halt over-reached thy Brother - t but, 
God knows, all the while there is another over reaching 
thee, and cheating thee of what is infinitely more pre- 
cious, even thy Soul ; The Devil herein deals with 
thee as Filhers ufe to do ; thofe that will catch a great 
Fifh, will bait the Hook with a lefs, and fo the great 
one, coming with Greed inefs to devour that, is himfelf 
taken. So thou that art gaping to fwallow up thy poor 
Brother, art thy felf made a Prey to that great Devour- 
er. And alas ! what will it eafe thee in Hell, that thou 
haft left Wealth behind thee upon Earth, when thou 
(halt there want that which the meaneft Beggar here 
enjoys, even a Drop of Water to cool thy Tongue ? 
Confider this, and from henceforth refolve to employ 
all that Pains and Diligence thou haft ufed to deceive 
others, in refcuing thy felf from the Frauds of the grand 

11. To this Purpofe it is abfolutely neceflary, that 
thou make Reftitution to all whom thou 
haft wronged ; for as long as thou keep- The Necejfity 
eft any thing of the unjuilGain, *tis as it of Reftitution. 
were an earneft Penny from the Devil, 
which gives him full Right to thy Soul. But perhaps it 
may be faid, It will not in all Cafes be poffible to make 
Reftitution to the wronged Party ; peradventure he 
may be dead : In that Cafe then make it to his Heirs, - 
to whom his Right defcends. But it may farther be 
objected, That he that hath long gone on in aCourfe of 
Fraud, may have injured many that he cannot now re- 
member, and many that he hath no Means of finding 
out : ■ In this Cafe, all I can advife is this ; firft, to be 
as diligent as is poffible, both in recalling to mind who 
they weie, and endeavouring to find them out ; and 
when, after all tny Cure.tnat proves impoiiible, let thy 
Reftitutioas be made to the Poor ; and that they may 


1 74 *lhe Whole Duty of Man. 

not be made by Halves, be as careful as thou canft to 
reckon every the leaft Mite of unjuft Gain ; But when 
that cannot exactly be done, as 'tis fure it cannot by 
thofe who have multiplied the Adls of Fraud, yet even 
there let them make fome general Meafures, whereby 
to proportion their Reftitution : As for Example, A 
Tradefman that cannot remember how much he hath 
cheated in every fingle Parcel, yet may poflibly guefs 
in the Grofs whether he have ufually over- reached to 
the Value of a third or a fourth Part of the Wares ; 
and then what Proportion foever he thinks he has {o 
defrauded, the fame Proportion let him now give out 
of that Eftate he hath raifed by his Trade. But herein 
it concerns every Man to deal uprightly, as in the Pre- 
fence of God, and not to make Advantage of his own 
Forgetfulnefs, to the cutting fhort of the Reftitution, 
but rather go on the other Hand, and be fure rather to 
give too much than too little. If he do happen to 
give fomewhat over, he need not grudge the Charge of 
fuch a Sin-Offering j and 'tis fure he will not, if he do 
heartily defire an Atonement. Many other Difficulties 
there may be in this Bufinefs of Reftitution, which will 
not before feen, and fo cannot now be particularly fpoken 
to : But the more of thofe there are, the greater Hor- 
ror ought Men to have of running into the Sin of In- 
juftice, which it will be fo difficult, if not impoffible 
for them to repair ; and the more careful ought they 
to be to mortify that which is the Root of all Injuftice, 
to wit, Covetoufnefs. 

SUN- i 

Sund 13. Of False Reports, £s?f. 175 

Of Falfe Reports, Falfe Witnefs, Slanders^ 
Whifpenngs : Of Scoffing for Infirmities, 
Calamities. Sins, &c. Of Pcfitive Jufiice, 
"Truth : Of Lying : Of Envy and Detrac- 
tion : Of Gratitude, &c. 

THE fourth Branch of negative Ju- Sect. I* 
ftice concerns the Credit of our 
Neighbour, which we are not to leflen or His Credit, \ 
impair by any Means, particularly not 
by falfe Reports. Of falfe Reports there may be two 
Sorts ; the one is, when a Man fays fomething of his 
Neighbour, which he diieclly knows to be falfe ; the 
other, wherLpoflibly he has fome flight Surmife or Jea- 
loufy of the Thing ; but that upon fuch weak Ground?, 
that 'tis as likely to be falfe as true. In either of thcfe 
Cafes there is a great Guilt lies upon the Reporter. That 
there doth fo in the firft of them, no body will doubt ; 
every one acknowledging that it is the greatert Bafenefs 
to invent a Lye of another : But there is as little Rea- 
fon to queftion the other; for he that reports a thing as 
a Truth, which is but uncertain, is a Lyar alfo ; or if 
he do not report it as a Certainty, but only as a Proba- 
bility, yet then, though he be not guilty of the Lye, 
yet he is of the Injuftice of robbing his Neighbour of 
his Credit; for there is fuch an Aptnefs in Men to be- 
lieve ill of others, that any the lighted Jealoufy will, 
if once it be fpread abroad, ferve for that Purpofe ; and 
fure it is a mod horrible Injuftice, upon every flight 
Surmife and Fancy, to hazard the bringing fo great an 
Evil upon another ; efpecially when it is confidered, 
that thofe Surmifes commonly fpring rather from fome 
Cenforioufnefr, Peeviflinefs, or Malice in the Surmifer, 
lhan from any real Fault in the Perfon fo fufpected. 

I 2. The 

i j6 The Whole Duty of Man. 

2. The manner of fpreading thefe falfe Reports of 

both Kinds, is not always the fame ; 
Falfe Witnefs. fometimes it is more open and avowed, 

fometimes more clcfe and private : The 
open is many times by falfe Witnefs before the Courts 
of Juftice; and this not only hurts a Man in his Credit, 
but in other refpeds alfo : 'Tis the delivering him up 
to the Punifhment of the Law ; and according to the 
Nature of the Crime pretended, does him more or lefs 
Mifchief ; But if it be of the higheft Kind, it may con- 
cern his Life, as we fee it did in Naboth's Cafe, 
i Kings xx). How great and crying a Sin it is in this 
Refpect, as alfo in that of the Perjury, you may learn 
from what hath been faid of both thofe Sins. I am now 
to confider it only as it touches the Credit ; and to that 
it is a moft grievous Wound, thus to have a Crime 
publickly witneffed againit one, and fuch -as is fcarce 
curable by any thing that can afterwards be done to clear 
him ; and therefore whoever is guilty of this, doth a moll 
outrageous Injuftice to his Neighbour. This is that which 
is exprefly forbidden in the Ninth Commandment, and 
was by God appointed to be punifhed by the inflicling 
of the very fame Suffering upon him, which his falfe 
Tellimony aimed to bring upon the other, Deut. xix. 16. 

3. The fecond open Way of fpreading thefe Reports, 

is by a publick and common declaring 
Public k Slan- of them ; though not before the Magi- 
der. ftrate, as in the other Cafe, yet in all 

Companies, and before fuch as are like- 
ly to carry it farther ; and this too is ufually done with 
bitter Railings and Reproaches ; it being an ordinary 
Art of Slanderers to revile thofe whom they flander, 
that fo by the Sharpnefs'of the Accufation, they may 
have the greater Impreffjon on the Minds of the Hear- 
ers. This, both in refp££^ of the Slander and the 
Railing, is a high Injury, and both of them fuch as de- 
bar the Committers from Lleaven. Thus Pfal. xv. 
\vhere the upright Man is defcribed, tha't (hall have his 
Part there, this is one fpecial Thing, <ver. 3. *Ihat he 
flandereth not his Neighbour. And for Railing, the 
Apollle infeveral Places reckons it among thofe Works 


Sund. 13. O/Whispering, &c. 1.77 

of the Flefli, which are to fhut Men out, both from the 
Church here, by Excommunication, as you may fee, 
1 Cor. xv. 11. and from the Kingdom of God here- 
after, as it is, 1 Cor. vi. 10. 

4. The other more clofe and private Way of fpread- 
ing fuch Reports, is that of the Whif- 
perer ; he that goes about from one to Whifpering» 
another, and privately vents his Slan- 
ders, not out of an Intent by that Means to make them 
lefs publick, but rather more : This Trick of deliver- 
ing them by Way of Secret, being the Way to make 
them both more believed, and more fpoken of too ; 
for he that receives fuch a Tale as a Secret from one, 
thinks to pieafe fome Body elfe by delivering it as a 
Secret to him alfo ; and (o it pafTes from one hand to 
another, till at lad it fpreads over a whole Town. This 
Sort of Slanderer is of all others the moft dangerous, for 
he works in the dark, ties all he fpeaks to, not to own 
him as the Author : So that whereas in the more pub- 
lick Accufations the Party may have fome Means of 
clearing himfelf, and detecting his Accufer, here he 
mall have no Pembility of that ; the Slander, like a 
fecret Poifon, works incurable effects before ever the 
Man difcern it. This Sin of Whifpering is by St. Paul 
mentioned among thofe great Crimes, which are the 
Effects of a Reprobate Mind, Rom. i. 29. It is indeed 
one of the moiV incurable Wounds of this Sword of the 
Tongue, the very Bane and Ped of human Society ; 
and that which not only robs fingie Perfons of their 
good Names, but oftentimes whole Families, nay, pub- 
lick Societies of Men, of their Peace : What Ruins, 
what Confufions, hath this one Sin wrought in the 
World? 'Tis Solomon's Obfervation, Prov. xviii. 28. 
thuta Whifperer feparatetb chief Friends : And fureone 
may truly fay of Tongues thus employed, that they are 
fet on Fire of Hell, as St. James faith, Chap. iii. 6. 

5. This is fuch a Guilt, that we are to beware of all 
the Degrees of Approach to it, of which « , « 

there are feveral Steps ; the firll is, the £lve * a e P s 
giving Ear to, and cheriming of thofe « . 
that come with Slanders : For they that m ' 

I 2 entertain 

178 tte Whole Duty of Man. 

entertain and receive them, encourage them in the 
Practice ; for, as our common Proverb fays, If there 
nvere no Receiver \ there would be noThief \ fo, if there 
were none that would give Ear to Tales, there would be 
no Tale-bearers. A fecond Step is, The giving too 
eafy Credit to them ; for this helps them to attain Part 
of their End. They defire to get a general ill Opinion 
©f fuch a Man ; but the Way of doing it muft be, by 
cauling it firft in particular Men ; and if thou fufFer 
them to do it in thee, they have fo far profpered in their 
Aim. And for thy own Part, thou doeft a great Injuf- 
tice to thy Neighbour, to believe 111 of him, without a 
juft Ground, which the Accufation of fuch a Perfon cer- 
tainly is not. A third Step is, The reporting to others, 
what is thus told thee ; by which thou makeft thyfelf 
directly a Party in the Slander ; and after thou haft un- 
juftly withdrawn from thy Neighbour thy own good O- 
pinion, endeavoured to rob him alfo of that of others. 
This is very little below the Guilt of the firft Whifperer, 
and tends as much to the Ruin of our Neighbour's Cre- 
dit. And thefe*feveral Degrees have fo clofe a Depen- 
dance upon one another, that it will be very hard for 
him that allows himfelf the firft, to efcape the other : 
And indeed, he that can take Delight to hear his Neigh- 
bour defamed, may well be prefumed of fo malicious a 
Humour, that it is not likely he fhould ftick at fpreading 
the Slander. He therefore that will preferve his Inno- 
cence in this Matter, muft never, in the leaft Degree, 
cherifti or countenance any that brings thefe falfe Reports: 
And it is not lefs neceffary to his Peace, than to his In- 
nocence ; for he that once entertains them, muft never 
expect Quiet, but fhall be continually incited and ftirred 
up, even againft his neareft and deareft Relations ; fo 
that this Whifperer and Slanderer is to be looked on by- 
all as a common Enemy, he being fo as well to thofe to ' 
whom, as of whom he fpeaks. 

6. But befides this grafter Way of flandering, there is 
n r , another, whereby we may impair and 

^'-W and leflen the Credit of our Neighbour, and 
ocojfing. that ^ by Contempt and Defpifmg; one 

Common Effect whereof is fcoffing and deriding him. 


Sund. 13. ScofRng/<?r Infirmities, &c. 179 

This is very injurious to a Man's Reputation. For the 
Generality of Men do rather take up Opinions upon 
Truft, than Judgment ; and therefore, if they fee a 
Man defpifed and fcorned, they will be apt to do the 
like. But befides this Effect of it, there is a prefent 
Injuftice in the very Ad of defpiiing and fcorning others. 
There are ordinarily but three Things which are made 
the Occafions of it (unlefs it be with fuch, with whom 
Virtue and Godlinefs are made the mod reproachful 
Things, and fuch defpifing is not only an Injury to our 
Neighbour, but even to God himfelf, for whofe Sake it 
is that he is fo defpifed.) Thofe three are, firft, the 
Infirmities; fecondly, the Calamities; thirdly, the Sins 
of a Man : And each of thefe are very far from being 
Ground of our triumphing over him. 

7. Firft, for Infirmities, be they either of Body or 
Mind, the Deformity and Unhandfomenefs 

of the one, or the Weaknefs and Folly of For lnfir- 1 
the other, they are Things out of his mities. 
Power to help, they are not his Faults, but 
the wife Difpenfation of the great Creator, who beftows 
the Excellencies of Body and Mind as he pleafes ; and 
therefore to fcorn a Man becaufe he hath them not, is, 
in Effect, to reproach God, who gave them not to him. 

8. So alio for the Calamities and Miferies that befal 
a Man, be it Want, or Sicknefs, or what- 
ever elfe, thefe alfo come by the Provi- For Cala- 
dence of God, whoraifeth up, and pulleth mities. 
down, as feems good to him, and it be- 
longs not to us to judge what are the Motives to him to 
do fo, as many do, who, upon any Affliction that befals 
another, are prefently concluding, that fure it is ibme 
extraordinary Guilt that pulls this upon him, though 
they have no Particular to lay to his Charge. This 
rafh Judgment our Saviour reproves in the Jews, 
Luke xiii. where on Occafion of the extraordinary Suffer- 
ings of the Galileans, he afks them, <ver. 2.3. Suppofe 
ye that thefe Galileans were Sinners abwe all the Gak'- 
leans, bec&ufe they fuffered fuch Things ? 1 tell you, 
iVtfy, hut except ye repent, ye Jhall all liktwife pcri/b. 
When we fee God's Hand heavy upon others, it is no 

I3 ' Part 

I So. The Whole Duty of Man. 

Part of our Bufinefs to judge them, butourfelves ; and 
by Repentance to prevent what our own Sins have de- 
ferved. But to reproach and revile any that are in 
■Affiiclion, is that barbarous Cruelty taken Notice of by 
the Pfalmift, as the Height of Wickednefs. FCal. Ixix. 
•26. They per fe cute him ^vkom thou haft /mitten, and 
they talk to the Grief of thofe whom thou haft wounded. 
In all the Miferies of others Companion becomes a Debt 
to them : How unjuft are they then, that inflead of 
paying them that Debt, afftidt them with Scorn and 

9. Nay, the very Sins of Men, though, as they have 

more of their Wills in them, they may 
Tor Sins. feem more to deferve Reproach, yet 

certainly they alfo oblige us to the for- 
mer Duty of Compafiion, and that in the higheft De- 
gree, as being the Things, which of all others make 
a Man the moil miferable. In all thefe Cafes, if we 
confider how fubject we are to the like ourfelves ; and 
that it is only God's Mercy to us, by which we are pre- 
served from the worft that any Man elfe is under, it 
will furely better become us to look up to him with 
Thankfulnefs, than down on them with Contempt and 
Defpifing. Thus you fee the direct Injuftice of fcorning 
and contemning our Brethren ,• to which, when that 
other is added, which naturally follows as a Confequent 
of this, to wit, the begetting the like Contempt in 
others, there can fure be no doubt of its being a great 
and horrible Injuftice to our Neighbour, in refpecl of 
his Credit. 

10. Now, how great the Injury of deftroying a Man's 

Credit is, may be meafured by thefe 
Deftroying the two Things ; firft, the Value of the 
Credit, a great Thing he is robbed of; and, fecondly, 
Injury. the Difficulty of making Reparations. 

For the firft, 'tis commonly known, that 
a Man's good Name is a Thing he holds moft precious, 
oftentimes dearer than hisLife,as we fee by the Hazards 
Men fometimes run, to preferve even'a miftaken Repu- 
tation : But 'tis fure it is that, which hath even by fo- 
ber Men been efteemed one of the greateil Happineffes of 

Life i 

Sund.13. Credit of our Neighbour. 181 
Life ; and to fome Sort of Men, fuch efpecially as fub- 
fitt by Dealings in the World, 'tis fo necelTary, that 
it may well be reckoned as the Means of their Liveli- 
hood ; and then fure it is no flight Matter to rob a Man 
of what is thus valuable to him. 

11. Secondly, the Difficulty of making Reparations 
increafeth the Injury, and that is fuch 
in this Cafe of Defamation, that I may And irrefra- 
rather call it an Impoflibility, than a ruble. 
Difficulty : For when Men are pofTef- 
fed of an ill Opinion of a Perfon, it is no eafy Matter 
to work it out ; fo that the Slanderer is herein like a 
young Conjurer, that raifes a Devil he knows not how 
to lay again. Nay, fuppofe Men were generally as 
willing to lay down ill Conceits of their Neighbour*, 
as they are to take them up ; yet, how is it poifible for 
him that makes even the mod publick Recantation of 
his Slander, to be fure, that every Man that hath come 
to the Hearing of the one, (hall do fo of the other alio ? 
And if there be but one Perfon that doth not, (as pro- 
bably there will be many) then is the Reparation it i II 
fhort of the Injury. 

1 2. This Confideration is' very fit to make Men afraid 
of doing this Wrong to their Neighbour ; 
but let it not be made Ufe of to excufe Tet e-vtry 
thofe that have already done the Wrong, guHty Per Tot? ' 
from endeavouring to make the bell Re- muft do all be 
paration they can ; for though it :s can to repair 
Odds, it will not equal the Injury, )et the Injury. 
let them however do what they are able 
towards it. And this is fo neceflary towards the ob- 
taining Pardon of the Sin, that none mull expect the 
one, that do not perform the other. Whoever there- 
fore fets himfelf to repent of his Faults of this Kind, 
muft by all prudent Means endeavour to reftore his 
Neighbour to that Degree of Credit he hath deprived 
him of; and If that be not to be done, without bring- 
ing the Shame upon himfelf of confefiing publickly the 
Slander, he muft rather fubmit to that, than be wanting 
to this neceflary Part of JulHce, which he owes to the 
wronged Party. 

1 4 i 3 .T!ias 

1 82 The Whole Duty of Man. 

13. Thus I have gone through thefe four Branches of 
Negative Juftice to our Neighbour ; 
Jujlice in the wherein we muft yet farther obferve, 
Thoughts. that this Juftice binds us, not only in 

refpe£t of our Words and Actions, but of 
©ur very Thoughts and Affections alio : We are not 
only forbid to hurt, but to hate ; not only reftrained 
from bringing any of thefe Evils fore- mentioned upon 
him, but we muft not fo much as wifh them before, 
nor delight in them after they are befallen him j we 
muft take no Pleafure either in the Sin of his Soul, or 
Hurt of his Body ; we muft not envy him any good 
thing he enjoys, nor fo much as wi(h to poiTefs ourielves 
of it : Neither will it fuffice us, that we fo bridle our 
Tongue, that we neither flander nor revile, if we have 
that Malice in our Hearts, which makes us wifh his 
Difcredit, or rejoice when we find it procured, though 
we have no hand in the procuring it. This is the pe- 
culiar Property of God's Laws, that they reach to the 
Heart, whereas Men's can extend only to the Words 
and Aclions ; and the Reafon is clear, becaufe he is the 
only Law-giver that can fee what is in the Heart : 
Therefore, if there were the perfe&elt Innocency in our 
Tongue and Hands, yet, if there be not this Purity of 
Heart, it will never ferve to acquit us before him. The 
Counfel therefore of Solomon is excellent, Prov. iv. 23. 
Keep thy Heart 'with all Diligence, for out of it are the 
Jfues of Life. Let us ftriftly guard that, fo that no 
malicious, unjuft Thought enter there ; and that not 
only as it may be the Means of betraying us to the 
groiTer A&, butalfo as it is in itfelf fuch a Pollution in 
God's Sight, as will unfit us for the blelTed Vifion of 
God, whom none but the pure in Heart have Promife 
of feeing, Matt. v. 8. BlefJ'ed are the pure in Heart, for 
they Jball fee God. 

j 4. I come now to fpeak of the pofitive Part of Ju- 
ftice ; which is, the yielding to every 
Po/iti'v* Ju- Man that which by any Kind of Right 
fice. he may challenge from us. Of thefe 

Dues there are fame that are general to 
all Mankind j others, that are reftrained within fome 


Sund. 13. The Sin c/Lyino. 1S3 

certain Conditions and Qualities of Men, and become 
due only by Virtue of thofe Qualifications. 

15. Of the firft Sort, that is, thofe that are due to all 
Men, we may reckon, firft, the fpeaking 

Truth, which is a common Debt we Speaking Truth 
owe to ail Mankind : Speech is given us a Due to all 
as the Inftrument of Intercourse and So- Men. 
ciety one with another, the Means of 
difcovering the Mind, which otherwife lies hid and 
concealed ; fo that were it not for this, our Converfa- 
tions would be but the fame as of Beafts. Now this 
being intended for the good and Advantage of Mankind, 
it is a Due to it, that it be ufed to that Purpofe; but 
he that lyes is fo far from paying that Debt, that on 
the contrary, he makes his Speech the Means of injur- 
ing and deceiving him he fpeaks to. 

16. There might much be faid to fhew the feveral 
Sorts of Obligations we lie under to 

fpeak Truth to all Men : But fuppofing Lying exprejly 
I write to Chriftians, I need not infill forbidden in 
upon any other than the Commands we Scripture, 
have of it in Scripture : Thus Ephef. iv. 
25. the Apoftle commands, that Putting anvay Lying, 
they fpeak every Man Truth with his Neighbour ; And 
again, Col. iii. 9. Lye not one to another. And Prov. vi. 
1 j. a lying Tongue is mentioned as one of thofe Things 
that are Abominations to the Lord. Yea, fo much doth 
he hate a Lye, that it is not the moil pious and religious 
End that can reconcile him to it : The Man that lyes, 
though in a Zeal to God's Glory, (hall yet be judged as 
a Sinner. Rom. iii. 7. What (hall then become of thofe 
Multitudes of Men that lye on quite other Ends ? Some 
out of Malice, to mifchief others ; fome out of Cove- 
toufnefs, to defraud their Neighbours ; fome out of 
Pride, to fet themfelves out ; and fome out of Fear, to 
avoid Danger, or hide a Fault. But of a yet flranger 
Sort than all thefe, are thofe that do it, without any 
difcernible Temptation ; that will tell Lyes by way of 
Story, take Pleafure in telling incredible Things, from 
which themfelves reap nothing but the Reputation of 
impertinent Lyars. 

13 17. Ampjij 

184 ^ Whole Duty of Man. ' 

17. Among thefe divers Kinds ofFalfhood, Truth is 

,_., become fuch a Rarity among us, that 

Ihe great . ^ a moft difficult Matter t0 find fuch 

Commonncfs and a MaR a£ ^^ defcribes> p/fl/> xv 2% 
tolly of this nai j- peaketh thg <r rut hfrom his Heart. 
Men have fo glibbed their Tongues to 
Lying, that they do it familiarly upon any or no Occa- 
fion, never thinking that they are obferved either by 
God or Man : But they are extremely deceived in 
both ; for there is fcarce any Sin (that is at all endea- 
voured to be hid) which . is more difcernible, even to 
Men ; They that have a Cuftom of Lying, feldom fail 
(be their Memory never fo good) at fome time or other 
to betray themfelves ; and when they do, there is no fort 
of Sin meets with greater Scorn and Reproach ; a Lyar 
being by all accounted a Title of the greateft Infamy 
and Shame. But as for God, 'tis Madnefs to hope that 
all their Arts can difguife them from him, who needs 
none of thofe cafual Ways of Difcqvery, which Men do, 
but fees the Heart, and fo knows, at the very inftant of 
fpeaking, the Falfhood of what is faid : and then by his 
Title of the God of Truth, is tied not only to hate, but 
punifh it : And accordingly you fee, Rev. xxii. that 
the Lyars are in the Number of thofe that are (hut out 
of the New Jerufalem ; and not only fo, but alfo have 
their Fart in the Lake that burneth with Fire and 
Brimfone. If therefore tfiou be not of the Humour of 
that unjuft Judge Chriji fpeaks of, Luke xviii. 2. who 
neither feared God nor regarded Man, thou mult refolve 
on this Part of Juftice, the putting away Lying, which 
is abhorred by both. 

18. A fecond Thing we owe to all, is Humanity and 

Courtefy of Behaviour*; contrary to that 
Courteous Be- fullen Churlilhnefs we find fpoken of 
hawour a Due in Nabal, who was of fuch a Temper, 
to all Men. that a Man could not fpeak to him, 

1 Sam. xxv. 17. There is fure fo much 
©f Refpett due to the very Nature of Mankind, that no 
accidental Advantage of Wealth or Honour, which one 
Man hath above another, can acquit him from that 
Debt to it, even in the Perfon of the meaneft ; ^nd 


Sand. 13. Virtue <?/Mee k.ness,&V. 185 

therefore that crabbed and harm Behaviour to any that 

bears but the Form of a Man, is an Injuftice to that 

Nature he partakes of : And when we confider how 

much that Nature is dignified by the Son of God his 

taking it upon him, the Obligation to reverence it is yet 

greater, and confeqnently the Sin of thus contemning it. 

19. This is the common Guilt of all proud and 

haughty Perfons, who are fo bufy in ad' , r A M . , , 

••1 r 1 ■ 1 l 11 Not paid by 

miring themielves, th3t they overlook , / , *> 
-„ , & • lit. 1 jr -i the proud Man, 

all that is valuaoie m others, and io think r 

they owe not fo much as common Civility to other Men, 
whilft they fet up themielves, as Nebuchadnezzar did. his 
Image, to benvorfbipped of all. This is jure very con- 
trary to what the Apoille exhorts, Rom.xu. 10. In Ho- 
nour prefer one another : And again, Phil. ii. 4. Look 
not every Man on his own 'things , but every Man alfo on 
the Things cf others ; and let fuch remember the Sen- 
tence of our blefled Saviour, Luke xiv. \\. He that ex- 
a'iteth hiwfelf Jball be abafed : and he that hutnbletb 
bimfelf jhall be exalted ; which we -often find made 
good to us in the ftrange Downfals of proud Men. And 
it is no Wonder, for this Sin makes both God and Men 
our Enemies; God, as the Scripture every -where. teflU 
fies, abhors it, and all that are guilty of it ; and Men 
are, by Means of it, ufed fo contemptuouily and un- 
kindly by us, that they are by nothing more provoked 
againit us : And then, whom God and Man thus refill, 
who mall fecure and uphold ? 

20. A third Thing we owe to all, isMceknefs ; that is, 
fuch a Patience and Gentlenefs towards ,, . _ 

all, as may bridle that mad Paffion of An- 'jfYJ* ue 
ger, which is not only very uneafy to en ' 

ourielves, as hath already been mewed, but alfo very 
mifchievous to our Neighbours; as- the many Outrages 
that are oft committedin it, do abundantly tetiify. That 
this Duty ot Meeknefs is to be extended to all Men, 
there is no doubt; for the Apoftle in exorefs Words 
commands it, 1 TheJJ'. v. 14. Be patient toward 
all Men: And that, ic mould feem, in fpire of all 
Provocation to the contrary; for the very next Words 
are, See that ?wie render evil for e-vil, or railing for 

railing ; 

1 86 The Whole Duty of Man. 

ratling ; And timothy is commanded to excrcife this 
Meeknefs even towards them who oppofe themfelves 
againft the Doctrine of the Gofpel, 2 iim. ii. 25. which 
was a Cafe wherein fome Heat would probably have 
been allowed, if it might have been in any. 

2 1. This Virtue of Meeknefs is fo neceffary to the 
2 ,. preferving the Peace of the World, that 

r ou ingvery - £ ^ nQ w om j er t jj at ChrifL who came 
injutferable. , n *T n. .. ■ 

•^ " to plant Peace among Men, mould m- 

join Meeknefs to all. I'm fure the contrary Effects of 
Rage and Anger are every- where difcerniblej- it breeds 
Difquietin Kingdoms, in Neighbourhoods, in Families, 
and even between the neareft Relations ; 'tisfuch a Hu- 
mour, that Solomon warns us never to enter a Friend- 
ship with a Man that is of it, Pro<v. xxii. 24. Make no 
Friend/hip iviib an angry Man, and with a furious Man 
thoujhalt not go. It makes a Man unfit to be either 
Friend or Companion ; and indeed makes one infuffer- 
able to all that have to do with him, as we are again 
taught by Solomon, Prov. xxi. 19. where he prefers the 
dwelling in a Wildernefs, rather than nvith a contenti- 
ous and angry Woman', and yet a Woman has ordinarily 
only that one Weapon of the Tongue to offend with. 
Indeed, to any that have not the fame Unquietnefs of 
Humour, there can fcarce be a greater Uneafinefs, than 
to converfe with thofe that have it, though it never pro- 
ceed farther than Words. How great this Sin is, we may 
judge by what our Saviour fays of it, Matt. v. where 
there am feveral Degrees of Punimment allotted to feve- 
ral Degrees of it : But alas ! we daily outgo that which 
he there fets as the higheft Step of this Sin ; the calling, 
Thou Fool,\s a model! Sort of Reviling, compared with 
thofe Multitudes of bitter Reproaches we ufe in our Rages. 

22. Nay, we often go yet higher : Reproaches ferve 

not our Turn, but we muft curfe too. 
It leads to How common is it to hear Men ufe the 
that great Sin horrideft Execrations and Cuitings upon 
§/" Curfings every the flighteft Caufe of Difpleafure I 

Nay, perhaps, without any Caufe at all ; 
fo utterly have we forgot the Rule of the Apoflle, Rom. 
acii. 14. B/e/s, and curfe not ; yea, the Precept of our 
fclefiec* Saviour himfelf, Matt, v. 44. Pray for thofe 


Sund. 13. O/Respect, t£c. 187 

that defpitefully ufe you. Chrift bids us pray for thofe 
who do us all Injury, and we are often curling thofe who 
do us none. This is a Kind of faying our Prayers 
backward indeed, which is faid to be Part of the Cere- 
mony the Devil ufes at the making of a Witch : And 
we have in this Cafe alfo Reafon to look on it, as a 
Means of bringing us into Acquaintance and League 
with that accurfed Spirit here, and to a perpetual abi- 
ding with him hereafter. *Tis the language of Hell, 
which can never fit us to be Citizens of the Neiu Jerufa- 
/em, but marks us out for Inhabitants of that Land of 
Darknefs. I conclude this with the Advice of the Apo- 
ftle, Eph.iv. 31. Let all Bitternefs, and Wrath, and An- 
ger, and Clamour, and evil -/peaking be put away from 
you j nvitb all Malice. 

23. Having fpoken thus far of thofe common Dues, 
wherein all Men are concerned, and have „ . . 

a R'ght ; I am now to proceed to thofe ^ 
other Sorts of Dues, which belong to 
particular Perfons, by Virtue of fome fpecial Qualifica- 
tion. Thefe Qualifications may be of three Kinds, that 
of Excellency, that of Want, and that of Relation. 

24. By that of Excellency I mean, any extraordinary 
Gifts or Endowments of aPerfon ; fuch 

as Wifdom, Learning, and the like, but A Refpecl due 
efpecially Grace. Thefe being the fin- to Men of ex- 
gular Gifts of God, have a great Value t-aordinary 
and Refpeft due to them, wherefoever Gifts. 
they are to be found ; and this we muft 
readily pay, by a willing and glad Acknowledgment of 
thofe his Gifts, in any he has beftowed them on, and 
bearing them a Reverence and Refpedl anfwerable 
thereunto ; and not, out of an Overweening of our own 
Excellencies, defpife and undervalue thofe of others, as 
they do, who will yield nothing to be reafon but what 
themfelves fpeak, nor any Thing Piety, but what 
agrees with their own Practice. 

25. Alfo, we muft not envy or grudge that they have 
thofe Gifts ; for that is not only an In- 

juftice to them, but injurious alfo to We are not to- 
God who gave them, as it is at large fet envy them. 


1 88 The Whole Duty of Man. 

forth in the Parable of the Labourers, Matt. xx. where 
he afks them who grumbled at the Mailer's Bounty to 
others, Is it not lanvful for me to da what 1 will with 
mine oivn ? Is thine eye evil, becanfe mine is good? This 
envying at God's Goodnefs to others is, in Effect, a 
Murmuring againft God, who thus difpofes it ; neicher 
can there be a greater and more direct Oppofition a- 
gainfthim, than for me to hate and wifh ill to a Man, for 
no other Reafon, but becaufe God has loved and done 
well to him. And then in Refpecl of the Man, 'tis the 
mod unreafonable Thing in the World to love him the 
lefs, merely becaufe he has thofe good Qualities, for 
which I ought to love him more. 

26. Neither mull we detract from the Excellencies of 
Ar others; we mud not feek to ecllpfe or 
JSor detraa darken them, by denying either the Kinds 

from them. Qr Degrees of them> by that Means t0 

take off that Efteem which is due to them. This Sin of 
Detraclion is generally the EfFeft of the former of En- 
vy: He that envies a Man's Worth, will be apt to do 
all he can to lefTen it in the opinions of others, and to 
that Purpofe will either fpeak flightly of his Excellen- 
cies, or if they be fo apparent, that he knows not how 
to cloud them, he will try if he can, by reporting forne 
other real or feigned Infirmity of his, to take off from 
the Value of the other ; and fo, by calling in fome dead 
Flies, as the wife Man fpeaks, Ecclf. x. 1 . drive to cor- 
rupt the Savour of the Ointment. This is a great Injuftice, 
and direclly contrary to that Duty we owe, of acknow- 
ledging and reverencing the Gifts of God in our Brethren. 

27. And both thofe Sins of Envy and Detraction do 

■ ufually prove as great Follies, as Wick- 
The Folly of ednefg . the £nvy conftant i y brings Pain 
both thofe bins. and Torment to a Man ' s f e ]f . whereas, 
if he could but chearfully and gladly look on thofe 
good Things of another's, he could never fail to be the 
better for them himfelf; the very Pleafure of feeing 
them would be of fome Advantage to him : But befides 
that, thofe Gifts of his Brother may be many Ways 
helpful to him ; his Wifdom and Learning may give 
him Inftruition, his Piety and • Virtue, Example, &c. 


Sund. 13: O/Respect, SV. 189 

But all this the envious Man lofeth, and hath nothing 
in Exchange for it, but a continual Fretting and Gnaw- 
ing of Heart. 

28. And then for Detraction, that can hardly be fo 
managed, but it will be found out: He that is itill put- 
ting in Caveats againit Men's good Thoughts of others, 
will quickly difcover himfelf to do it out of Envy, 
and then that will be fure to leflen their Eiteem of him- 
felf, but not of thofe he envies ; it being a Sort of bear- 
ing Teftimony to thofe Excellencies, that he thinks 
them worth the envying. 

29. What hath been faid of the Value and Refpecl: 
due to thofe Excellencies of the Mind, 

may, in a lower Degree, be applied to A Refpefl due 
the outward Advantages of Honour, to Men in Re* 
Greatnefs, and the like. Thefe, though gard of their 
they are not of equal Value with the Ranks and 
former (and fuch for whicli no Man is Qualities. 
to Prize himfelf) yet, in Regard that 
thefe Degrees andDiftin&ions of Men are by God's 
wife Providence difpofed for the better ordering of the 
World, there is fuch a civil Refpeft due to thofe, to 
whom God hath difpenfed them, as may beft preferve 
that Order for which they were intended. Therefore 
all Inferiors are to behave themfelves to their Superiors 
with Modefty and Refpecl, and not by a rude Boldnefs 
confound that Order which it hath pleafed God to fet m 
the World ; but, according as 6ur Church-Catechifm 
teaches, Order them/elves lowly and reverently to all 
their Betters. And here the former Caution againft 
Envy comes in mod feafonably ; thefe outward Advan- 
tages being Things of which generally Men have more 
Tafte than of the other, and therefore will be more apt 
to envy and repine to fee others exceed them therein. 
To this therefore all the former Confiderations againft 
Envy will be very proper ; and the more necefiary to be 
made Ufe of, by how much the Temptation is in this 
Cafe to moll Minds the greater. 

30. The 

190 The Whole Duty <?/Man. 

30. The fecond Qualification is that of Want ; whoever 

D t th f * s in £^ re k *° r any Thing wherewith I 

oj can f j him, that Diftrefs of his 
/#*/ are tn any , £ rk .. « r r 1 1 • 

c t fiy / makes Jt a Duty in me io to lupply him, 

' * and this in all Kinds of Wants. Now the 

Ground of its being a Duty is, that God hath given Men 
Abilities not only for their own Ufe, but for the Advan- 
tage and Benefit of others ; and therefore what is thus 
given for their Ufe becomes a Debt to them, whenever 
their Need requires it. Thus he that is ignorant and 
wants Knowledge, is to be inftructed by him that hathjt ; 
and this is one fpecial End why that Knowledge is given 
him, The 'Tongue of the Learned is given to /peak a Word 
in Sea/on, lfaiah I. 4. He that is in Sadnefs and Afflicti- 
on, is to be comforted by him that is himfelf in Chear- 
fulnefs. This we fee St. Paul makes the End of God's 
comforting him, that he might be able to comfort them 
that are in any Trouble. 2 Cor. i. 4. He that is in any 
Courfe of Sin, and wants Reprehenfion and Counfel, mull 
have that Want fupplied to him by thofe who have fuch 
Abilities and Opportunities, as may make it likely to do 
good. That this is 5 Juftice we to our Neighbour, 
appears plainly by this Text, Lev. xix 17. Ihoujhalt not 
bate thy Brother in thy Heart, thoujhalt in any wife re- 
prove him, and not fuffer Sin upon him. Where we are 
under the fame Obligation to reprove him, that we are 
not to hate him. He that lies under any Slander or un- 
juft Defamation, is to be defended and cleared by him 
that knows his Innocence, or elfe he makes himfelf 
guilty of the Slander, becaufe he neglecls to do that 
which may remove it; and how great an Injuftice that 
of flandering our Neighbour is, I have already fhewed. 

3 1 . Laftly, he that is in Poverty and Need muft be re- 

lieved by him that is in Plenty ; and he is 
%o the Poor, bound to it, not only in Charity, but 

even in Juftice. Solomon calls it a Due, 
Prav. iii. 27. With-hold not good from him to whom it is 
due, when it is in the Power of thine Hand to do it : 
And what that Good is, he explains in the very next 
Verfe : Say not to thy Neighbour, G», and come again, 
amd to morrow 1 will give, when thauhaji it by thee* 


Sund.-i^. Dues /o 7j&^ w Want, iqi 

It feems, 'tis the withholding a Due, fo much as to de- 
fer giving to our poor Neighbour. And we find God 
did, among the J e<ws, feparate a certain Portion of every 
Man's Incre^fe to the Ute of the Poor, a tenth every 
third Year (which is all one with a thirtieth Part every 
Year) Deut xiv. 28, 29. And this was to be paid, not 
as a Charity, or Liberality, but as a Debt; they were 
unjult, if they withheld it. Arid furely we have no 
Reafon to think, that Chriftian Juftice is funk fo much 
below the Je<wi/h, that either nothing at all, or a lefs 
Proportion is now required of us. I wiPn our Practice 
were but at all anfwerable to our Obligation in this Point, 
and then furely we mould not fee fo many LazaruSs lie 
unrelieved at our Doors; they have a better Right to 
our Superfluities, than we ourfelves have • And then, 
what is it but arrant Robbery, to beftow that upon our 
Vanities, nay, our Sins, which mould be their portion? 
32. In all the foregoing Cafes, he that hath Ability is 
to look upon himlelf as God's Steward, ^ . , 

who hath put it into his Hands to diilri- . ™ u r 
bute to them that want; and therefore jT^* > 
not to do it is the feme Injuftice and !.?"' 
Fraud that it would be in any Steward to ™* uh ar . e M f 
purfe up that Money for his private Be- thus em P l V ed ' 
nefit, which was intrufted to him for the Maintenance 
of the family : And he that fhall do thus, hath juft Rea- 
fon to expect the Doom of the unjuit Steward, Luke xvi. 
To be put out of his Steward/hip, to have thofe Abili- 
ties taken from him, which he hath fo unfaithfully im- 
ployed. And as for all the reft, fo particularly for that 
of Wealth, 'tis very commonly to be obferved, that it 
is withdrawn from thofe that thus defraud the Poor of 
their Parts, the griping Mifer coming often, by ftrange, 
undifcernible Ways, to Poverty j and no Wonder, he 
having no Title to God's BlefTing on his Heap, who 
dqes not confecrate a Part to him in his poor Members. 
And therefore we fee the lfraeiites> before they could 
make that Challenge of God's Promife to blefs them, 
Deut. xx vi. 15. Look down from thy holy Habitation, 
and blefs thy People Jfrael, &c. They were firlt to 
pay the poor Man's Tythes, <verfe 13, without which 


192 The Whole Duty of Man. 

they could lay no claim to it. This with-holding more 
than is meet, as Solomon fays, Pro<u. xi. 24. tends to po- 
verty, and therefore, as thou wouldeft play the good 
Hufband for thyfelf, be careful to perform this Jufticei 
according to thy Ability, to all that are in Want. 

33. The third Qualification is that of Relation ; and 

of that there may be divers forts arifing 
Duties in re- from divers Grounds, and Duties anfwer- 
fpecl of Rela> able to each of them. There is, firft, 
tion. a Relation cf a Debtor to a Creditor ; 

and he that ftands in that relation to any, 
whether by Virtue of Bargain, Loan, or Prcmife, it is 
his Duty to p3y juftly what he owes, if he be able (as 
on the ether fide, if he be not, it is the Creditor's^ 
deal charitably and chriilianly with him, and not to ex- 
act of him beyond his Ability.) But I need not infill on 
this, having already, by (hewing you the Sin of with- 
holding Debts, informed you of this Duty. 

34. There is alfo a Relation of an obliged Perfon to 

his Benefactor, that is, one that hash done 
Gratitude to him Good, of what kind foever, whether 
BenefaSlors. fpiritua.1 or corporal: and the Duty of that 

Perfon is, FirhV Thankfulnefs, that is, 
a ready and hearty Acknowledgment of the Courtefy 
received; Secondly? Prayer for God's Blemngs and Re- 
wards upon him : And thirdly, an Endeavour, as Op- 
portunity and Ability ferves, to make Returns of Kind^ 
nefs, by doing good Turns back again. This Duty of 
Gratitude co Benefactors is fo generally acknowledged by 
all, even the molt barbarous and favageft of Men, that 
he muft have put off much of his Human Nature, that 
refufes to perform it. The very Publicans and Sinners, 
as our Saviour fays, do good to *hfe that do good to them. 

35. Yet how many of us fail even in this ? How fre- 

quent is it to fee Men not only neglect 
The contrary to repay Courtefiesi but return Injuries 
too common. inltead of them ? it is too obfervable in 

many Particulars, but in none more, 
than in the Cafe of Advice and Admonition, which is, 
of all others, the moft precious Part of Kindnefs, the 
reallelt good Turn that can be done from one A'lan to 


Sund. 13. Of Gratitude, lie. 193 

another. And therefore thofe that do this to us, mould be 
looked upon as our prime and greateft Benefactors. But 
alas! How few are there that can find Gratitude, (hall 
I fay ? nay, patience, for fuch a Courtefy ? Go about 
to admoniih a Man of a Fault, to tell him of an Error, 
he prefently looks on you as his Enemy : You are, as 
St. Paul tells the Galatians, Chap. to. 16. become bis 
Enemy, hecaafe you tell him the Truth. Such a Pride 
there is in Men's Hearts that they muft not be told of 
any thing amifs, though it be with no other Intent, but 
that they may amend it. A ftrange madnefs this is, 
the fame that it would be in a fick Man to fly in the 
Face of him that comes to cure him, on a Fancy that he 
difparaged him, in fuppofing him fick : So that we may 
well fay with the Wife Man, Prov. xii. I. Pie that bat- 
etb Reproof is hrutijh. There cannot be in the World 
a more unhappy Temper; for it fortifies a Man in his 
Sins, raifes fuch Mounts and Bulwarks about them, that 
no Man can come to afiault them ; if we may believe 
Solomon, Deftrutticn will .not fail to attend it; Prov. 
xxix. 1 . He that being often reproved, hardneth his 
Neck, foall fuddenly be de/iroyed, and that without re- 
medy. But then again, in refpeft of the Admoniflier it 
is the greateft Injuitice, I may fay Cruelty, that can be : 
He comes in Tendemefs and CompafTion to refcue thee 
from Danger, and to that Purpofe puts himfelf upon 
a very uneafy Tafk; for fuch the general Impatience 
Men have to Admonition hath now made it; and what 
a Defeat, what a* Grief is it to him, to find, that, inftead 
of reforming the firft Fault, thou art run into a Second, 
to wit, that of caufelefs Difpleafure againft him? This 
is one of the worft, and yet, I doubt, the commoneft 
fort of Unthankfulnefs to Benefactors, and io a great 
failing in that Duty we owe to that fort of Relation. 
But perhaps thefe will be looked on as remote Rela- 
tions; yet, it is fure, they are fuch as challenge 
all that Duty I have afTigned to them. I (hall, in 
the next Place, proceed to thofe Relations, which are by 
all acknowledged to be of the greatelt Nearnefs. 


194 "The Whole Duty of Man. 


Of Duty to Magiftrates, Paftors. Of the 
Duty of Parents to Children, &c. Of 
Children's Duty unto Parents, &c. 

Sect. i. /TpHE firft of thofe nearer Sorts of 
JL, Relations is that of a Parent. And 
Duty to Pa- here it will be neceffary to confider the fe- 
rents. veral Sorts of Parents, according to which 

the Duty of them is to be ineafured : Thofe 
are thefe three; the Civil, the Spiritual, the Natural. 

2. The Civil Parent is he, whom God hath eftablifh- 

ed the Supreme Magiftrate, who by a 
Duties to the juft Right poffeffes the Throne in a Na- 
Supreme Ma- tion. This is the common Father of all 
gijlrate, thofe that are under his Authority. The 

Duty we owe to this Parent is, Firft, 
Honour. Honour aod Reverence, looking on him, 

as upon one on whom God hath ftamp- 
ed much of his own Power and Authority, and there- 
fore paying him all Honour and Efteem, never daring, 
upon any Pretence whatfoever, to /peak Evil of the Ruler 
rf our People, A£ts xxiii. 5. 

3. Secondly, faying Tribute; this is exprefly com- 

manded by the Apoftle, Rom. xiii. 6. 
Tribute. Pay ye Tribute a/fo, fat they are God's 

Minijters, attending continually upon this 
*very T&ing. God has fet them apart as Minifters, for 
the common good of the People; and therefore 'tis all 
Jultice they ihould be maintained and fupported by 
them. And indeed, when it is confidered what are the 
Cares and Troubles of that High Calling, how many 
Thorns are platted in every Crown, we have very little 
Reafon to envy them thefe Dues ; and it may truly be 
faid, there are none of their poor labouring Subjects 
that earn their living fo hardly. 

4. Thirdly, 

Sand. 14.O/ Duty to Magist rates. 195 

4. Thirdly, We are to pray for them : This is alio 
cxprefly commanded by the Apoftle, 

I Tim. ii. 2. to be done for Kings, and Prayers for 
for all that are in Authority. The Bufi- them. 
nefles of that Calling are fo weighty, the 
Dangers and Hazards of it fo great, that they of all 
others need Prayers for God's Direction, Affiftance, 
and Bleffing; and the Prayers that are thus poured out 
for them, will return into our own Bofoms: For the 
Bleflings they receive from God, tend to the Good of 
the People, to their living a quiet and peaceable Life, 
as it is in the Clofe of the Verfe forementioned. 

5. Fourthly, We are to pay them Obedience. Thw 
is likewife ftri&ly charged by the Apoftle, 

1 Pet. ii. 13. Submit your/elves to every Obedience, 
Ordinance of Man for the hordes fake : 
vohether it be to the King as Supreme, or unto Governours, 
as thofe that are fent by him. We owe fuch an Obedi- 
ence to the Supreme Power, that whoever is authorized 
by him, we are to fubmit to : and St. Paul likewife is 
mod full to this purpofe, Rom. xiii. 1. Let every Soul 
hefubjeSl to the higher Powers: And again, ver. 2. Who- 
foever refifteth the Power, refifteth the Ordinance of God. 
And 'tis obfervable, that thefe Precepts were given at a 
Time when thofe Powers were Heathens, and cruel 
perfecutors of Chriftianity ; to (hew us that no Pretence 
of the Wickednefs of our Rulers can free us of this Duty. 
And Obedience we muft pay, either a&ive or paffive ; 
the active in the Cafe of all lawful Commands; that is, 
whenever the Magiitrate commands fomething which 
is not contrary tofome Command of God, we are then 
bound to ad according to that Command of the Magi- 
ftrate, to do tne things he requires : But when he en- 
joins any thing contrary to what God hath commanded, 
we are not then to pay him this active Obedience : We 
may, nay, we muft refufe thus to ad (\et here we muft 
be verv well aflured, that the thing is fo contrary, and 
not pretend Confcience for a Cloak of Stubbornnefs) 
we are in that cafe to obey God rather than Man. But 
even this is a Seafon for the paffive Obedience, we muft 
patiently fuffer, what he iniltfts on us for fuch Refuial, 


196 The Whole Duty of Man. 

and not, to fecure our. Ves, rife up againfthim: For 
who can flretch his Band againft the hordes anointed, 
and be guiltlefs? fays David to Abifhai, I Sam. xxvi. 
9. and that at a Time when David was under a great 
Perfecution from Saul, nay, had alfo the Affurance of 
the Kingdom after him : And St. Paul's Sentence in this 
Cafe is moft heavy, Rom. xiii. 2. They that re/ifi, /hall 
receive to themfelves Damnation. Here is very fmall 
Encouragement to any to rife up againft the lawful Ma- 
gistrate ; for tho' they mould fo far profper here, as to 
fecure themfelves from him by this means, yet there is 
a King of Kings, from whom no Power can (helter 
them ; and this Damnation in the Clofe Will prove a fad 
Prize of their Victories. What is, on the other Side, 
the Duty of the Magiftrate to the People, will be in 
vain to mention here, none of that Rank being like to 
read this Treatife : And it being very ufelefs for the Peo- 
ple to enquire what is the Duty of their Supreme, 
wherein the moft are already much better read, than in 
their own, it may fuffice them to know, that whatfo- 
ever his Duty is, or however performed, he is account- 
able to none but God, and no failing of his Part can 
warrant them, to fail of theirs. 

6. The fecond Sort of Parents are the fpiritual ; that 

is, the Minifters of the Word, whe- 
Duties to our ther fuch as be Governours in the 
Pafiors. Church, or others under them, who are 

to perform the fame Offices to our Souls, 
that our natural Parents do to our Bodies. Thus St* 
Paul tells the Corinthians, that in Chrifl Jefus he 
had begotten them through the Go/pel, 1 Cor. iv. 15. 
and the Galatians, Chap. iv. 19. that he travails 
in Birth of them, till Chrijl he formed in them : And 
again, 1 Cor. iii. 2. He had fed them voith Milk, that 
is, fuch Doctrines as were , agreeable to that Infant 
State of Chriftianity they were then in ; but he had 
Jironger Meat for them of full Age, Heb. v. 14. AH 
thefe are the Offices of a Parent; and therefore they 
that perform them to us, may well be accounted as 

7. Our 

Sund. 14. O/Duty to Pastors. 197 

7. Our Duty to thefe is, firft to love them; to bear 
them that Kindnefs which belongs to thofe 

who do us the greateft Benefits. This is Love. 
required by St. Paul, I Thejf. v. 12, 13. 
/ befeecb you, Brethren, mark them which labour among 
ycu, and are over you in the Lord, and admontlb you; and 
ejieem them very highly in Love, for their Work's Sake. 
The Work is fuch as ought in all Reafon to procure 
them J^ove, it being of the higheft Advantage to us. 

8. Secondly, It is our Duty to value and eiteem them, 
as we fee in the Text now mentioned ; and ^ ~ 
furely this is moft reafonable, if we confider J 
either the Nature of their Work, or who it is that im- 
ploys them : The Nature of their Work is of all others 
the molt excellent. We ufe to value other Profefiions 
proportionably to the Dignity and Worth of the Things 
they deal in. Now furely there is no Merchandife of 
equal Worth with a Soul ; and this is their Traffick, 
reftuing precious Souls from Perdition. And if we 
confider further, who it is that imploys them, it yet 
adds to the Reverence due to them. They are Ambaf- 
fadors for Chrijl, z Cor. V. 20, and Ambaffadors are 
by the Laws of all Nations to be ufed with a Refpeft 
anfwerable to the Quality of thofe that fend them. 
Therefore Chrift tells his Difciples, when he fends them 
out to preach, He that defpifeth you, defpifeth me ; and 
he that defpifeth me, defpifeth him that fent me, Luke X. 
16. It feems there is more depends on the defpifing of 
Minifters, than Men ordinarily confider; 'tis the de- 
fpifing of God and Chrift both. Let thofe think of 

' this, who make it their Paftime and Sport to affront and 
deride this Calling: And let thofe alfo, who dare pre- 
fume to exercife the Offices of it, without being law- 
fully called to it, which is a moft high Prefumption ; 'tis 
as if a Man of his own Head mould go as an Ambaffa- 
dor from his Prince. The Apoltle fays of the Priefts 
of the Law, which yet are inferior to thofe of the Gof- 
pel, that No h'.an takeththis Honour unto himfelf, but he 
'which ivas called of ^God, Heb. v. 4. How (hall then 
any Man dare to affume this greater Honour to himfelf, 
that is not called to it ? Neither will it fuffice to fay, 


198 The Whole Duty 0/Man. 

they have the inward Call of the Spirit ; for fince God 
hath eftabliihed an Order in the Church, for the admit- 
ting Men to this Office, they that (hall take it upon 
them without that Authority, refill that Ordinance, and 
are but of the Number of thofe thieves and Robbers, 
as our Saviour fpeaks, John x. which come not in by the 
Door. Befides, the fad Experience of thefe Times {hews 
that many, who pretend molt to this inward Call of the 
Spirit, are called by fome other Spirit than that of 
God ; the Do&rines they vent being ufually direclly 
contrary to that Word of his, on which all true Doc- 
trines muft be founded. Such are to be looked on as 
thofe Seducers, thofe falfe Prophets, whereof we are fo 
often warned in the Epiftles of the Apoftles. And who- 
foever countenances them, or follows them, partakes 
with them in their Guilt. It is recorded of Jeroboam 
as a crying Sin, that he made of the meaneft of the 
People Priefts; that is, fuch as had by God's Inftitu- 
tion no Right to it; and whoever hearkens to thefe l;i- 
called Preachers, runs into that very Sin : For without 
the Encouragement of being followed, they would not 
long continue in the Gourfe ; and therefore they that 
give them that Encouragement, have much to anfwer 
for, and are certainly guilty of the Sin of defpifing 
their true Paftors, when they (hall thus fet up thefe falfe 
Apoftles againft them. This is a Guilt this Age is too 
much concerned in. God in his Mercy fo timely con- 
vince us of it, as may put a Stop to that Confufion and 
Impiety which breaks in fo fall upon us by it ! 

o. Thirdly, We owe to them Maintenance: But of 

_ . this I have fpoken already in the firft Part 

Maintenance. of tMs Book> and ^ nQt here repeaf# 

Fourthly, We owe them Obedience; Obey them, 

faith the Apoftle, that have the Rule overyou, andfub- 

tnit your/elves, for they nvatch for your Souls, Heb. xiii. 

17. This Obedience is to be paid them in fpiritual 

Things; that is, whatfoever they out of 

Obedience, God's Word (hall declare to us to be God's 

Commands, that we are diligently to obey, 

remembring that it is not they, but God requires it, 

according to that ofChrift, He that hear eth you, heareth 

1 me % 

Sand. 14. Of Dut y to Pa stor s. 109 

vie, Luke x. 16. And this, whether it be delivered by the 
Way of public:; preachings or private Exhortation : For 
in both, To long as they keep them to the Rule which is 
Grid's Word, they arc the tdtj/eitgers of the Lord of 
liojh, Mai. it 7. This Obedience the Aooltie info. a 
from a double Motive, one taken from their Mini- 
flfry, another from themfclves; They watch, fays he, for 
y ur Sou's, as tbij that tftufi give an A: count , that they 
may do it with Joy and not with Grief The People are 
by their Obedience to enable their Rdlors to give a com- 
fortable Account of their Souls j and it is amort unkind 
Return of all tiieir Care and Labours, to be put to 
grieve for the ill SuccdS of them. Bat then, in the 
fecond Place, 'tis their own Concernment alfo ; they 
may put their Mini.iers to the Difeomfort of feeing ail 
their Pains call away, but ibemfelves are like to get lit- 
tle by it, that (lays the Apoille, Heb. xiii. 1 7.) vAil he 
unprofitable for you; 'tis your ielves that will finally 
prove thejLofers by ir, youlofeall thofe glorious Re- 
wards which are offered as the Crown of r hi* Obe- 
dience; you get nothing but an Addition to your Sin and 
Punifhment; for as our Saviour tells tiie Pharifees, if he 
had not cams and fpoken to them they had not had Sin, 
John xv. 24. that is, in Comparifon with what they 
then had. So certainly they that never had the Gofpel 
preached to them are much more innocent than they 
that have heard, and refilled it. And for the Punifh- 
ment, what Chriit told thefe to whom he had preached, 
That it jLould be more tolerable for Tyre and Sidon, 
which were Heathen Cities, than for them: the fame 
undoubtedly we may conclude for ourfelves. 

10. Laftly, we are to pray for them : Tnis St. Paul 
every where requires of his Spiritual Chil- 
dren; thus Epb.v'i.y, 8. having com- Prayers for. 
manded Prayer for all the Saints, he adds, them, 
Jlnd for me, that Utterance may be gi<ven 
unto me, that I may open my Mouth boldly to make known 
the Myfiery of the Gofpel. And fo again, Col. iv. 3. And 
this remains liill a Duty to thefe fpiritual Fathers, to 
pray for fuch Affiftances of God's Spirit to them, as 
may enable them rightly to discharge that holy Calling. 
I fhali omit to fet down here what is the Duty of Mini- 
K iters 

•2co the Whole Duty of Man. 

.fters to the People, upon the fame Confideration on 

which I forbear to mention the Duty ef Magiilrates. 

1 1. The third Sort of Parent is the natural, the Fa - 

~ . thers of our Fiefh, as the Apoftle calls 

Duties to our , -v, , - A j - l r 

, p them, neb. xn. 9. And to thefe we owe 

feveral Duties ; as firft, we owe them Re- 

rents ' verence and Refpeft : We muft behave 

t, ourfelves towards them with ail Humility 

Reverence. \ r\- r j n. 

and Oolervance; and mult not, upon any 

Pretence of Infirmity in them, defpife or contemn them, 
either in outward Behaviour, or fomuch as inwardly in 
our Hearts. If indeed they have Infirmities, it muft Le 
our Bufinefs to cover and conceal them ; like Sbem and 
jfaphet, who while curfed Cham publiflied and difclofed 
the Nakednefs of their lather, covered it, Gen. ix. 23., 
snd that in fuch a Manner too, as even themfelves 
might not behold it. We are as much as may be to 
keep ourfelves from looking on thofe Nakedneffes of 
our Parents, which may tempt us to think irreverently 
of them. This is very contrary to the Practice of too 
many Children, who do not only publifh and deride the 
Infirmities of their Parents, but pretend they have thofe 
Infirmities they have not. There is ordinarily fuch a 
Pride and Headinefs in Youth, that they cannot abide to 
fubmit to the Counfels and Directions of their Elders ; 
and therefore to fhake them off, are willing to have them 
pals for the Effects of Dotage, when they are indeed the 
Fruits of Sobriety and Experience. To fuch the Exhor- 
tation of Solomon is very neceffary, Fro<v. xxiii. 22. 
Hearken unto thy Father that beget thee., and defpife not 
thy Mother <vchen Jhe is old. A Multitude of Texts more 
there are in that Book to this Purpofe ; wnich (hews, 
that the wifeft of Men thought it neceffary for Children 
to attend to the Counfel of their Parents. But the Youth 
©f our Age fet up for Wifdom the quite contrary Way, 
and think they then become Wits, when they are ad- 
vanced to the defpifing the Counfel, yea, mocking the 
Perfons of their Parents. Let fuch, if they will not prac- 
tife the Exhortations, yet remember the Threatning of 
the Wife Man, Frov. xxx. 17. The Eye that mocketh at 
his Father, and defpifeth to obey his Mother, the Ravens of 
the Valley fhall pick it out ,and the young Eagles fhall eat it. 

12. A 

Sund. 14. O/Duty ^Parents. 201 

1 2. A fecond Duty we owe to them is Love ; we are 
to bear them a real Kindnefs, fuch as may make - 
us heartily defirous of all Manner of Good to 0<ve ' 
them, and abhor to do any Thing that may grieve and 
difquiet them. This will appear but common Gratitude, 
when 'tisremembred what our Parents have done for us, 
how they were not only the Instruments of firft bringing 
us into the World, but alfo of fuftaining and fupporting us 
after; and certainly they that rightly weigh the Cares 
and Fears, that go to the bringing up of a Child, will 
judge the Love of that Child to be but a moderate Re- 
turn for them. This Love is to be exprefled feveral 
Ways; Firit, in all Kindnefs of Behaviour, carrying our 
felves not only with Awe and Refpeft, but with 
Kindnefs and Affeclion ; and therefore mod gladly and 
readily doing thofe Things which may bring Joy and 
Comfort to them, and carefully avoiding whatever may 
grieve and afflict them. Secondly, this Love is to be ex- 
prefled in praying for them. The Debt a Child owes to 
a Parent is fo great, that he can never hope himfelf todif- 
charge it, he rs therefore to call in God's Aid, to beg of 
him, that he will reward all the Good his Parents have 
done for him, by multiplying his Bleflings upon them : 
What (hall we then fay to thofe Children, that inftead of 
calling to Heaven for Bleflings on their Parents, ranfack 
Hell for Curfes on them, and pour out the blacked Exe- 
crations againft them ? This is a Thing fo horrid, that one 
would think they needed no Perfuafion againllit; becaufe 
none could be fo vile, as to fall into it ; but we fee God 
himfelf, who beft knows Men's Hearts, faw it poffible, and 
therefore laid the heaviefl Punifhment upon it ; He that 
curfetb Father or Mother, let him die the Deaths Exod. 
xxi. 17. And alas! our daily Experience tells us, 'tis not 
only poffible, but common, even this of uttering Curfes. 
But 'tis to be feared, there is another yet more common, 
that is, the wifhing Curfes, though Fear or Shame keep 
them from fpeaking out. How many Children are 
there, that either through Impatience of the Govern- 
ment, or Greedinefs of the PofTeffions of their Pa- 
rents, have willed their Deaths? But whoever doth fo f 
let him remember, that how flily and fairly foever he 
carry it before Men, there is One that fees thofe fecretefl 
K z W^es. 

ooi The Whole Duty of Man. 

Wjfhes of his Heart, and in his Sight heafiuredly pafles 
for this heinous Offender, a Curfer of his Parents. And 
then let it be confidered, that God hath as well the Pow- 
er of punifhing, as of feeing ; and therefore, fir.ce he 
hath pronounced Death to be the Reward of that Sin, 
'tis not unreafonable to fxpecl he may himfelf inflict it; 
that they who watch for the Death of their Parents, may 
untimely meet with their own. The Fifth Command- 
ment promifeth long Life, as the Reward of honouring 
the Parent; to which 'tis very agreeable, that untimely 
Death be the Punifhment of the contrary : And fure 
there is nothing more highly contrary to that Duty, than 
this we are now fpeaking of, the Curfing our Parents. 

13. The third Duty we owe to them is Obedience : 
n j ,. This is not only contained in the fifth Com* 

tence. man d men t 9 but expreilv enjoined in other Pla- 
ces of Scripture, Ephef. vi. 1. Children, obey your Pa.' 
rents in the Lord; for this is right : And again, Col. iii. 
20. Children, obey your Parents in all Things, for this is 
muellplea/ing unto the Lord. We owe them an Obedience 
in all Things, unlefs where their Commands are contra- 
ry to the Commands of God ; for in that Cafe our Du- 
ty to God mult be preferred. And therefore if any Pa- 
rent (hall be fo wicked, as to require his Child to Heal, 
to lye, or to do any unlawful thing, the Qhild then of- 
fends not againft his Duty, though hedifobey that Com- 
mand ; nay, he muft difobey, or elfe he offends againft 
a higher Duty, even that he owes to God his heavenly 
Father: Yet when it is thus neceffary to refufe Obedi- 
ence, he mould take Care to do it in fuch a modeft and 
refpedlful Manner, that it may appear it is Confcience on- 
ly, and not Stubbornefs, moves him to it. But in the Cafe 
of all lawful Commands, that is, when the Thing com- 
manded is either good or not evil, when it hath nothing 
in it contrary to our Duty to God, there Lhe Child is bound 
to obey, be the Command a weightier or lighter Matter. 
How little this Duty is regarded, is too manifeft every 
where in the World, where Parents generally have 
their Children no longer under Commar.d, than they 
are under the Rod : When they are once grown up, they 
think thsmfelves free from all Obedience to them ; or if 
feme do continue to pay it, yet let the Motive of it be 


Sand. 14. O/Duty /o Parents. 203 

examined, and it will in too many be found only 
worldly Prudence: They fear to difpieafe their Parents, 
left they ihould (horten their Hand towards them, and 
fo they (hall lofe fomewhat by it. But how few are 
there that obey purely upon Conference of Duty ? This 
Sin of Difobedence to Parents was, by the I.'iw of Mcfes, 
punifhable with Death, as you may read, Deut. xxi. 18. 
But if Parents, now a days, mould proceed fo with their 
Children, many might foon make themfelves Childlefs. 

14. Butof all the Ads of Difobedience, that of Mar- 
rying againft the Confent of the Pa- -,. • r • 
rent is one of the higheft. Children ; . ,.£ . 
arefo much the Goods, the Poffeffi- cir rri •* * 
ons of their Parents, that they cannot, without a Kind 
of Theft, give away themfelves, without the Allow- 
ance of thofethat have the Right in them: And there- 
fore we fee under the Law, the Maid that had made any 
Vo r ix\ auas not fuffered to perform it, without the Confent 
of the Parent, Numb. xxx. 5. The Right of the Parent 
was thought of Force enough to cancel and make void 
the Obligation even of a Vow ; and therefore furely ic 
ought to be fo much confidered by us, as to keep U3 
from making any fuch, whereby that Right is infringed. 

15. A fourth Duty to the Parent is toailitl and mini- 
fter to them in ail their Wants of what 

Kind foever, whether Weaknefs and Minifying to 
Sicknefsof Body, Decayedneis of Under- their Wants. 
Handing, or Poverty and Lovvnefs of E- 
flate: In all thefe the Child is bound, according to his 
Ability, to relieve and aiull them. For the two former, 
Weaknefs of Body, and Infirmity of Mind, none can 
doubt of the Duty, when they remember how e\cvy 
Child did in his Infancy receive the very fame Benefit 
from the Parents; the Child had then no Strength to 
fupport, no Underilanding to guide itfeif; the Care of 
the Parents was fain to fup ply both thefe to it. And 
therefore in common Gratitude, whenever either of thefe 
becomes the Parents Cafe, as fometimes by great Age, or 
fome Accident, both do, the Child is to perform the fame 
Offices back again to them. As for that of relieving 
their Poverty, there is the very fame Obligation to that 
K 3 with- 

204 The Whole Duty 0/Man. 

with the former; it being but juft to fuftain thy Parent* 
who has formerly fuftained thee. But befides this, Chrift 
himfelf teacheth us, that this is contained within the Pre- 
cept of honouring their Parents; for when, Mariv'n. 13. 
he accufes the Pharifees of rejefling the Commandment of 
God, to cleave to their onun Traditions, he in fiances in 
this particular concerning the relieving of Parents : 
Whereby 'tis manifeft, that this is a Part of that Duty 
which is enjoyned in the Fifth Commandment, as you 
may fee at large in the r i ext; and fuch a Duty it is, 
that no Pretence can abfolve or acquit us of it. How 
then fhall thofe anfwer it, that deny Relief to their poor 
Parents ? that cannot part with their own Excefles and 
Superfluities, which are indeed their Sins, to fatisfy the 
Neceffities of thofe to whom they owe their Being ? 
Kay, fome there are yet worfe, who out of Pride fcorn 
to own their Parents in their Poverty. Thus it often hap- 
pens, when the Child is advanced to Dignity or Wealth ; 
they think it a Difparagement to them to look on their 
Parents that remain in a low Condition ; it being the be- 
traying, as they think, to the World the Meannefs of their 
Birth; and fo the poor Parent fares the worfe for the Prof- 
perity of his Child. This is fuch a Pride and Unnatural- 
nefs together, as will furely find a fharp Vengeance from 
God; for if Solomon obferves of Pride alone, that it is th« 
Forerunner of Deftrutfion, Pro v. xvi. 18. we may much 
rather conclude fo of it, when it is thus accompanied. 

16. To this that hath been faid of the Duty of Chul- 
ym , . , dren to their Parents, I mall acid only 
Duty to be paid ^ ^ nQ Unkindnefi n0 FauIt of 
wentothewrjl the p aren£ can acquk the Child of 
of i arents. ^ p^ . g^ ^ gf p etgrtdla Ser . 

vants, 1 Pet. ii. 18. that they muji befubjecl, not only to 
the good and gentle Majlers, but alfo to the froivard ; fo 
certainly it belongs to Children to perform Duty, not only 
to the kind and virtuous, but even to the harfheft and 
wkkedeft Parent: For though the Gratitude due to a 
kind Parent, be a very forcible Motive to make the 
Child pay his Duty, yet that is not the only or chiefeft 
Ground of it; that is laid in the Command of God, 
who requires us thus to honour our Parents. And thei e- 


Sand. 14. Parents Duty to Children. 205 

fore though we fhould fuppofe a Parent fo unnatural, ay 
never to have done any Thing to oblige the Child (which, 
can hardly be imagined) yet (till the Command of God 
continues in Force, and we are in Confcience of that to 
perform that Duty to our Parents, though none of the 
other Tyes of Gratitude fhould lie on us. 

But as this is due from the Child to the Parent; foonthe 
other Side, there are other things alfo due r\ ,, fp . 
from the Parents to the Child, and that ^(-ifjj?™** 3 
throughout the feveralStates and Ages of it. 

1 7. Firft, There is the Care of nourifhing and fuftam- 
ingit; which begins from the very Birth, * , A . 

and continues a Duty from the Parent till 
the Child be able to perform it to himfelf : This is a 
Duty which Nature teaches; even the favage Beafts 
have a great Care and Tendernefs in nourifhing their 
Young, and therefore may ferve to reproach and con- 
demn ail Parents, who flnll be fo unnatural as to negleft 
this. I mail not here enter into the Queftion, Whether 
the Mother be tblhed to give the Child itifirjt Kouiijh- 
menty by giving it Suck berfelf, becaufe 'twill not be pof» 
fible tQ affirm univcrfally in the Cafe; there beir.g many 
Circumftances which may alter it, and make .Tnot only 
lawful, but bell not to do it. All I fhall fay is, That 
where no Impediment of Sicknefs, Weaknefs, or the like, 
does happen, 'tis furely belt for the Mother her (elf to 
perform this Office; there being many Advantages to the 
Chlld by it, which a good Mother ought fo far to eonfi- 
der, asnot to fell them to her own Sloth, or Nieenefs, or 
anyfuch unworthy Motive; for where fuchonly are the 
Grounds of forbearing it, they will never be able to juf- 
tify the Omifibn, they being themfclves unjullifiable. 

But befides this firft Care, which belongs to the Body 
of the Child, there is another, which mould 
begin- near as early, which belongs to their Bring then* 
Souls ; and that is, the b.'inging them to the to Baptifm. 
Sacrament of Baptifm, thereby to procure 
them an ea*ly Right to all thofe precious Advantages, 
which that Sacrament conveys to them. This is a Duty 
he Parents ought not to delay ; it being moll reasonable, 
hat thsy, who have been Inilruments to convey the Stain 
K 4 and 

2c6 The Whole Duty of Man. 

?.nd Pollution ofSin to the poor Infant, mould be very 
eameii and induftrious to have it wafned off as Toon as may 
be : Befides the Life of fo tender a Creature is but a Blaft, 
and many times gone in a Moment: And though we are 
not to defpair of God's Mercy to thole poor Children who 
die without Baptifm, yet furely thofe Parents commit a 
great Fault, by whofe Neglect it is that they want it. 

1 8. Secondly, The Parents mull provide for th; j Edu- 
• •* , . cation of the Child ; they muft, asSo/cmon 

Ipeaks, Frov. xxn. 6. 'Train up a Lhild in 
the Way hs Jhould go. As foon, therefore, as Children 
come to the Ufeof Rea'on, they are to beinftrudted ; and 
lhat, 6rlL in thofe Things which concern their eternal 
Well -being; they are by little and little to be taught all 
thofe Tilings which God hath commanded them as their 
D-Jty to perform; as alio what glorious Rewards he hash 
provided for them if they do it ; and what grievous and 
eternal Purism en t if they do it not. Thefe things ought, 
as early as poflible, to be inftilled into the Minds, of 
Children, which (like new Veffels) do ufually keep the 
Savour of that which is firft put into them : And there- 
fore it nearly concerns all Parents to look they be at firft 
thus feafontd with Virtue and Religion. 'Tis fare, if this 
be neglected, there is one ready at Hand to fill them with 
the contrary : The Devil will be diligent enough to initil 
into t em allWickednefsand Vice, even from their Cra- 
dles: And there being alfo in all our Natures fo much 
the greater Aptnefs to Evil than to Good, there is Need 
of great Care and Watchfulnefs to prevent thofe Endea- 
vours of that Enenby of Souls, which can no Way be, but 
by pcileiiing them at firft with good Thirgs, breeding in 
them a Love to Virtue, and a flatted of Vies ; that fo 
when the Temptations come, they may be armed again ft 
them. This furely is, above all Things, the Duty of Pa- 
rents to look after, and the Neglect of it is a horrible 
Cruelty. We jultly look upon thofe Parents as moil un- 
natural Wretches, that take away the Life of their Child ; 
but alas ! that is Mercy and Tenderr.efs, compared to 
this of neglecting his Education ; for by that he ruins his- 
Soul, make? him miferable eternally ; and, Goj knows 
Multitudes of fuch cruel Parents there are in the World, 


Sund. 14, Parents Duty to Children. 207 

that thus give up their Children to be pofTeffed by the 
Devil, for Want of an early acquainting them with the 
Ways of God : Nay, indeed, how few there are that do 
confcionably perform this Duty, is too apparent by the 
ftrange Rudenefs and Ignorance that is generally among 
Youth ; the Children of thofe, who call t hemic* ves 
Chrillians, being frequently as ignorant of God and Chrift 
as the mereir. Heathens. But wnocver they are thai: thus 
neglect this great Duty, let them know, that it is not 
only a fearful Mifery they bring upon their poor Chil- 
dren, but alfo a horrible Guilt upon themfelves : For, as 
God fays to ule carelefs Watchman, Ezek. iii. iS. That 
if any Soul peri/h by his Negligence, that Soul /hall be 
required at bis Hands : So furely will it fare with all Pa- 
rents, who have this Office of Watchmen entrufted to 
them by God over their own Children. A fecond Part 
of Education is the bringing them up to fome Imploy- 
ment, bufying them in fome honeft Exercife, whereby 
they may avoid that great Snare of the Devil, Idlenefs ; 
and alfo be taught fome ufeful Art or Trade, whereby, 
when they come to Age, they may become profitable to 
the Commonwealth, and able to get an honeil Living to 

19. To this- great Duty of educating of Children there 

is required, as Means, firft, Encourage- „ , . 

1 r 1, /-, a - c Means towards 

ment ; iecondly, Correction, hncou- , r , 

■en, • t n. u the Education 

ragement is nrit to be tried ; we ihould f ci'U 

endeavour to r^ake Children in Love °* 
with Duty, by offering them Rewards and Invitations ; 
and whenever they do well, take notice of it, and encou- 
rage them to go on. It is an ill Courfe fome Parents 
held, who think they mull never appear to their Chil- 
dren but with a Face of Sournefs and Aafterity. This 
fcems to be that which St. Paul forewarns Parents of, 
when he bids Fathers not to provoke ibeir Children to 
Wrath, Col. iii. 2 1 . To be as harm and unkind to them, 
when they do well, as if they do ill, is the Way to pro- 
voke them : And then the Apoftle tells us in the fame 
Verfe, what will be the Iffue of it; they will be dif- 
couraged, they will have no Heart to go on in any good 
Courfe, when the Parent affords them no Countenance, 
'f he fecond Means is Correction j and this becomes fea- 
K c> fonabltf 

ao8 The Whole Duty of Man. 

fonable when the former will do no good. When all 
fair Means, Perfuafions and Encouragements prevail not, 
then there is a Neceffity of ufmg fharper ; and let that 
be firft tried in Words, I mean, not by railing and foul 
Language, but in fober yet (harp Reproof: But if that 
fail too, then proceed to Blows. And in this Cafe, as 
Solomon faith, He that fparetb the Rod, hateth his Son, 
Prov. xiii. 24. 'Tis a cruel Fondnefs, that to fpare a 
few Stripes at prefent, will adventure him to thofe fad 
Mifchiefs, which commonly befal the Child that is left 
to himfelf. But then this Correction muft be given in 
fuch a Manner, as may be likely to do good : To which 
Purpofe, it muft firft be given timely ; the Child muft 
not be fuffered to run on in any ill, till it hath got a Ha- 
bit, and a Stubbornnefs too. This is a great Error in 
many Parents ; they will let their Children alone for di- 
vers Years, to do what they lift, permit them to lie, to 
freal, without ever fo much as rebuking them ; nay per- 
haps, pleafe themfelves to fee the witty Shifts of the 
Child, and think it matters not what they do while they 
are little. But alas ! all that while the Vice gets Root, 
and that many times fo deep an one, that all they can 
do afterwards, whether by Words or Blows, can never 
pluck it up. Secondly, Correction muft be moderate, 
not exceeding the Quality of the Fault, nor the Tender- 
nefs of the Child. Thirdly, it muft not be given in Rage; 
if it be, it will not only be in Danger of being immode- 
rate, but it will lofe its effects upon the Child, who will 
think he is corrected, not becaufe he has done a Fault, 
but becaufe his Parent is angry ; and fo will rather blame 
the Parent than himfelf : Whereas, on the contrary, 
Care mould be taken to make the Child as fenfible of the 
Fault, as of the Smart, without which he will never be 
throughly amended. 

20. Thirdly, After Children are grown up, and are paft 
Th P / / ^ e "^2 e °^ Education, there are yet 

e ? ren ° other Offices for the Parent to perform to 
*wac over them; the Parent is ftill to watch over 

, , them, in Refpect of their Souls, to ob- 

{ r ferve how they praclife thofe Precepts 

6 r which are given them in their Education, 

and accordingly to exhort, encourage, or reprove, as they 

find Occafion. 21. So 

Sund. 14. Parents Duty to Children. 209 

2 r . So alfo for their outward Eftate, they are to put 
them into Tome Courfe of Living in the ~ ., 

World. If God hath blefled the Parent j pr °^f^° r 
\vi:h Wealth,accordingtowhathehath, tb « r **°W~ 
he mufl: diftribute to his Children; re- ence ' 
membring, that fince he was the Intlrument of bringing 
them into the World, he is, according to his Ability, to 
provide for their comfortable Living in it: They are 
therefore to be looked on as very unnatural Parents, who, 
{q the/ may have enough to fpend in their own Riots 
and Excefs, care not what becomes of their Children, 
never think of providing for them. Another Fault is 
ufual among Parents in this Bufinefs ; they defer all the 
Provifjons for them, till themfelves be dead; heap up, 
perhaps, great Mauers for them againft that time, but, 
in the mean time, afford them not fuch a Competency, 
as may enable them to live in the World. There ate fe- 
veral Miichiefs come from this : Firft, it lefTens the 
Child's Afreclion to his Parent; nay, fometimes it pro- 
ceeds fo far, as to make him wilh his Death ; which, tho' 
it be fuch a Fault, as no Temptation can excufe in a 
Child, yet 'tis alio a great Fault in a Parent to give that 
Temptation. Secondly, It puts the Child upon Shifts 
and Tricks, many Times diflionell ones, to fupply his 
Necefiities : Tim if, I doubt not, a common Effect of it. 
The Kaicnefs of Parents has often put Men upon very 
unlawful Courfes, which, when they are once acquaint- 
ed with, perhaps they never leave, though the firit Oc- 
cafiorT ceale : And therefore Parents ought to beware 
hovv they run them upon thofe Hazards. Eefides, the 
Parent lofes that Contentment which he might have in 
feeing his Children live profperoufiy and comfortably, 
which none but an arrant Earth-worm would exchange 
for the vain imaginary Pleafure of having Money in his 
Cheft. But in this Bufinefs of providing for Children, 
there is yet another Thing to be heeded, and that is, 
that the Parent get that Wealth honeftly, which he 
makes their Portion ; elfe 'tis very far from being a Pro- 
vifion. There is fuch a Curfe goes along with an ill- 
gotten Eflate, that he that leaves fuch a one to his Child, 
doth but cheat and deceive him, makes him believe he * 


210 Th Whole Duty of Man. 

has left him Wealth, but has withal put fuch a Canker 
in the Bowels of it, that is fure to*4at it out. This is fo 
common an Obfervation, that I need fay nothing to con- 
firm the Truth of it ; Would God it were as generally 
laid to Heart, as it teems to be generally taken Notice 
of. Then furely Parents would not account it a reason- 
able Votive to unjuft Dealing, that they may thereby 
provide for their Children ; for this is not a Way of pro- 
viding for them: Nay 'tis the Way to fpoil them of 
whatever they have lawfully gathered for them ; the 
leait Mite of unlawful Gain being of the Nature of Lea- 
ven, which fours the whole Lump, bringing down 
Curler, upon alia Man poiTefleth. Let all Parents there- 
fore fati.Ty themtelves with fuch Provifions for their 
Children, as God (hall enable them honeftly to make; ai- 
furing themtelves, how little foever it be, 'tis a better 
Portion than the greateft Wealth unjuftly gotten ; accord- 
ing to that of Solomon, Prov. xvi. 8. Better is a little Righteoufnefs, than great Revenues without Right, 
2 2-. A fourth thing the Parent owes to the Child is 

cr • d r good Example. He is not only to fet 

Vo p:ve them °. n . l , Tr j ^ -r r u . 

*.« , him Ru:es or Virtue and Gcalmeis, but 

* [ he muit himielf give him a Pattern in his 

own Practice. We fee the Force of Example is infinite- 
ly beyond that of Precept, especially where the Perfon 
is one to whom we bear a Reverence, or with whom we 
have a continual Converfation ; both which ufually meet 
in a Parent. It is therefore a molt neceffary Care in all! 
Parents to behave themtelves fo before their Children, 
that their Example may be a Means of winning them to 
Virtue. But alas! this Age affords little of this Care ; 
nay fo far 'tis from it, that there are none more fre- 
quently the Inftruments of corrupting Children, than 
their own Parents. And indeed, how can it be other- 
wife ? While Men give themtelves Liberty to all. 
Wickednefs, 'tis not to be hoped, but that the Chil- 
dren, which obferve it, will imitate it ; the Child that 
feeth his Father drunk, will furely think he may 
be fo too, as well as his Father. So he that hears 
him fwear, will do the like ; and fo for all other 
'Vices: And if any Parent,, that is thus wicked him- 
ktf, fliould happen ta- have fo much more Care of his 


Sund. 14. Parents Duty /$ Children. 21 r 

Child's Soul than his own, as to fcrb : d him the Things 
which himfelf pradifes, or corred him for the doing 
them ; 'tis certain the Child will account this a great 
Jnjuitice in his Father, to punilh him for that which 
himfelf freely does ; and fo he is never likely to be 
wrought upon by it. This Confideration lays a mod 
Uriel Tye upon all Parents to live Chriftianly ; for 
otherwise they do not only hazard their own Souls, but 
thofe of their Children alio, and, as it were, purchafe 
an Eftate of Inheritance in Hell. 

23. A fifth Duty of Parentis blefling their Children ; 
the Way of doing that is double ; farit , 
by their Prayers; they are by daily and To blefstbem. 
earncft Prayers to commend them to 
God's Prote&ion and Blcfling, both for their fpiritual 
and temporal Eftate : And, fecondly, by their Piety ; 
they are to be fuch Perfons themfelves, as that a Blef- 
fing may defcend from them upon their Pofterity. This 
is ofcen promifed in Scripture to godly Men, that, 
their Seed /ball be bkjjfed : Thus in the Second Com- 
mandment God promifeS to fbe*v Mercy to the thou- 
fandth Generation of them that love bim, arid keep bis 
Commandments. And it is very obfervible in the j'ezvs, 
that though they were a ft'iff-necked Generation, and 
had very grievoully provoked God, yet the Godlinefs 
exf their Forefathers, Abraham, lfaac, and Jacob did 
many Times moveGod to fave them from Deitruciion. 
On the other Side we fee, that even good Men have 
fared the worfe for the Iniquities of their Fathers : 
Thus when Jofiah had deftroyed Idolatry, rertored 
God's Service, and done Good beyond aH the King;s 
that were before him ; yet there was an old Arrear of 
Manajfeh his Grandfather, which all this Piety of his 
would not blot out, but he refolves to cafi Judah alfo 
out of his Sight ; as you may read at large, 2 Kings, 
Chap, xxiii. If therefore Parents have any Bowels, 
any Kindnefs towards their Children, any real Deb re 
of their Profperity, let them take Care, by their own 
godly Life,, to entail a Blciiing upon them. 

24.. Sixthly. 

2 12 7 he Whole Duty of Man." 

24. Sixthly, Parents muft take heed, that they ufe 
their Power over their Children with 
To give no Equity and Moderation, not to opprefs 
unreafanable them with unreafonable Commands, only 
Commands, to exercife their own Authority, but in 
all Things of Weight to confider the real 
Good of their Children, and to prefs them to nothing 
which may not confift with that. This is a Rule where- 
of Parents may often have Ufe, but in none greater than 
in the Bnfinefs of marrying their Children, wherein 
many that otherwife are good Parents, have been to 
blame ; when out of an Eagemefs of befiowing ihem 
wealthily, they force them to marry utterly agaii;it their 
own Inclinations, which is a great Tyranny, and that 
which frequently betrays them to a Multitude of Mif-* 
chiefs, fuch as all the Wealth in the Woild cannot re- 
pair. There are two Things which Parents ought ef- 
pccially to confider in the matching their Children ; the 
firft, how they may live Chriftianly ; and to that pur- 
pofe, to choofe a virtuous and pious Perfon to link them 
with. The fecond is, how they may live chearfully 
and comfortably in this World ; and to that End, 
though a Competency of Eltate may be necefiary to be 
regarded, yet furely Abundance is no way requifite, 
and therefore that fhould not be too vehemently fought 
after. That which much more tends to tke Happinefs 
of that State, is the mutual Kindnefs and Liking of the 
Parties; without which Marriage is, of all other, the 
moft uncomfortable Condition : and therefore no Parent 
ought to thruft a Child into it. I have now done with 
the firft Sort of Relation, that of a Parent. 


Of Duty to our- Brethren and Relations, Huf 
band, Wife, Friends, Ma/ters, Servants. 

Sect. 1 . r I'^HE fecond Sort of Relation is that of 
n A a Brother. Now Brotherhood may 

Dues to Bre- bg two f oW> ei;her na j ura j or f p ; r j t ual : 
tbrtn. The 

Sund. 15. OfDufisto Brethren. 213 

The latter may in the lirgeft Extent contain under it 
all Mankind, all that partake of the fame Nature : 
But I mail not confider it fo in this Place ; having al- 
ready mentioned thofe general Duties, which belong to 
all as fuch. I now fpeak of that natural 
Brotherhood that is between thofe that Natural. 
are the Children of the fame immediate 
Parent : And the Duty of thefe is to have united 
Hearts and Affections. This Nature points out to them ; 
they partaking in a more efpecial Manner of each other's 
Subftance, and therefore ought to have the greateft 
Tendernefs and Kindnefs each to other. Thus we fee 
Abraham makes it an Argument, why there mould be 
no Contention between him and Lot, bccaufe they nvere 
Brethren. Gen. xiii. 8. And though by Brethren there 
is meant only Coufins, yet that helps the more ftrongly 
to conclude, that this nearer Relation is in Reafon to be 
a greater Bar to Strife ; as alio that this Kindnefs is in 
fome Degree to be extended to all that have any Near- 
nefs of Blood to us. 

2. This Kindnefs and Love between Brethren and 
Sifters ought to be very firmly grounded „., , 7 /r 
in their Hearts; if it be not, they will be ' j e •"* * 
of all others in moft Danger of difagreeing : - ~ ~ 
For the continual Converfation that is a- . * 
mong them whilft they are at home in 
their Father's Houfe, will be apt to minifter fome Oc- 
cafion of Jar. Befides the Equality that is among them 
in refpeft of Birth, often makes them inclinable to envy 
each other, when one is in any refpeft advanced above 
the other. Thus we fee Jofeph's Brethren envied him, 
becaufe he had moft of his Father's Love ; and Rachel 
envied her Sifter Leah, becaufe fhe was fruitful. There- 
fore for the preventing of fuch Temptations, let all who 
have Brethren and Sifters, poflefs their Mind with a 
great and real Kindnefs to them, look on them as Parts 
of themfelves, and then they will never think fit either 
to quarrel with them, or to envy them any Advantage, 
any more than one Part of the Body does another of 
the fame Body, but will ftrive to advance and help for- 
ward the good of each other. 

3. The 

2 14 The Whole Duty of Man. 

3. The fecond Kind of Brotherhood is fpiritual: tha* 
^ . . , ry contains all thofe who profefs the fame 
¥ rt > ' 1 Faith with us. The Church in our Bap- 

tifm becomes a Mother to each baptized 
Perfon ; and then furely they that have the Relation of 
Children to her, mult have alfo the Relation of Bre- 
thren to each other. And to this Sort of Brethren alfo 
we owe a great Deal of Tendernefsand Affection; the 
fpiritual Bond of Religion mould, of all others, the molt 
clofely unite our Hearts. This is the Brotherhood which 
St. Peter exhorts us to love, 1 Pet. ii. 17. And to it 
we are in an efpecial Manner bound to do all good Of- 
fice?. Do good 9 . faith the Apoftle, to all, but eftecially 
unto them who are of the Houjhold of Faith, Gal. vi. 10. 
Our Companions are to be the moft melting towards 
them, of all others, in all their Needs. Chnit tells us, 
That nvhofoever gives hut a Cup of cold Water to any in 
the Name of a Difciple, Jhall not lofe his Reward, 
Matt. x. 42. From wnence we may allure ourfelves, 
that this peculiar Lo\e to Chriftians as Chriftians, is 
very acceptable in his Sight. 

4. Several Duties there are required of us to thefe 

~ ^ Brethren : One principal is the holding 

Our Duty to „ ■ .' r , r , , L f? 

, ,, n J Communion with tnem 5 and that nrit 

bold LomntU- t\ a. • \xr n 1 

. , , , in Doctrine. We are conuantly to con- 

7 r \7rt tinUC in the Beli ^ fana PwfeffitM? of all 

thole necefiary Truths, by which we 
may be marked out as Followers and Difciples of Ch rift. 
This is that Faith which St. jude fpeaks of, which was 
once delivered to the Saints, Jude iii. By keeping where- 
of we continue ftill united to this fpiritual Brotherhood, 
in refpect of Profeffion -, which we may conftantly do, 
what Storms, and Perfections foever attend it, accord- 
ing to the Exhortation of the Apoftle, Heb. x. 23. Let 
us hold fajl the Profejjwn of our Faith without waver- 
ing. Secondly, we are alfo, as Opportunity ferves, to 
communicate with them in all Holy Offices. We mult 
be diligent in frequenting the Affemblies of the Saints, 
which is as it were the Badge of our Profeffion, and 
therefore he that willingly withdraws himfelf from thefe,. 
gives Ground to fufpeel he will be apt. to renounce the 
other alfo. But thefe Parts of Communion we find ftri&ly: 


Snnd. 15. Of Dues to Brethren. 215 

maintained by the firft Chriftians, Aels ii. 42. They con- 
tinued fiedfaftly in the Apoftles Doctrine and Fellon.dhip, 
and in breaking of Bread and in Prayers. They con- 
tinued, and that lledfaitly ; they were not frighted from 
it by any Perfecutior.s. though that were a 1 ime 
wherein they were tried with the (harpefl Sufferings ; 
which may teach us, that it is not the Danger that at- 
tends this Duty can acquit us of it. 

5. Secondly, We are to bear with the To hear with 
Infirmities of our Chriftian Brethren; ac- their Infirmi- 
cording to the Advice of St. Paul, Rom. tics. 

XV. 1 . We that are Jlrcng ought to hear 
the Infirmities of the 'weak. If one that holds all necef- 
fary Chriilian Truths, happen yet to be in fome Error, 
we are not for 'his either to forfake his Communion, or 
defpifehis Perfon. Tiiis St. Paul teaches us in the Cafe" 
of that weak Brother, wbo by Error made a cau/elefs 
Scruple about Meats, Rom. xiv. Where he bds the 
ftronger Chriftians, that is, thofe, who being bc;ter in- 
ftruded, difcernedhim to be in an Error, yet to receive 
him neverthelefs, and not to d nim ; as on the 

other Side, he bids that weak one not tojudge the Wron- 
ger. The leflei Differences \n Opinion niu ; l be born 
with on both Sides, and mult not in the lcail abate cur 
brotherly Charity towards each other. 

6. Thirdly, We are to endeavour the To reftore them 
reftoring of any fallen Brother, that is, after Fails. 
to bring him to Repentance, after he 

hath fallen into any Sin. Thus St. Paul commands 
the Galatians, that they mould reftore him that was 
overtaken in a Fault, con fide ring them fives, left they 
ivere alfo tempted. We are not to look on him as a 
Cait-a-way, to give him over as utterly defperate ; 
neither are we to triumph over him, in Rcfpedl of ouf 
own Innocence, like the proud Pharijee over the poor 
Publican, Lai^xviii. 11. but we are meekly to endea- 
vour his Recovery, remembring that our oun Frailty 
is fuch, that we are not fecure from the like Fz Us. 

7. Fourthly, We are to haveaSympa- a- , ,. 

s : c 11 r i- • . ' r To fympatbize 

tny and fellow-feeling with tnefe Bre- . , r , 

-u u t • l j ■ • 1. l . with them. 

tnien, to be nearly touched with what- 

foe vex 

i\6 The Whole Duty of Man. 

foever befals them, either as they are confidered in So- 
ciety, or in fmgle Perfons. In Society firfl, and fo they 
make up a Church ; and that,either the univerfal, which 
is made up of all Believers throughout the World ,or any 
particular Church which is made up of all the Believers in 
that particular Nation : And whatever happens to either 
of thefe, either the whole Church in general, or any fuch 
fingle Part of it, efpecially that whereof ourfelves are 
Members, we are to be much affe&ed and moved with 
it, to rejoice in all the Profperities, and to mourn and 
bewail all the Breaches and Dcfolations thereof, and daily 
and earnefily to pray with David, Pfal. li. 18. O be 
favourable and gracious unto Sion; build thou the Walls 
of Jerufalem ; and that efpecially when we fee her in 
Difhefs and Perfecution. Whofoever is not thus touch- 
ed with the Condition of the Church, is not to be look- 
ed on as a living Member of it : For as in the natural 
Body every Member is concerned in the Profperity of 
the whole, fo certainly 'tis here. It was the Gbferva- 
tion of the Pfa Imift, that God's Servants think upon the 
Stones of Sion, and pity to fee ber in the Dujl, Pfal. cii.- 
14. And furely all his Servants are ftill in the fame 
Temper, and cannot look on the Ruins and Defolations 
of the Church, without the greateft Sorrow and La- 
mentation. Secondly, We are to have this Fellow* 
feeling with our Brethren confidered as fingle Perfons. 
We are to account ourfelves concerned in tvery 
particular Chriitian, fo as to partake with him in all 
his Occafions, either of Joy or Soriow. Thus the 
Apoftle exhorts, Rom. xii. 15. Rejoice tvith them 
that do rejoice, vjeep voith them that vseep. And 
again, 1 Cor. xii. 26. under the Similitude of the 
natural Body he urges this Duty, Whether one 
Member f offer, all the Members fuffer nvith it j or one 
Member be honoured, all the Members rejoice viiih it. 
All thefe feveral EfTe&s of Love we owe to thefe fpi- 
ritual Brethren. And this Love is that which Chi ill 
hath .made the Bidge of his Difciplcs, John xiii. 3;. 
By this Jhall all Men know that ye are my Difciples, if 
ye have Love one to another : So that if we mean nfct 
to caft off Difciplelhip to Clirift, we mufl not forfake 
this Love of the Brethren. 8. The 

Sund. 15. Wives Duty. 217 

8. The third Relation is that between Hufband and 

Wife. This is yet much nearer than ei- „-, 7^., 

*u c l c u .. „ The Wife ovoes 

ther or the former, as appears by that , J, „ j 

Text, Epb.v. 31. A Man muft leave Fa- ~, >■ 
ther and Mother, and clea<ve to his Wife, 
and they tvco fkall be one Flejh. Several Duties there are 
owing from one of thefe Perfons to the other. And 
flrft, for the Wife, (he owes Obedience. This is com- 
manded by the Apoftle, Col. iii. 18. Wives, fubmit your 
/elves unto your ovon Hujbands, as it is fit in the Lord, 
They are to render Obedience to their Hufbands in the 
Lord ; that is, in all lawful Commands : For other- 
wife 'tis here, as in the Cafe of all other Superiors, 
God muft be obeyed rather than Man j and the Wife 
mull not, upon her Hufband's Command, do any Thing 
which is forbidden by God. But in all Things, which 
do not crofs fome Command of God's, this Precept is of 
Force, and will ferve to condemn the peeviih Stubborn- 
nefs of many Wives, who refill the lawful Commands 
of their Hufbands, only becaufe they are impatient of 
this Duty of Subjection, which God himfelf requires of 
them. But it may be here afked, What if the Hufband 
command fomething, which tho' it be not unlawful, is 
yet very inconvenient and imprudent, muft the Wife 
fubmit to fuch a Command ? To this I anfwer, that it 
will be no Difobedience in her, but Duty, calmly and 
mildly to fhew him the Inconveniencies thereof, and to 
perfuade him to retradl that Command : But in cafe fhe 
cannot win it to him by fair Intreaties, fhe muft neither 
try fharp Language, nor yet finally refufe to obey ; no- 
thing but the Unlaw fulnels of the Command being fuffi- 
cienc Warrant for that. 

9. Secondly, the Wife owes Fidelity to the Hufband, 
and that of two Sorts ; Firft, that of the p., ,. 

Bed. She muft keep her felf pure and ■'* 

chafte from all ftrange Embraces ; and therefore muft 
not fo much as give an Ear to any that would allure 
her, but wich the greateft Abhorrence rejeft all Motions 
of that Sort, and never give any Man, that has once 
made fuch a Motion to her, the leaft Opportunity to 
make a fecond, Secondly, She owes him likewife Fide- 

2i 8 The Whole Duty of Man. 

lity in the managing thofe worldly Affairs he commits to 

her ; (he muft order them fo, as may be molt to her Huf- 

band's Advantage, and not by deceiving and cozening of 

' him, imploy his Goods to fuch Ufes as he allows not of. 

i a. Thirdly, She owes him Love, and together with 

that, all Friendlinefs and Kindnefsof Con- 
Love. verfation : She is to endeavour to bring 

him as much Affiftance and Comfort of 
Life, as is poffible, that fo (he may anfwer that fpecial 
End of the Woman's Creation, the being a Help to hsr 
Hujband, Gen. ii. 13. And this in all Conditions, whe- 
ther Health or Sicknefs, Wealth or Poverty, whatfoever 
Eftate God by his Providence mall caft him into, (he muft 
be as much of Comfort and Support to him, as (he can. 
To this, all Sullennefs and Harlhnefs, all Brawling and 
Unquietnefs, is directly contrary ; for that makes the 
Wife the Burden and Plague of the Man, irftead of a 
Help and Comfort : And fure, if it be a Fault to be- 
have one's felf fo to any Perfon, as hath already been 
mewed, how great muft it be to do fo to him, to whom 
thegreateft Kindnefs and Affection is- owing ? 

1 1 . Nor let fuch Wives think that any Faults or Pro- 
cp, ,, . vocations of the Hufband can juftifv their 

J' ha" °j *>°wardnefs; for they will not, 'either 
the tiufland inRefped f Religion or Dficretion. Not 

a Tr T • in Religion, for where God hasabfohne- 
tbtje Duties. ^ commanded a Duty t0 be pa fcj, » t fe 

not any Unworthinefs of the Perfon can excufe from it; 
nor in Difcretion, for the worfe a Hufnand is, the more 
need there is for the Wife to carry herfelf with that 
Gentlenefs and Sweetnefs, that may be molt likely to 
win him. This is the Advice St. Peter gave the Wives 
of his Time, 1 Pet. in 1. Likewife, ye Wives, be in 
Subjeflion to your own Hujbands ; that if any obey not 
the Word, they alfo may without the Word be ivon by the 
Converfationof the Wives-. It feems, the good Beha- 
viour of the Wives was thought a powerful Means to 
win Men from Heathenifm to Chriftianity ; and fufe it 
mieht now-a-days have fome good Effects, if Women 
would have but the Patience to try it ; at the leaft 
'twould have this, that it would keep fome tolerable 


Sand. 15. Husbands Duty. 219 

Quiet in Families : Whereas, on the other Side, the ill 
Fruits of the Wives Unquietnefs are fo notorious, that 
there are few Neighbourhoods but can give fome In- 
ftance of it. How many Men are there, that, to avoid 
the Noife of a froward Wife, have fallen to Company- 
keeping, and by that to Drunkennefs, Poverty, and a 
Multitude of Mifchiefs? Let all Wives therefore be- 
ware of adminiftring that 1 emptation : But whenever 
there happens any Thing, which in Kindnefs toherHuf- 
band fhe is to admonifli him of, let it be with that Soft- 
refs and Mildnefs, that it may appear, 'tis Love, ' and 
not Anger, that makes herfpeak. 

it. There are alfo on the Hufband 's Part feveral 
Duties ; there is, Firft, l ove ; which St. _ . „ n 
Paul requires to be very tender and com- »Jkand 

paffionatetowards the Wife, as appears by °^. S J°J e 
the Similitudes he ufeth in that Matter, ^ e Lon}e ' 
Epbef. v. The one, that of the Love a Man bears to 
his natural Body,; No Man, faith he, <ver. 29. e<ver yet 
hated his o-ivn Fle/b, but nouri/hcih and cherijheth it. The 
other Love is that Chrift bears to his Church, which is 
far greater, <uer. 25. both which he fets as Patterns of 
this Love of Hufbands towards their Wives. This ut- 
terly forbids all Harfhnefs and Roughnefs to them : 
Men are to ufe them as Parts of themfelves, to love them 
as their own Bodies, and therefore to do nothing that 
may be hurtful and grievous to them, no more than 
they would cut and gam their own Flefh. Let thofe 
Hufbands that tyrannize over their Wives, that fcarce 
ufe them like human Creatures, confider whether that 
be to love them as their own Bodies. 

13. A fecond Duty of the Hufband is Faithfulnefs to 
the Bed. Thi? is by God as well requir- „ . , . 
ed of the Hufband as the Wife. And WW« 
tho' the World do feem to look on the Breach of 
this Duty with lefs Abhorrence in the Hufband, yet 
fure before that juft Judge the Offence will appear no 
lefs on the Man's Side, than the Woman's. This is 
certain, 'tis in both a Breach of the Vow made to each 
other at their Marriage ; and fo, befides the Unclean- 
nefs, a downright Perjury : And thole Differences in the 


220 The Whole Duty of Man. 

Cafe, which feem to caft the Scale, are rather in refpe&of 
civil and worldly Confideration, than meerly of the Sin. 

14. A third Duty of the Hufband is to maintain and 

provide for the Wife. He is to let her 
Maintenance, partake with him in thofe outward good 

Things wherewith God hath bleft him, 
and neither by Niggardlinefs debar her of what is fit for 
her, nor yet by Unthriftinefs fo wafte his Goods, that 
he lhall become unable to fupport her. This is cer- 
tainly the Duty of the Hufband, who being, as hath 
been faid, to account his Wife as a Part of his own 
Body, muft have the very fame Care tofuflain her, that 
he hath for himfelf. Yet this is not fo to be underftood, 
as to excufe the Wife from her Part of Labour and In- 
duftry, when that is requifite : It being unreafonable the 
Hufband mould toil to maintain the Wife in Idlenefs. 

15. Fourthly, The Hufband is to inftrucl the Wife in 

the things which concern her eternal Wel- 
Inflruftion. fare, if me be ignorant of them. Thus St. 

Paul bids the Wives learn of their Huf- 
bands at homey 1 Cor. xiv. 35. which fuppofes, that the 
Hufband is to teach her. Indeed it belongs to every 
Mafter of a Family to endeavour, that all under his 
Charge be taught all neceflary Things of this Kind ; and 
then fure more efpecially his Wife, who is fo much nearer 
to him than all the reft. This mould make Men careful 
to get Knowledge themfelves, that fo they may be able 
to perform this Duty they owe to others. 

16. Laftly, Hufbands and Wives are mutually to 

pray for each other, to beg all Bleffings 
Jiujbands and from God both fpiritual and temporal, 
Wives mutu- and to endeavour all they can to do all 
ally to pray for good to one another, efpecially all good 
and ajjift each to each others Souls, by flirring up to the 
other in all Performance of Duty, and diffuading 
good, and drawing back from all Sin, and by 

being, like true Yoke-fellows, helpful 
and affiftant to each other in the doing of all Sorts of 
Good, both to their own Family and all others within 
their Reach. This is of all other, the trueft and moft 
valuable Love. Nay, indeed, how can it be faid they 


Sund 15. Husbands Duty. 221 

do love at all, who contentedly let each other run on in 
a Courfe that will bring them to eternal Mifery ? And 
if the Love of Hufbands and Wives were thus grounded 
in Virtue and Religion, 'twould make their Lives a 
Kind of Heaven on Earth; 'twould prevent all thofe 
Contentions and Brawlings fo common among them, 
which are the great Plagues of Families, and the lefler 
Hell in Paflage to the greater : And truly, where it is 
not thus founded, there is little Comfort to be expecled 
in Marriage. 

1 7. It fhould therefore be the Care of every one, that 
means to enter upon that State, to con- — , . r . 

fider advifedly before- hand, and to chufe , p'V* / 

fuch a Perfon with whom they may have /. JU° n ] , 

this fpiritual Friendship, that is, fuch a cbie ! .*, 

' 1 r r> I tl ration in Mar- 

one as truly fears God. i here are many 

falfe Ends of Marriage look'd upon in ria £ e ' 

the World ; fome marry for Wealth, others for Beauty, 

and generally they are only worldly Refpecls that are 

at all confidered : But certainly, he that would marry 

as he ought, fhould contrive to make his Marriage ufeful 

to thofe better Ends of ferving God, and having his own 

Soul ; at leait he mull be fure it be no Hindrance to 

them, and to that purpofe the Virtue of the Perfon 

•chofen is more conducing than all the Wealth in the 

World ; though I deny not, but that a Competency of 

that may likewife be confidered. 

1 8. But above all Things, let all take Heed, that they 
make not fuch Marriages, as may not 

only be ill in their Effecls, but are Unlawful 
actually Sins at the Time ; fuch are the Marriages. 
Marriages of thofe that were formerly 
promifed to feme other : In which Cafe, 'tis fure, they 
rightly belong to thofe to whom they pafled the fjrft 
Promife ; and then for any other to marry them, du- 
ring the Life of that Perfon, is to take the Hufband or 
Wife of that other ; which is diredl Adultery, as St. Paul 
tells us, Rom. vii. 3. The like Unlawfulnefs there is al- 
fo in the Marriage of thofe, who are within thofe De- 
grees of Kindred forbidden by God ; the Particulars 
whereof are fet down in the 18th and 20th of Leviticus, 


222 Ihe Whole Duty of Man. 

and whoever marries any that is within any ofthofe 
Degrees of Nearnefs, either to himfelf, or to his de- 
ceafed Wife, which is as bad, commits that great Sin of 
Jnceft; and, fo long as he continues to live with fuch his 
unlawful Wife, remains in that fearful Guilt. This Wa- 
rinefs in the Chbice of the Perfon to be married would 
prevent many fad Effects, which we daily fee follow 
fuch rafh or unlawful Matches. It were well therefore 
if People would look on Marriage, as our Church ad- 
vifes, as a Thing not to be undertaken ligh:ly, unad-vifed- 
ly> or ^wantonly ', to fatisfy Men's carnal Lufis'and Appe- 
tites, but reverently t difcrectly, advijedly, foberly, and in 
the Fear of God ; and in fo doing, no doubt, a Bleiiing 
would follow, which otherwife there is little Ground to 
expeft. I have now done with this Relation between 
Hufband and Wife. 

19. The next is that between Friends : And this Re- 
_ ,n. lation, if it be rightly founded, is of great 
Friendjhtp. Nearnefs and Ufefulnefs ; but there is 
none more generally miilaken in the World : Men 
ufually call them their Friends, with whom they have 
an Intimacy and Frequency of Converfation, though 
that Intimacy be indeed nothing but an Agreement and 
Combination in Sin. The Drunkard thinks him his 
Friend, that will keep him Company ; the deceitful 
Perfon, him that will aid him in his Cheats j the proud 
Man, him that will flatter him : And fo generally in all 
Vices they are looked on as Friends, that advance and 
further us in them. But, God knows, this is far from 
Friendfhip ; fuch a Friend as this the Devil himfelf is in 
the higher! Degree, who is never backward in fuch Of- 
fices. The true Friendihip is that of a direct contrary 
nuking; 'tis a Concurrence and Agreement in Virtue, 
not in Vice. In fhort, a true Friend loves his Friend fo, 
that he U very zealous of his Good ; and certainly he 
. that is really fo, will never be thelnliru- 
Its Duties. inen£ Q £ bringing him to the greateft 
Evil. The general Duty of a Friend then mull be re- 
folved to be the indubious Purfu:. of his Friend's real 
Advantages, in which there are feveral Particulars con- 

20. As 

Sund. 15. Of Fr je ndship. 223 

20. As, flrlt, Faithfulnefs in all Trufts committed to 
him by his Friend, whether that of Goods -c • i f , - 
or Secrets: He that betrays the Trull of a taith f uln£ J i - 
Friend in either, is by all Men looked upon with Ab- 
horrence, it being one of the higher! FalfenefTes and 
Treacheries; arid for fuch treacherous Wounds, the wife 
man tells us, every Friend avill depart, Eccluf. xxii. 22. 

2 1 . Secondly, 'tis the Duty of a Friend to be aflifting 
to his Friend in all his outward Needs ; to . — - 
counfel him when he wants Advice ; to chear J/J* ance ' 
him, when he needs comfort; to give him, when he 
wants Relief ; and to endeavour his Refcue out of any 
Trouble or Danger. An admirable Example we have 
of this Friendlhip in 'Jonathan to David, he loved him as 
his qvjh Soul; and we fee, he not only contrives for his 
Safety, when he was in Danger, but runs Hazards him- 
felf, to refcue and deliver his Friend ; draws his Fa- 
ther's Anger upon him, to turn it from David, as you 
may read at large, 1 Sam. xx. 

2 2. The third and highelt Duty of a Friend is to be 
aiding and aiTiiling to the Soul of his Friend, *. . . 
to endeavour to advance that in Piety and 
Virtue, by all Means within his Power, by Exhortations 
and Encouragements to all Virtue, by earned and vehe- 
ment Difluafions from all Sin ; and not only thus in ge- 
neral, but by applying to his particular Wants, efpecial- 
\y by plain and friendly Reproofs, where he knows or 
reafonably believes there is any Fault committed. This 
is, of all others, the moft peculiar Duty of a Friend, it 
being indeed that which none elfe is qualified for. Such 
an Unwillingnefs there is in moft Men to hear their 
Faults, that thofe that undertake that Work, had need 
have a great PrepolTeflion of their Hearts, to make them 
patient of it. Nay, it is fo generally acknowledged to 
be the proper Work of a Friend, that if he omit it, he 
betrays the Offender into Security ; his not reproving 
will be apt to make the other think he does nothing wor- 
thy of Reproof, and fo he tacitly ads that bafelt Part of 
a Flatterer, fooths and cherifhes him in his Sin. When 
yet farther iiisconfidered how great Need all Men have, 
at fome Time or other, of being admonifhed, 'iwill ap- 
pear a moll unfriendly, yea, a cruel Thing to omit it. 
L We 

224 The Whole Duty of Man. 

We have that natural Partiality to our felves, that we 
cannot fo readily difcern our own Mi (carriages, as we do 
other Men's/ and therefore 'tis very neceffary they 
mould fometimes be (hewed us by thofe, who fee them 
more clearly ; and the doing this at the firrt may pre- 
vent the multiplying of more: Whereas, if we be fuffer- 
ed to go unreproved, it often comes to fuch a Habit, 
that Reproofs will do no Good. And then how fha"ll 
that Perfon be able to anfwer it either to God or himfelf, 
that has by his Silence betrayed his Friend to this great- 
ell Mifchief ? 'Tis the Expreflion of God himfelf, fpeak- 
rng of a Friend, Thy friend, which is as thine oivn Soul, 
Deut. xiii. 6. And fure we fhould in this Refpecl ac- 
count our Friends as our own Souls, by having the fame 
jealous Tendernefs and Watchfulnefs over their Souls, 
which we ought to have of our own. Jt will therefore 
be very fit for all that have entred any ftrict Friendfhip, 
to make this one fpecial Article in the Agreement, that 
they (hall mutually admonifh and reprove each other ; 
by which Means it will become fuch an avowed Part of 
their Friendfhip, that it can never be miftaken by the re- 
proved Party for Cenforioufnefs or Unkindnefs. 

23. Fourthly, To thefe feveral Parts of Kindnefs muft 

be added that of Prayer. We muft not only 

Prayer. afiift our Friends, ourfelves, in what we can, 

but we muft call in the Almighty's Aid to 

them ; recommending them earneftly to God for all his 

Blefiings, both temporal and fpiritual. 

24.. Laftly, We muft be conftawt in our Friendfhips, 
c R and not out of a Lightnefs of Humour grow 

onftancy wear y Q f a p r i enc j t only becaufe we have had 
him long. This is great Injuftice to him, who, if he 
have behaved himfelf well, ought the more to be valued, 
by how much the longer he has continued to do fo: 
And it is great Folly in our felves'; for it is the calling 
away the greateft Treafure of Human Life ; for fuch 
certainly is a tried Friend. The wifeft of Men gives 
Warning of it, Prov. xxvii. 10. Thine onxin Friend and 
thy Father 's Friend forfake not. Nay farther, 'tis not 
every light Oitence of a Friend, that mould make thee 
renounce his Friendfhip ; there muft be fome Allowance 
naade to the Infirmities of Men j and if thou haft Occa- 


Sund. 15. Servants Duty. 225 

fion to pardon him fomewhat to day, perhaps thou may- 
eft give him Opportunity to requite thee To morrow ; 
therefore nothing but Unfaithfulnefs, or incorrigible 
Vice, mould break this Band. 

25. The laft Relation is that between Matters and 

Servants ; both which owe Duty to each c 

, ,-,-., . r lL o .. ■ en. servants o<we 

other. 1 hat of the Servant is, hrft, , . , . 

Obedience to all lawful Commands. „ _, ,. " 
This is exprefly required by the Apottle, ^ 
Eph. vi. 6. Servants, obey in all Things your Majlers, &C. 
And this Obedience muft not be a grumbling and un- 
willing one, but ready and chearful, as he there pro- 
ceeds to exhort, Ver. 7. With good Will doing Service : 
And to help them herein, they are to confider, that it is 
to the Lord, and not unto Men. God has commanded 
Servants thus to obey their Mafters ; and therefore the 
Obedience they pay, is to God, which may well make 
them do it chearfully, how harm or unworthy foever 
the Matter be, efpecially if what the Apoftle farther 
urgeth, Ver. 8. be confidered, That there is a Revoard 
-to be expecled from God for it. 

26. The fecond Duty of the Servant is Faithfulnefs, 
and that may be of two Sorto: One, as op- p., ,. 
pofed to Eye fervice, the other to Purloining 

or Defrauding. The firft Part of Faithfulnefs is the do- 
ing of all true Service to his Matter, not only when his 
Eye is over him and he expects Punifhment for the Omif- 
fion, but at all Times, even when his Matter is not like- 
ly to difcern his Failing ; and that Servant that doth not 
make Confcience of this, is far from being a faithful 
Servant, this Eye-fervice being by the Apottle fet oppo- 
fite to that Singlenefs of Heart which he requires of 
Servants, Ephef. vi. 5. The fecond Sort of Faithfulnefs 
confifts in the honett Management of all Things intrud- 
ed to him by his Matter, the not Watting of his Goods 
(as the unjutt Steward was accufed to have done, Luke 
xvi.) whether by caielefs imbezelling of them, or by con- 
verting any of them to his own Ufe without the Allow- 
ance ofhis Matter. This latter is that purloining of which 
the Apottle warns fervants, Tit. ii. 10. and is indeed no 
better than arrant Theft: Of this Kind are all thofe 
1 Ways, that the Servant hath of gaining to himfelf by the 
L 2 Lofs 

i6i The Whole Duty of Man. 

Lofs and Damage of his Matter j as the being bribed to 
make ill Bargains for him, and many the like: Nay, in- 
deed this Sort of Unfaithfulnefs is vvorfe than common 
Theft, by how much there is a greater Truft repofed, the 
Betraying whereof adds to the Crime. As for the other 
Sort of Unfaithfulnefs, that of Wafting, tho' without 
Gain to themfelves, it differs not much in Effeft from 
this, the Mafter may lofe as much by the one as the o- 
ther ; and then, what Odds is it to him, whether he be 
robbed by the Covetoufnefs, or Negligence of his Ser- 
vant ? And it is ftill the fame Breach of Truft with the 
former ; for every Mafter is fuppofed to intruft his Af- 
fairs as well to the Care as the Honefty of his Servant ; 
for 'twould be little Advantage to the Mafter to be fecur- 
jed that his Servant would not himfelf cheat kim, whilft, 
in the mean Time he would by his Carelefnefs give Op- 
portunities to others to do it. Therefore he that does 
not carefully look to his Mailer's Profit, deceives his 
Truft, as well as he that unjuftly provides for his own. 

27. A third Duty of a Servant is Patience and Meek- 
c L .~ nefs under the Reproofs of his Mafter, not 
SubmiMion an j wering ogaiKt as the A poftle exhorts, 
to Rebuke, fa ~ ^ that -^ nQt making f uch {uT i y 

and rude Replies, as may increafe the Matter's Difplea- 
fure, a Thing too frequent among Servants, even in 
the jufteft Reprehenfions ; whereas St. Peter di reels 
them patiently to fuffer even the moft undeferved Cor- 
rection, even when they do well, and fuffer for it t 1 
Pet. ii. 20. But the patient fuffering of Rebuke is not 
all that is required of Servants in this Matter j They 
iriuft alio mend the Fault they are rebuked for, and not 
think they have done enough, when they have (though 
never fo dutifully) given the Mafter the Hearing. 

28. A fourth Duty of a Servant is Diligence. He 
_ muft constantly attend to all thofe Things 
Diligence. whJch arg the j) ut j es f fcj s pi ace> an d 110 t 

give himfelf to Idlenefs and Sloth, nor yet to Company- 
keeping, Gaming or any other diforderly Courfe, 
which may take him off from his Matter's Bufinefs. 
All thefe are neceffary Duties of a Servant, which they 
are carefully and confeionably to perform, not (o much 
to efcape their Mailer's Anger, as God's, who will cer- 

Sund 15. Masters Duty. 227 

tainly call every one of them to an Account, how they 
have behaved themfelves towards their earthly Matters. 

29. Now, on the other Side, there are fome Things 

alfo owing from the Matters to their „. n 

c ac,i Li\/T/i-L j Matters owe to 

Servants: As hrtt, the Matter is bound . < c 

, , . - , c . , t their servants 

to be juft to them, in performing thole cy „. 

Conditions on which they were hired ; J •> 

fuch are commonly the giving them Food and Wages : 

And that Matter that with holds thefe, is an Opprellor. 

30. Secondly, The Matter is to admonifti and re- 
prove the Servant in Cafe of Fault; and *, 

r , , . „ . . , ' Admonition, 

that not only in Faults agamft them,where- 

in few Matters are backward ; but alfo, and more efpe- 
cially in Faults againft God, whereat every Matter 
ought to be more troubled, than at thofe which tend on- 
ly to his own Lofs or Inconvenience : The Dilhonour 
of God, and the Hazard of the meaneft Man's Soul, 
being infinitely more worthy our Difquiet, than any 
Thing of the other Kind can be. And therefore, when 
Matters are prefently on Fire for any little Negligence 
or Fault of a Servant towards themfelves, and yet can 
without trouble fee them run into the greateft Siris a- 
gainft God, 'tis a Sign they confider their own Concern- 
ments too much, and God's Glory and their Servants 
Souls too little. This is too commonly the Temper of 
Matters ; they are generally carelefs how their Servants 
behave themfelves towards God, how diforderly and 
profane their Families are ; and therefore never beftow 
any Exhortation or Admonition to perfuade them to 
Virtue, or draw them from Vice : Such Matters forget 
that they mutt one Day give an Account, how they have 
governed their Families. It is certainly the Duty of 
every Ruler, to endeavour to advance Piety and Godli- 
nefs among all thofe that are under his Charge J and 
that as well in this letter Dominion of a Family, as in 
the greater of a Realm or Nation. Of this David 
was fo careful, that we fee he profefies, 7. 
Tba t no deceitful Per/on /hail dwell in bis Houfe ; that 
he that told Lies,Jhould not tarry in his Sight. So much 
he thought himfelf bound to provide, that his Family 
might be a Kind of Church, an^Aflembly of godly, up- 
L $ right 

228 The Whole Duty 0/Man. 

right Perfons : And if all Matters would endeavour to 
have theirs fo, they would, befides the eternal Reward 
of it hereafter, find a prefent Benefit by it; their world- 
ly Bufinefs would thrive much the better; for if their 
Servants were brought to make Confcience of their 
Ways, they would then not dare either to be negligent 
or falfe. 

31 . But as it is the Duty of Matters to admonilh and 
reprove their Servants, fo they mutt alfo look to do it 
in a due Manner, that is, fo as may be mod likely to 
do good ; not in Paflion and Rage, which never can work 
the Servant toany Thing but the defpifing or hating him; 
but with fuch fober and grave Speeches, as may convince 
him of his Fault, and may alfo afiure him, that it is a 
kind Defire of his Amendment (and not a Willingnefs to 
wreck his own Rage) which makes the Mailer thus to 
rebuke him. 

32. A third Duty of the Matter is to fet a good Ex- 
C d E hi am P^ e °^ Honefty and Godlinefs to his 

" ' Servants, without which 'tis not all the 
Exhortations or Reproofs he can ufe, will ever do good; 
or elfe he pulls down more with his Example, than 'tis 
poffible for him to build up with the other: And 'tis 
Madnefs for a drunken or profane Mailer to expeft a 
fober nd godly Family. 

33. Fourthly, the Matter is to provide that his Ser- 

_. f T vants may not want Means of being in- 

A.eans of In- ftruaed in thdr Duty> as alfo that lhey 

Jiruc ion. m? ^ daily have conftant Times of wor- 

shipping God publickly, by having Prayers in the Fa- 
mily. But of this I have fpoken before, under the 
Head of Prayer, and therefore (hall here fay no more of it. 

34. Fifthly, The Matter, in all Affairs of his own, is 

„, , . . to give reafonable and moderate Com- 
Moderatton m ^^ ^ ^ y . gfeater Burdens Qn 

Commands. hjs Servants> than they are ab i e t0 bear, 
particularly, not requiring fo much Work, that they 
mall have no Time to beftow on their Souls ; as on the 
other Side, he is not to permit them to live fo idly, as 
may make them either ufelefs to him, or may betray 
themfelves to any ill. 

35. Sixthly, 

Sund. i6. Duty p/Charity, 229 

35. Sixthly, The Mailer is to give his Servants En- 
couragement in Well doing, by uiing ~ 
them wich that Bounty and Kindncfs, niourage- 
which their Faithfulnefs, and Diligence, **? in w * 
and Piety deferves ; and finally, in all s "*' 
his Dealing with them he is to remember, that he him- 
felf hath, as the Apoille faith, Eph. vi. 9. A Ma ft >• in 
Heaven, to whom he muft give an Account of the 
Ufage of his meanell Servant on Earth. 

Thus have I briefly run through thole feveral Relations, 
to which we owe particular Duty ; and fo have done 
with that full Branch of Duty to our Neighbours, that 
of Juftice. 


Other Blanches of our Duty to our Neighbour : 
Of Charity to Men's Souls, Bodies, Goods , 
and Credit. 

Sect.' i ^ H E fecond Branch of Duty to our Neigh- 

1. i bour is Charity, or Love. This -,, 
is the great Gofpel Duty fo oftenjenjoir.ed us 

by Chrilt, the Neva Commandment , as himfelf calls it, 
John xiii. 34.. That ye love one another: And this is 
again repeated twice in one Chapter, John xv. 12. 17. 
and the firft Epiftle of Sc. John is almoit wholly fpent in 
the Perfuafion of this one Duty ; by which we may fee, 
it is no Matter of Indifference, but molt ftriclly required 
of all that profefs Chrift. Indeed himfelf has given it 
as the Badge and Livery of his Difciples, John xiii. 35. 
By this Jhall all Men knonu that ye are my Difciples, if ye 
have Love one to another. 

2. This Charity may be confidered two Ways ; firll, in 
Refpeft of the Affedions. Secondly, of the , , , p 
Adions. Charity in the Affedions is a fin- " tbe "' 
cere Kindnefs, which difpofes us to wiffi all J eJl0ns ' 
Good to others, and that in all their Capacities, in the 
fame Manner that Juftice obligeth us to wilh no Hurt to 

' h \ any 

230 The Whole Duty of Man. 

any Man, in Refpect of his Soul, his Body, his Goods, 
or his Credit: So this fir ft Part of Charity binds us to 
wifh all Good to them in all thefe. 

3. And firH for the Soul. H we have any the lead 

To Jftrt Soul,. S ,P a A k °f eh \ f, >. W f "."""'u b r ' WUh 
all Good to Men's Souls ; thofe pre- 
cious Things which Chrifi thought worth the Ranfom- 
ing with his own Blood, may furely well challenge our 
Kindnefs and good Wilhes : And therefore, if we do 
not thus love one another, we are far from obeying 
that Command of ioviag as he hath loved; for it was 
the Souls of Men which he loved fo tenderly, and both 
did and fuirered fo much for. Of this Love of his to 
Souls there are two great and fpecial Effects : The firft, 
the purifying them here by his Grace ; the fecond, the 
making them everlaftingly happy in his Glory. And 
both thefe we are fo far to copy out in our Kindnefs, as 
to be earneftly defirous, that all Men fhould arrive to 
that Purity and Holinefs here, which may make them 
capable of eternal Happinefs hereafter. It were to be 
hoped, that none, that himfelf carried a Soul about him, 
could be fo cruel to that of another Man's, as not fin- 
cerely to wifh this, did not Experience fhew us, there 
are fome Perfons, whofe Malice is fo devilifh, as to 
reach even to the direct contrary, the wiihing not only 
the Sin, but the Damnation of others. Thus may you 
have fome, who, in any Injury or Opprefnon they fuf- 
fer, make it their only Comfort, that their Enemies 
will damn themfelves by it ; when alas ' that fhould to a 
Chriftian be much more terrible, than any Suffering they 
could bring upon him. He that is of this Temper, is a 
Difciple of Satan, not of Chrift; it being directly con- 
trary to the whole Scope of that grand Chriffian Precept 
of loving our Neighbour as ourf elves. For it is fure, 
no Man that believes there isfuch a Thing as Damna- 
tion, wilhes it to himfelf"; be he never fo fond of the 
Ways that lead to it, yet he wilhes that may not be his 
Journey's End : And therefore, by that Rule of Cha- 
rity, mould as much dread it for his Neighbour, 


Sund. 1 6. Duty ^/Charity. i$t 

4. Secondly, We are to wifti all Good to the Bodies of 
Men, all Health and Welfare: Wearege- { - . . R 
nerally tender enough of our own Bodies, f " r °" 
dread the leaf* Pain or ill that can befal ^ a jJr 9 V? B 
them. Now Charity, by Virtue of the and ( redlt ' 
fore-mentioned Precept extends this Tendernefs to all 
others ; and whatever we apprehend as grievous to our- 
felves, we mull be unwilling mould befal another. The 
like is to be faid of the other two, Goods and Credit, 
that as we wifli our own Thriving and Reputation, fo 
we mould likewife that of others, or elfe we can never 
be faid to love our Neighbours as our/elves. 

5 .The Charity of the Affections, if it be fincere, will 
certainly have thefe feveral Effects, vff . ,. 

which are fo infeparable from it, that charit 
they are often in 'Scripture accounted as an y- 

Parts of the Duty, and fo mod ftriclly required of us : 
Firft, it will keep the Mind in a peaceable and meek 
Temper towards others, fo far from feeking Occafion 
of Contentions, that no Provocation (hall draw us to it ; 
for where we have Kindnefs, we mall be unapt to quar- 
'rel, it being one of the fpecial Qualities of Charity, that 
it is not eafiiy provoked, 1 Cor. xiii. 5. And therefore, 
whoever is unpeaceable, (hews his Heart is deftitute of 
this Charity. Secondly, it will breed Companion to- 
wards all the Miferies of others : Every Milhap that be-- 
fals where we wi(h well, is a Kind of Defeat and Dif- 
after toourfelves; and therefore, if we with well to all,, 
we mall be thus concerned in the Calamities of allj have 
a real Grief and Sorrow to fee any in Mifery ; and that 
according to the Proportion of the Suffering. Thirdly,, 
it will give us Joy in the Profperities of others. Solomon 
obferves, Prov. xiii. 19. That the Defire accomplijhed is- 
fiweettothe Soul ; and then whoever has this real De- 
lire of his Neighbour's Welfare, his Defire is accom- 
plished in their Profperity ; and therefore he cannot 
but have Contentment and Satisfaction in it. Both thefe- 
are together commanded by St. Paul-, Rom. xii. 15. 
Rejoice with them that do rejoice, and weep, iuitb them that' 
nueep. Fourthly,, it will excite and ftir up our Prayers 
for others : We are of ourfelves impotent, feeble Crea- 
tures, unablg to bellow- Bleflings, where wc raoft wifh 
L 5 them ;> 

232 The Whole Duty 0/Man. 

them ; therefore if we do indeed defire the Good of 
others, we muft feek it on their Behalf from him, 
whence every good and perfeSl Gift cometh, Jam. i. 17. 
This is fo neceflary a Part of Charity, that without it 
our Kindnefs is but an infignificant Thing, a Kind of 
empty Compliment : For how can he be believed to 
wifh well in Earneft, who will not thus put Life and Ef- 
ficacy into his Wifhes by forming them into Prayers, 
which will otherwife be vain and fruitlefs? The Apoftle 
thought not fit to leave Men to their bare Wifhes: but 
exhorts, that Supplications, Prayers, and giving of 
Thanks, be made for all Men, 1 Tim. ii. I. which 
Precept, all that have this true Charity of the Heart, 
will readily conform to. Thefe Severals are fo natural- 
ly the Fruits of this Charity, that it is a Deceit for any 
Man to perfuade himfelf he hath it, *who cannot pro- 
duce thefe Fruits to evidence it by. 
6. But there is yet a greater Excellency of this Grace: 
It R t ^ g uar ^ s tne Mind, and fecures it from fe - 
P a ' s veral great and dangerous Vices; as firft 

^ from Envy : This is by the Apoftle taught 

us to be the Property of Charity, 1 Cor, xiii. 4 Cha- 
rity envyeth not. And indeed common Reafon may 
confirm this to us ; for Envy is a Sorrow at the Profperi- 
ty of another, and therefore muft needs be diredly con- 
trary to that Defire of it, which, we fhewed before, 
was the EfFed of Love: So that if Love bear Sway in 
the Heart, 'twill certainly chafe out Envy. How vain- 
ly then do thofe pretend to this Virtue, that are ftill 
grudging and repining at every good Hap of others ? 

7. Secondly, It keeps down Pride and Haughtinefs. 
_ . , This is alfo taught us by the Apoftle in the 

rl *' fore- mentioned Place; Charity vaunteth not 
itfelf is not puffed up: And accordingly we find, that 
where this Virtue of Love is commanded, there Humi- 
lity is joined with it; thus it is, Col. iii. 12. Put on 
therefore Bowels of Mercies, Kindnefs, Humb!enefs of 
Mind: And Rom- xii. 10. Be kindly aff eft ioned one to 
another ; *witb brotherly hove ; in Honour preferring one 
another : Where you fee how clofe an Attendant Humi- 
lity is of Love. Indeed it naturally flows from it ; for 


Sund. 16. Dut v of Ch aritv. 233 

Love ahvayi fets a Price and Value upon the Thing be- 
loved, makes us efteem and prize it. Thus we too con- 
flantly find it in Self-Love ; it makes us think highly of 
ourfelves, that we are much more excellent than other 
Men. Now if Love, thus placed on ourfelves, beget 
Pride, let us but divert the Courfe, and turn this Love 
on our Brethren, and it will as furely beget Humility ; 
for then we mould fee and value thofe Gifts and Excel- 
lencies of theirs, which now our Pride or our Hatred 
make us to overlook and negled, and not think it rea- 
fonable either to defpife them, or vaunt and magnify our- 
felves upon fuch a Comparifon; we mould certainly find 
Caufe to put the Apoftle's Exhortacion in Practice, Phil. 
ii. 4. That we mould ejleem others better than ourfelves. 
Whofoever therefore is of fo haughty a Temper, as to 
vilify and difdain others, may conclude he hath not this 
Charity rooted in his Heart. 

8. Thirdly, It calls out Cenforioufnefs and ra(h judging. 

Charity, as the Apoitle faith, 1 Cor. xiii. n r . - . 
cri • > r r i • Lenfortoufnefs. 

5. Thinketh no Evil; is not apt to en- J J J 

tertain ill Conceits of others; but, on the contrary, as 
it follows, Ver. 7. Believeth all Things, hopeth all 
Things ; that is, it is forward to believe and hope the 
bed of all Men ; and furely our own Experience tells us 
the fame, for where we love, we are ufually unapt to 
difcern Faults, be they never fo grofs (witnefs the great 
Blindnefs we generally have towards our own) and there- 
fore mall certainly not be like to create them, where 
they are not, or to aggravate them beyond their true 
Size and Degree : And then to what mall we impute 
thofe unmercifftl Cenfures and rath Judgments of others, 
fo frequent among Men, but to the Want of this Cha- 
rity ? 

9. Fourthly, It cafts out DhTembling and feigned Kind- 
nefs : Where this true and real Love is, ~.~ ... 
that falfe and counterfeit one flies from be- " * m 
fore it: And this is the Love we are commanded to 
have, fuch as is without Dijfimulation, Rom. xii. 9. 
Indeed, where this is rooted in the Heart, there can be 
no poflible Ufe of DifTimulation ; becaufe this is, in 
Truth, all that the falfe one would fcem to be, andfois 



234 The Whole Duty of Man. 

as far beyond it, as Nature is beyond Art ; nay, indeed, 
as a divine Virtue is beyond a foul Sin, for fuch is that 
hypocritical Kindnefs ; and yet it is to be feared, that 
does too generally ufurp the Place of this real Charity. 
The Effects of it are too vifible among us, there being 
nothing more common, than to fee Men make large 
Profeffions to thofe, whom, as foon as their Backs are 
turned, they either deride or mifchieve. 

10 Fifthly, it calls out all Mei cenarinefs, and Self- feek- 
ir r i- w ?>> 'tis of fo noble and generous a Tem- 

Sej-jeektng. perj that | t defpifes all Projeaings for Gain 
or Ad vantage; Lome feeketh not her own, i Cor. xiii. 5. 
And therefore that huckftering Kind of Love, fo much 
ufed in the World, which places itfelfonly there, where 
it may fetch in Benefit, is very far from this Charity. 

1 1 .Laftly,It turns out of the Heart all Malice and De- 

fire of Revenge, which is fo utterly contrary 
Revenge. ^ - that ^ < s j mpo fl- m l e they mould both 
dwell in the fame Bread. 'Tis the Property of Lo-ve, to 
bear all Things, i Cor. xiii. 7. to endure the greateft 
Injuries, without Thought of making any other return 
to t em, than Prayers and Bleffings; and therefore the 
malicious revengeful Perfon is of all others the great- 
eit Stranger to this Charity. 

12. 'Tis true, if this Virtue were to be exercifed but 

, . towards fome Sort of Perfons, it might 
This Lcarity to confift with Malke tQ Qthers . h bejng 

be extend a- ffible for & Man tfcat bittcr , y hafes ^ 

vtn to Enemies. tQ Jove anQther . Bufc wc arg tQ take 

Notice, that this Charity mufl not be fo confined, but 
mull extend and flretch itlelf to all Men in the World,, 
particularly to Enemies ; or elfe it is not that divine Cha- 
rity commended to us by Chrift. The loving of Friends, 
and Benefactors is fo low a Pitch, that the very Publicans, 
and Sinners, the worft of Men, were able to attain to it,. 
Matt. v. 46. and therefore 'tis not counted rewardable 
in a Difciple of Chrift. No, he expects we mall foar 
higher, and therefore hath fet us this more fpiritual, and. 
excellent Precept of loving, of Enemies, Matt. v. 44. 
lfay unto you, Love your Enemies, blefs< them that cur ft 
)8u 9 and pray for them which dejffitefully ufe yu and. 


Sand. 1 6. Duty 0/ Charity. 235 

perfcute you. And whofoever does not thus, wil! never 
be owned by him for a Difciple. We are therefore to 
conclude, that all which has been faid, concerning this 
Charity of the Affe&ions, muft be underftood to belong 
as well to our fpitefulleft Enemy, as our moft obliging 
Friend. But becaufe this is a Duty, to which the fro- 
ward Nature of a Man is apt to object much, 'twill not 
be amifs to infill a little on fome Confiderations which, 
may enforce it on us^ 

i3.AndFirft,Confiderwhat hath been already touched 
on, that it is the Command of Chriftv -. . , 
both in the Texts abovementioned, and ° ■■ S. s ere ~ 
Multitudes of others v there being fcarce "*££?? 
any Precept fo often repeated in the °-* r ^ ' 
New Tellament as this, of loving and forgiving of our 
Enemies. Thus, Eph. iv. 32. Be ye kind one to another, 
tender hearted, forgiving one another : And again, Col. 
iii. 13. Forbearing one another, and forgiving one ano- 
ther, if any Man have a Quarrel again/l any ; even as 
Chrijl forgave you, fo alfo do ye. So alfo, I Pet. iii. 9. 
Not rendering Evil for Evil, or Railing for Railing ; hut 
contrarivuife, Blejfing. A whole Volume of Texts might 
be brought to this purpofe, but thefe are certainly e- 
nough to convince any Man, that this is ftriclly required 
of us byChrift ; and indeed I think there are few that 
ever heard of the Gofpel, but know it is fo. The more 
prodigioufly ftrange is it, that Men, that call themfelves 
Chriltians, mould, give no Degree of Obedience to it : 
Nay, not only fo, but even publickly avow and: profefs 
the contrary, as we daily fee they do ; it being ordinary 
to have Men refolve and declare, that they will not for- 
give fuch or fuch a Man-; and no Confideration of 
Chrift's Command can at all move them from their pur- 
pofe. Certainly thefe Men underftand not what is meant 
by the very Word Chrijlian, which fignifies a Servant 
and Difciple of Chrift : And this Charity is the very 
Badge of the one, and the Leffon of the other : And 
therefore> 'tis, the- greateft Abfurdity and Contradic- 
tion to profefs themfelves Chriftians,and yet at the fame 
time to refift this fo exprefs Command' of that Chrift,, 
whom they own as their Mailer, If I fo a. Mafer^ 


236 The Whole Duty of Man; 

faith God, where is my Fear? Mal.i. 6. Obedience and 
Reverence are lb much the Duties of Servants, that no 
Man is thought to look on him as a Matter, to whom he 
pays them not ; Why call ye me Lord, Lord, and do not 
the Things which 1/ay ? faith Chrift, Luke vi. 46. The 
whole World is divided into two great Families, 
Chrift'sand Satan's : And the Obedience each Man pays 
fignifies to which of theft Matters he belongs ; if he o- 
bey Chrift, to Chrift; if Satan, to Satan. Now this Sin 
of Malice and Revenge is fo much the Dictate of that 
wicked Spirit, that there is nothing can be a more di- 
rect obeying of him ; 'tis the taking his Livery on our 
Backs, the Proclamation whofe Servants we are. What 
ridiculous Impudence is it then, for Men that have thus 
entred themfelves of Satan's Family, to pretend to be the 
Servants of Chrift? Let fuch know afluredly, that they 
lhall not be owned by him, but at the great Day of Ac- 
count be turned over to their proper Matter, to receive 
their Wages in Fire and Brimftone. 
14. A fecond Confideration is the Example of God. This 

r , - is an Argument Chrift himfelf thought fit 

Example of r J> . r x.- t\ 

r-> j to ule, to imprefs this Duty on us, as you 

may fee, Luke vi. 35. 36. Where, after 
having given the Command of loving Enemies, he en- 
courages to the Practice of it, by telling, that it is that 
which will make us the Children of the higheft (that 
is, 'twill give us a Likenefs and Refemblance to him, 
as Children have to their Parents) for he is kind to the 
unthankful and to the evil. And to the fame purpofe you 
may read, Matt. v. 45. He maketh his Sun to rife on the 
evil and on the good, andfendeth Rain on the jujl and on 
the unjufl : And fure this is a mott forcible Confideration 
to excite us to this Duty. God, we know, is the Foun- 
tain of Perfection, and the being like to him, is the Sum 
of all we can wifh for ; and tho' it was Lucifer's Fall, 
his Ambition to be like the Moft High, yet had the 
Likenefs he affected been only that of Holinefs and 
Goodnefs, he might ftill have been an Angel of Light. 
This Defire of imitating our heavenly Father is the fpe- 
cial Mark of a Child of his. Now this Kindnefs and 
Goodnefs to Enemies is moft eminently remarkable in 
God, and that not only in refpect of the temporal Mer- 

Sund. 16. Duty 0/ Charity. 237 

cies, which he indifferently beflows on all, his Sun and 
Rain on the unjuft, as in the Text fore-mentioned, but 
chiefly in his fpiritual Mercies. We are all by our wic- 
ked Works, Col. i. 21. Enemies to him, and the Mif- 
chief of that Enmity would have fallen wholly upon 
ourfelves. God had no Motive, befides that of his Pity- 
to us, to wifh a Reconciliation ; yet fo far was he from 
returning our Enmity, when he might have revenged 
himfelf to our eternal Ruin, that he defigns and contrives 
how he may bring us to be at peace with him. This is 
a huge Degree of Mercy and Kindnefs ; but the Means 
he ufed foreffe&ing this, is yet far beyond it : He fent 
his own Son from Heaven to work it ; and that not on- 
ly by Perfuafions, but Sufferings alfo : So much did he 
prize us miferable Creatures, that he thought us not too 
dear bought with the Blood of his Son. The like Ex- 
ample of Mercy and Patience we have in Chrilt,both in 
laying doivnhis Life for us Enemies, and alfo in that meek 
Manner of doing it, which we find excellently fet forth 
by the Apoflle, 1 Pet. ii. 22, 23, 24. and commended 
to our Imitation. Now furely, when all this is confider- 
ed, we may well make St. Johns Inference : Beloved, 
if God fo loved us, ive ought alfo to lo-ve one another , 
1 John iv. 11. How fhameful a thing is it, for us to 
retain Difpleafure againft our Brethren, when God thus 
lays by his towards us, and that when we have fo high- 
ly provoked him ? 

15. ThisdireclstoatbirdConfideration, the comparing 
our Sins againft God with the Offences — , „.* 
of our Brethren againft us ; which we no e VP ro P or ~. 
fooner (hall come to do, but there will tl ™ qJ?"" 
appear a vaft Difference between them, our . ■^ el l c . 
and that in feveral Refpeds : For, Firft, aga jf. . 
There is the Majefty of the Perfon a- ™ ™n" * 
gainft whom we fin, which exceedingly a i ain J us ' 
increafes the Guilt ; whereas between Man and Man 
there cannot be fo great a Diftance : For though fome 
Men are by God advanced to fuch Eminency of Dig- 
nity, as may make an Injury offered to them the greater, 
yet (till they are but Men of the fame Nature with 
us, whereas, he is God blefled for ever. Secondly, 
There is his Sovereignty and Power, which is original 

238 The Whole Duty of Man. 

in God ; for we are his creatures, we have received our 
whole Being from him ; and therefore are, in the deep- 
ell Manner, bound to perfect Obedience ; whereas all 
the Sovereignty that one Man can poflibly have over 
another, is but imparted to them by God f and, for the 
moft Part, there is none of this neither in the Cafe, Quar- 
rels being moft ufually among equals. Thirdly, There 
is his infinite Bounty and Goodnefs to us ;. All that ever 
we enjoy, whether in relation io this- Life, or a better, 
being wholly his free Gift ; and fo there is the fouleft 
Ingratitude added to our other Crimes : In* which re- 
fpecl alfo 'tis impoflible for one Man to offend againft 
another in fuch a Degree : For though one may be 
(and too many are) guilty of Unthankfulnefs towards 
Men, yet, becaufe the greateft Benefits that Man can be- 
flow, are infinitely fhort of thofe which God doth, the 
Ingratitude cannotbe near fo great as towards God it is. 
Laftly, There is theGreatnefsand Multitude of our Sins 
againft God, which do infinitely exceed all that the moft 
injurious Man can do againft us ; for we all fin much of- 
tener, and more heinoufly againft him, than any Man, be 
he never fo malicious, can find Opportunities of injuring, 
his Brethren. This Inequality and Difproportion our 
Saviour intimates in the Parable, Ma//..xviii. where our 
Offences againft God are noted by the ten thou/and 
Talents, whereas our Brethren's againft us are defcrib- 
ed by the hundred Pence. A Talent hugely outweighs 
a Penny, and ten thoufand out-numbers a hundred : 
Yet fo, and much more, does the Weight and Number 
of our Sins exceed all the Offences of others againft us. 
Much more might be faid to fhew the vaft Inequality 
between the Faults which God forgives us, and thofe 
we can poflibly have to forgive our Brethren; but this, I 
fuppofe, may fuffice to filence all the Objections of cruel 
and revengeful Perfons againft this Kindnefs to Enemies.. 
They are apt to look upon it as an abfurd and unreafon- 
able. Thing ;. but fince God himfelf acts it in fo much a 
higher Degree, who can,, without Blafphemy, fay it is 
unreafonable ? If this, or any other fpiritual Duty, ap- 
pear fo to us, we may learn the Reafon from the Apoftle, 
I Cor. ii. 14. The carnal Man. receiveth not the' Things 
of the Spirit of God, for thtj are foolijbnefs unto him. 


Sund. 16. Duty ^/Charity. 239 

'Tis the Carnality and Flefhlinefs of our Hearts tha* 
makes itfeem fo ; and therefore, inftead of difputing a- 
gainft the Duty, let us purge our Hearts of that, and 
then we (hall find that true, which the fpiritual Wifdom 
affirms of her Doctrines, Prov. viii. g. Thty are all plain 
to him that underfiandeth, and right to them that find 

16. Nay, this loving of Enem ies is not Pleafantnefs 
only a reafonable.but a pJeafantDuty ; and of this Duty. 
that I fuppofeas a fourth Confederation; 
there is a great deal of Sweetnefs and Delight to be found 
in it. Of this, I confefs, none can fo well judge as thofe 
that have praclifed it : The Nature even of earthly 
Pleafures being fuch, that 'tis the Enjoyment only that 
can make a Man truly know them. No Man can fo 
defcribe the Tafte of any delicious Thing to another, as 
that by it he (hall know the Relilh of it ; he muft firft 
actually talte of it ; and fure 'tis much more fo in fpi- 
ritual Pleafures : And therefore, he that would fully 
know the Sweetnefs and Pleafantnefs of this Duty, let 
him fet to the Practice, and then his own Experience 
will be the bell Informer. But in the mean time, how 
very unjuft, yea, foolim is it, to pronounce ill of it be- 
fore Trial ? For Men to fay, This is irkfome and into- 
lerable, who never fo much as once offered to try whe- 
ther indeed it were fo or no ? Yet by this very Means an 
ill Opinion is brought up of this moft delightful Duty, 
and pafles current among Men : whereas, in all Juftice, 
the Teltimony of it mould be taken only from thofe, 
who have tried it ; and they would certainly give ano- 
ther Account of it. 

17. But though the full Knowledge hereof be to be 
had only by this nearer Acquaintance, yet methinks even 
thofe, who look at it but at a Diltance, may difcern 
fomewhat of Amiablenefs in it, if no other Way, yet at 
leait by comparing it with the Uneafinefs of its contrary. 
Malice and Revenge are the molt reftlefs tormenting 
Palfions that can polTefs the Mind of a Man ; they keep 
Men in perpetual Study and Care how to effect their 
mifchievous Purpofes ; it difturbs their very Sleep, as 
Solomon obferves, Prcv, iv. 16. They Jeep not, except 


240 The Whole Duty of Mm. 

they have done Mi/chief ; and their Sleep is taken a<way 9 
unlejs they caufe fome to fall : Yea, it imbitters all the 
good Things they enjoy, fo that they have no Tafte or 
Relifh of them. A remarkable Example of this we have 
in Haman, who, tho' he abounded in all the Greatnefs 
and Felicity of the World, yet the Malice he had to a 
poor defpicable Man, Mordecai, kept him from tailing 
Contentment in all this, as you may fee, Eflh. Chap. v. 
where, after he had related to his Friends all his Prof- 
perities, ver. II. he concludes thus, <ver. 13. Yet all 
this a<vaileth me nothing, fo long as 1 fee Mordecai the 
Jew fitting at the King's Gate. On the other Side the 
peaceable Spirit, that can quietly pafsby all Injuries and 
Affronts, enjoys a continual Calm, and is above the Ma- 
lice of his Enemies; for let them do what they can, they 
cannot rob him of his Quiet, he is firm as a Rock, which 
no Storms or Winds can move : When the furious and 
revengeful Man is like a Wave, which the Jealt Blaft 
tolfes and tumbles from its Place. But, betides this in- 
ward Difquiet of revengeful Men, they often bring many 
outward Calamities upon themfelves ; they exafperate 
their Enemies, and provoke them to do them greater 
Mifchiefs; nay, oftentimes they willingly run themfelves 
upon the greateft Miferies in Puifuit of their Revenge ; 
to which 'tis ordinary to fee Men facrifice Goods, Eafe, 
Credit, Life, nay, Soul itfclf, not caring what they fuf- 
fer themfelves, fo they may fpite their Enemy ; foii range - 
ly does this wretched Humour befot and blind them. 
On the contrary, the meek Perfon he often melts his Ad- 
verfary, pacifies his Anger ; A foft Anfiwer turneth a- 
<way Wrath, ia.h\i Solomon, Vto\. xv. 1. And fure there is 
nothing can tend more to that End. But if it do happen 
that his Enemy be fo inhuman, that he mifs of doing 
that, yet he is fiill a Gainer by all he can fufFer : For, 
firft, he gains an Opportunity of exercifing that molt 
Chriftian Grace of Charity and Forgivenefs, and fo at 
once of obeying the Command, and imitating the Exam- 
ple of his Saviour, which is, to a true Chriftian Spirit, a 
moll valuable Advantage : And then, fecondly , he gains 
an Acceffion and Increafe to his Reward hereafter. And 
if it be objected, that that is not to be reckon'd into .the 


Sund. 16. Duty g/Chakity. 241 

prefent Pleafure of the Duty, I anfwer, That the Ex- 
pedition and Belief of it is, and that alone is a Delight 
infinitely more ravifliing, than the prefent Enjoyment of 
all fenfual Pleafure can be. 

1 8. The fourth Confideration is the Dangers of not per- 
forming this Duty ; of which I might ]f f 
reckon up divers, but I (hall infift only ' ^-V^!?J* 
on that great one, which contains in it ' 
all the reft, and that is the forfeiting our not J or &™ e us ' 
own Paidons from God, the having our Sins againfthim 
kept ftill on his Score and not forgiven. This is a Con- 
fideration that, methinks, mould affright us into good 
Nature j if it do not, our Malice is greater to ourielves 
than to our Enemies : For alas ! what Kurt is it poffibie 
for thee to do to another, which can bear anyCompa- 
rifon with that thou doft thyfelf, in lofing the Pardon of 
thy Sins ; which is fo unfpeakable a Miichief, that the 
Devil himfelf, with all his Malice, cannot wifh a great- 
er ? 'Tis all he aims at, firft, that we may fin, and then, 
that thofe Sins may never be pardoned ; for then he 
knows he is fure enough; Hell and Damnation being 
certainly the Portion of every unpardoned Sinner, befides 
all other Effecls of God's Wrath in this Life. Confider 
this, and then tell me, what thou haft got by the higheft 
Revenge thou ever acledft upon another ? 'Tis a devilifh 
Phraie in the Mouth of Men, That Revenge is fnjoeet ; 
but is it poflible there can be (even to the moil diftem- 
pered Palate) any fuch Sweetnefs in it, as may recom- 
penfe that everhfting Bitternefs that attends it ? 'Tis 
certain no Man in his Wits can, upon fober judging, 
imagine there is. Bat, alas! we give notourfelves Time 
to weigh Things, but fuffer ourfelves to be hurried away 
with the Heat of an angry Humour, never confidering 
how dear we muft pay for it ; like the filly Bee, that in 
Anger leaves at once her Sting and her Life behind her ; 
the Sting may, perhaps, give fome fhort Pain to the 
Flefh it fticks in, but yet there is none but difcerns the 
Bee has the worft of it, that pays her Life for fo poor a 
Revenge : So it is in the greateft Act of our Malice ; 
we may perhaps leave our Stings in others, put them to 
fome prefent Trouble, but that, compared with the Hurt 


o i * ?bc Whole Duty of Man. 

that redounds to ourfelves by it, is no more than that 
inconfiderable Pain is to Death, nay, not fo much ; be- 
caufe the Mifchiefs, that we bring upon ourfelves, are e- 
ternal, to which no finite Thing can bear any Proportion. 
Remember then, whenfoever thou art contriving and 
plotting a Revenge, that thou quite miftakeft the Mark ; 
thou thinkeft to hit the Enemy, and alas ! thou wound- 
eft thyfelf to Death. And let no Man fpeak Peace to 
himfelf, or think that thefe are vain Terrors, -and that 
he may obtain Pardon from God, tho' he give none to 
his Brethren : For he that is Truth itfelf hath afTured us 
to the contrary, 15. If ye forgive not Men their 
Trefpajfes, neither will your Father forgive your Irefpaf- 
fes. And left we fhould forget theNeceffity of this Duty, 
he hath inferted it in our daily Prayers, where we make 
it the Condition, on which we beg Pardon from God ; 
Forgive us our TrefpaffeSy as vje forgive them that tref- 
pafs againjl us. What a heavy Curfe then does every 
revengeful Perfon lay upon himfelf, when he fays this 
Prayer ? He does, in effect, beg God not to forgive him ; 
and 'tis too fure that Part of his Prayer will be heard, 
he (hall be forgiven juft as he forgives, that is, not at all. 
This is yet farther fet out to us in the Parable of the Lord 
and the Servant, Matt, xviii. The Servant had obtained 
of his Lord the Forgivenefs of a vaft Debt, ten thoufand 
Talents, yet he was (0 cruel to his Fellow- fervant, as to 
exact a poor trifling Sum of an hundred Pence; upon 
which his Lord recals his former Forgivenefs, and charges 
him again with the whole Debt. And this Chrift applies 
to our preient Purpofe, v 35. So like^wife Jhall my hea- 
venly Father do alfo unto you, if ye from your Hearts for- 
give not every one his Brother their Trefpajfes. One luch 
AS. of Uncharitablenefs is able to forfeit us the Pardon 
God hath granted us ; and then all our Sins return a- 
gain upon us, and fink us to utter Ruin. I fuppofe it 
needlefs to heap up more Teftimonies of Scripture for the 
Truth of this ; thefe are fo clear, as may furely ferve to 
perfuade any Man, that acknowledges Scripture, of the 
great and fearful Danger of this Sin of Uncharitable- 
nefs. The Lord poflefs all our Hearts with fuch a juft 
Senfe of it, as may make us avoid it. 


Sund. 16. Duty of Charity. 243 

19. The laft Confideration I (hall mention, is that of 
Gratitude. God has (hewed wonderful Mer- r . , 
cies to us ; Chriit hath fuffered heavy Things ^qj 
to bring us into a Capacity of that Mercy ° ° ' 
and Pardon from God : And (hall we not then think our 
felves obliged to fome Returns of thankfulnefs ? If we will 
take the Apoftle's Judgment, he tells us, 2 Cor. v. ijj. 
That fince Chrijl dud for us all, 'tis but reafonable that 
%veJhould not henceforth live unto ourfelves, hut unto him 
that died for us. Indeed, were every Moment of our 
Lifeconfecratedto his immediate Service, 'twere no more 
than common Gratitude requires, and far lefs than fuch 
ineftimable Benefits deferve. What a fhameful Unthank- 
fulnefs is it then, to deny himfo poor a Satisfaction as this, 
the forgiving our Brethren ? Suppofe a Man, that was 
ranfomed either from Death or Slavery, by the Bounty and 
Sufferings of another, mould upon his Releafe be charged 
by him, that fo freed him, in return of that Kindnefs of his, 
to forgive fome flight Debt which was owing him by 
fome third Perfon ; would you not think him the unthank- 
fulleft Wretch in the World that fhould refufe this to fo 
great a Benefactor ? Yet fuch a Wretch, and much worfe, 
is every revengeful Perfon : Chrift hath bought us out 
of eternal Slavery, and that not with corruptible Things 9 
as Silver and Gold ; hut with hisovonmoft precious Blood 9 
1 Pet. i. 18, 19. and hath earneftly recommended to us 
the Love of our Brethren, and that with the moll moving 
Arguments, drawn from theGreatnefs of his Love to us : 
And if we {hall obftinately refufe him in fo juft, fo mo- 
derate a Demand, how unfpeakableaVilenefsisit ? And 
yet this we dodownright.if we keep any Malice orGrudge 
to any Perfon whatfoever. Nay, farther, this is not bare- 
ly an Unthankfulnefs, but there alfo is joined with 
it a horrible Contempt and defpifing of him. This Peace 
and Unity of Brethren was a Thing fo much prized and 
valued by him, that, when he was to leave the World, 
he thought it the molt precious thing he could bequeath; 
and therefore left it by way of Legacy to his D ,'*• pies, 
John xiv 27 Peace 1 leave avrth you. We ufe to fet a 
great Value on the fligruelt BequdH 61 ourciead Frfcids; 
to be exceeding careful not lq lufe them; and therefore, 


244 ?be Whole Duty of Man. 

if we wilfully bangle away this fo precious a Legacy of 
Chrift, 'tis a plain Sign we want that Love and Efteem 
of him, which we have of our earthly Friends ; and 
that we defpife him, as well as his Legacy. The great 
prevailing of this Sin of Uncharitablenefs has made me 
(land thus long on thefe Confiderations for the fubduing 
it, God grant they may make fuch lmprejjion on the Read- 
£r t as may be available to that Purpofe f 
20. 1 fhall only add this one Advice, That thefe, or what- 

Tk fi (I 7 *° ever otner Remedies againft this Sin, 
ejirj rtjittg muft ^ ^^ t j me ] y . , T « S f t . t j mcs t fa 

b f tt Iff y fruftrating of bodily Medicines, the ap- 
tjuppreye . p] v j n g t hem too late ; and 'tis much 
oftener fo in fpiritual. Therefore, if it be poffible, let 
thefe and the like Confiderations be fo conftantly and 
habitually fixed in thy Heart, that they may frame it to 
fuch Meeknefs, as may prevent all Rifings of Rancour or 
Revenge in thee : For it is much better they mould ferve 
as Armour to prevent, than as Balfamto cure the Wound. 
But if this Paffion be not yet fo fubdued in thee, but that 
there will be fome Stirrings of it, yet then be fure to 
take it at the very firft Rife, and let not thy Fancy chew, 
as it were, upon the Injury, by often rolling it in thy 
Mind ; but remember betimes the foregoing Confidera- 
tions, and withal, that this is a Time and Seafon of Trial 
to thee, wherein thou mayeft (hew thou haft profited in 
Chrift's School ; there now being an Opportunity ofFer'd 
thee either of obeying and pleafing God, by palling by 
this Offence of thy Brother, or elfe of obeying and pleaf- 
ing Satan, that Lover of Difcord, by nourifhing Hatred 
againft him. Remember this, I fay, betimes, before thou 
be inflamed ; for if this Fire be thoroughly kindled, it 
will caft fuch a Smoak as will blind thy Reafon, and 
make thee unfit to judge, even in this fo very plain a 
Cafe, Whether it be better, by obeying God, to pur- 
chafe to thy felf eternal Blifs, or, by obeying Satan, 
eternal Torments. Whereas, if thou put theQueftion 
to thyfelf, before this Commotion and Difturbance of 
Mind, 'tis impoflible but thy Underftanding muft pro- 
nounce for God j and then, unlefs thou wilt be {o per- 
verfe, that thou wilt deliberately choofe Death, thou 


Sand. 16. Duty of Charity. 245 

wilt furely praclife according to that Sentence of thy 
Underitanding. I (hall add no more on this firit Part of 
Charity, that of the Affections. 

2 1 . 1 proceed now to that of the Actions : And this in- 
deed is it whereby the former muft be ap- n . 

proved. We may pretend great Charity ? *^- 

• u- u r u Cc \\> - .x. the Aaions. 

within ; bat if none break forth in the 

Actions, we may fay of that Love, as St. James doth of 
the Faith he fpeaks of, that it is dead, Jam. ii. 20. It is 
the Loving in Deed that mud approve our Hearts be- 
fore God, 1 John iii. 1 8. Now this Love in the Aclions 
may likewiie fitly be distributed, as the former was, in 
relation to the four diftinft Capacities of our Brethren, 
their Souls, their Bodies, their Goods, and Credit. 

2 2. The Soul, I formerly told you, may be confidered 
either in a natural or fpiritual Senfe 1 q- • » 

and in both of them Charity binds us to j!^ / f 
do all the Good we can. As the Soul ,, 7 ,°J our 
fignifies the Mind of a Man, fo we are '* 

to endeavour the Comfort and Refrefhment of our Bre- 
thren, defire to give them all true Caufe of Joy and 
Chearfulnefs ; efpecially when we fee any under any 
Sadnels or Heavinefs, then to bring out all the Cordials 
that we can procure, that is, to labour by all Chriftian 
and fit Means to chear the troubled Spirits of our Bre- 
thren, to comfort them that are in any Heavinefs, as the 
Apoltle fpeaks, 2 Cor. i. 4. 

.23. But the Soul in the fpiritual Senfe is yet His Soul. 
of greater Concernment, and the fecuring 
of that is a Matter of much greater Moment, than the 
refrelhing of the Mind only ; in as much as the eternal 
Sorrows and Sadnefles of Hell exceed the deepeft Sor- 
rows of this Life : And therefore, though we muft not 
omit the former, yet on this we are to employ our moll 
zealous Charities ; wherein we are not to content our 
felves with a bare wiihing well to the Souls of our Bre- 
thren ; this alone is a fluggim Sort of Kindnefs, unwor- 
thy of thofe who are to imitate the great Redeemer of 
Souls, who aid and fullered fo much in thatPurchafe : 
iNo, we mult add alio our Endeavour to make them 
.what we Willi them. To this purpofe it were very rea- 

246 The Whole Duty of Man. 

fonable to propound to ourfelves, in al] our Convertings 
with others, that one great Defign of doing fome Good 
to their Souls. If this Purpofe were fixed in our Minds, 
we fhould then difctrn perhaps many Opportunities, 
which now we overlook, of doing fomething towards it. 
The brutilh Ignorance of one would call upon thee to 
endeavour his Inftruttion ; the open Sin of another, to 
reprehend and admonifh him; the faint and weak Vir- 
tue of another, to confirm and encourage him : Every 
fpiritual Want of thy Brother may give thee fome Oc- 
cafion of exercifing fome Part of this Charity ; or if thy 
Circumftances be fuch, that, upon iober judging, thou 
think it vain to attempt any Thing thyfelf, as if either 
thy Meannefs, or thy Unacquaintednefs, or any the like 
Impediment, be like to render thy Exhortations fruitlefs, 
yet if thou art induftrious in thy Charity, thou mayeft 
probably find out fome other Inftrument, by whom to 
do it more fuccefsfully. There cannot be a nobler 
Study, than how to benefit Men's Souls : And therefore, 
where the direct Means are improper, 'tis fit we mould 
whet our Wits for attaining of others. Indeed 'tis a 
Shame we fhould not as induftrioufly contrive for this 
great fpiritual Concernment of others, as we do for eve- 
ry worldly trifling Intereft of our own ; yet in them 
we are unwearied, and try one Means after another, till 
we compafs our End. But if, after all our ferious Endea- 
vours, the Obftinacy of Men do not fufTer us, or them- 
felves rather, to reap any Fruit from them ; if all our 
Wooings and Intreatings of Men, to have Mercy on 
their own Souls, will not work on them, yet be fure to 
continue ftill to exhort by thy Example : Let thy great 
Care and Tendernefs of thy own Soul preach to them the 
Value of theirs, and give not over thy Companions to 
them; but with the Prophet, Jer. xiii. 17. Let thy Soul 
weep in fecret for them ; and with the Pfalmift, Let 
Rivers of Waters run down thine Eyes, becaufe they keep 
not God's Law, Pfal cxix, 136. Yea. .vith. Chriil him- 
felf, weep over them, who will not know the Ihings 
that belong fo their Peace, Luke xix 42. And when no 
Importuniries with them will work, yet even then ceafe 
not to importune God for them, that he wilidiaw them 


Sund. 16. Duty of Charity. 247 

to himfelf. Thus we fee Samuel, when he could not 
diifuade the People from thatfmful Purpofe they were 
upon, yet he profefles notwithftanding that he will not 
ceafe praying for them ; nay he looked on it as fo much 
a Duty, that it would be a Sin for him to omit i: ; God 
forbid, fays he, that 1 Jbould fin againfi the Lord, in 
ceafing to pray for you, I Sam. xii. 23. Nor iTinll we 
need to fear that our Prayers will be quite lei} ; for if 
they prevail not for thofe for whom we pour them out, 
yet, however, they will return inro our own B .foms, 
Pfal. xxxv. 1 3. We (hall be fure not to mifs of the 
Reward of that Charity. 

In the fecond Place, we are to exercife this aclive 
Charity toward the Bodies of our Neigh- -,, 
hours : We are not only to companionate ^l/r* 
their Pains and Miferies, but alfo to do 7^f / 
what we can for their Eafe and Relief. the *"**' 
The good Samaritan, Luke x. had never been propofed 
as our Pattern, had he not as well helped as pitied the 
wounded Man. 'Tis not good Wifhes, no, nor good 
Words neither, that avail in fuch Cafes, as St. James 
tells us, If a Brother or Sifter be naked, and defiitute of 
daily "Food, and one of you fay unto them, Depart in Peace, 
be ye warmed and filled ; notvoithfi anding ye give him 
not thoje Things that are needful to the Body, what doth 
it profit ? Jam. ii. 15, 16. No fure, it profits them no- 
thing in refpeft of their Bodies ; and it will profit thee as 
little in refpect of thy Soul : It will never be reckoned 
to thee as a Charity. This relieving of the bodily Wants 
of our Brethren, is a Thing fo ftri&ly required of us, 
that we find it fet down, Matt. xxv. as the efpecial 
Thing we (hall be tried by at the laft Day, on the O- 
miflion whereof is grounded that dreadful Sentence, ver. 
41 . Depart from me, ye curfed, into everlaftingFire, pre- 
pared for the Devil and his Angels. And if it mall now 
be aflted, what are the particular Ac~ls of this Kind, 
which we are to perform ? I think we cannot better 
inform ourf;lves, for the frequent and ordinary ones, 
than from this Chapter, where are fet down thefe feve- 
rals, The giving Meat to the Hungry, and Drink to the 
Tbirfi? y harbouring the Stranger, clothing the Naked, and 
M viftting 

248 The Whole Duty of Man. 

<vijiting the Sick and Imprifoned; by which <vijitin% is 
meant, not a bare coming to fee them, but fo coming, . 
as to comfort and relieve them ; for otherwife it will be 
but like the Levi/e'm the Gofpel, Lukex. who came and 
looked on the wounded Man, but did no more, which will 
never be accepted by God. Thefe are common and or- 
dinary Exercifcs of this Charity, for which we cannot 
want frequent Opportunities. But befides thefe, there 
may fometimes, by God's efpecial Providence, fall 
into our Hands Occafions of doing other good Offices to 
the Bodies of our Neighbours ; we may fometimes find 
a wounded Man, with the Samaritan, and then 'tis our 
Duty to do as he did ; we may fometimes find an inno- 
cent Perfon condemned to Death, as Sufanna was, and 
then we are with Daniel to ufe all poffible Endeavours 
fcr their Deliverances. This Cafe Solomon feems to re- 
fer to, Prov. xxiv. 11,12. If thou forbear to deliver 
him that is drawn unto Death, and them that are ready 
to bejlain: If thou fayefi , Behold, <we know it not : Doth 
not he that pondereth the Heart, conjider ? and he that 
keepeth thy Soul, doth not he know) it ? Shall not he ren- 
der to every Man according to his Deeds? We are not 
lightly to put off the Matter with vain Excufes, but to re- 
member, that God , who knows our moft fecret Thoughts, 
will feverely examine, whether we have willingly omit- 
ted the Performance of fuch a Charity. Sometimes again 
(nay, God knows, often now-a-days) we may fee a Man, 
that by a Courfe of Intemperance is in danger to deftroy 
his Health, to fhorten his Days ; and then it is a due 
Charity, not only to the Soul, but to the Body alfo, to 
endeavour to draw him from it. It is impoffible to fet 
down all the poffible Ads of this corporal Charity, be- 
caufe there may fometimes happen fuch Opportunities, 
as none can forefee : We are therefore always to carry 
about us a ferious Refolution of doing whatever good of 
this Kind we fhall at any Timedifcern Occafion for; and 
then, whenever that Occafion is offered, we are to look on 
it as a Call, as it were, from Heaven, to put that Refolu- 
tion in Practice. This Part of Charity feems to be fo 
much implanted in our Natures, as we are Men, that we. 
generally account them not only unchriftian, but inhu- 

Sand. \j. Duty ^/Charity. 249 

man, that are void of it ; and therefore I hope there witf 
not need much Perfuafion to it, fince our very Nature 
inclines us : But certainly that very Confideration will 
ferve hugely to increafe the Guilt of thofe that are want- 
ing in it : For fince this Command is fo agreeable even 
to Flefti and Blood, our Difobedience to it can proceed 
from nothing but a Stubbornnefs and Refinance againft 
God, who gives it. 


Of Charity , Jims-giving, &c. Of Charity in re- 
fpecl of our Neighbour s Credit, Sic. Of Peace- 
making. Of going to Law, Of Charity to our 
Enemies, &c. 

THE third Way of exprefling this Cha- Sect. i. 
rity is towards the Goods or Eitate ~ , ■ . 
of our Neighbour : We are to endeavour * % a f . 

his Thriving and Profperity in thee out- r /.^ e X % 
. , & n-.i • j v. t- j u the Uooas. 

ward good Things; and to that End, be 

willing to aflift and farther him in all honefr Ways of im- 
proving or preferving them, by any neighbourly and 
friendly Office . Opportunities of this do many Times fall 
out. A Man may fometimes, by his Power or Perfua- 
fion, deliver his Neighbour's Goods out of the Hands of 
a Thief or Oppreffor ; fometimes again, by his Advice 
and Counfel, he may fet him in a way of Thriving, or 
turn him from fome ruinous Courfe ; and many other 
Occafions there may be of doing good Turns to another, 
without any Lofs or Damage to ourfelves; and then we 
are to do them even to our rich Neighbours, ~ , 

thofe that are as wealthy (perhaps much more ' „. , 
fo) as ourfelves ; for though Charity do not 
bind us to give to thofe that want lefs than ourfelves, yet 
whenever we can further their Profit, without lelTening 
our own Store, it requires it of us : Nay, if the Damage 
be but light to us in Comparifon of the Advantage to 
him, it will become us rather to hazard that light Da- 
mage, than lofe him that greater Advantage 

2. But 

250 The Whole Duty of Man. 

2. But towards our poor Brother Charity ties us to 
„ f . much more ; we are there only to confider 

, p the fupplying of his Wants, and not to flick 
at parting with what is our own, to relieve 
him, but, as far as we are able, give freely what is ne- 
ceflary to him. This Duty of Alms giving is perfectly 
necefiary for the approving our Love not only to Men, 
but even to God himfelf, as St. John tells us, 1 John 
iii. 17. Wbofo hath this World' 's Good, and feetb bis Bro- 
ther ba<ve Needy andjhutteth up his Bowels of Compaf- 
Jton from him, bow dwelletb the Lo<ve of God in him ? 
'Tis vain for him to pretend to love either God or Man, 
who loves his Money fo much better, that he will fee 
his poor Brother (who is a Man, and bears the Image of 
God) fuffer all Extremities, rather than part with any 
Thing to relieve him . On the other Side, the Performance 
of this Duty is highly acceptable with God, as well as 
with Men. 

3. 'Tis caird/f&£. xiii. 16. A Sacrifice wherewith 
God is wellpleafed : And again, Phil. iv. 18. St. Paul 
calls their Alms to him, A Sacrifice acceptable, well plea' 
fing to God: And the Church hath always looked on it 
asfuch ; and therefore joined it with the folemneft Part 
of Worfhip, the holy Sacrament. But becaufe even Sacri- 
fices themfelves, under the Law, were often made unac- 
ceptable, by being maimed and blemifhed, it will here 
be neceflary to esquire what are the due Qualifications 
of this Sacrifice. 

4. Of thefe there are fome that refpecl the Motive, 
„ . . fome the Manner of our giving. The 
Motives of Modve may ^ three . foldj refpeding 
Alms-giving. Go ^ our Neighboured ourfelves. That 
which refpecls God, is Obedience and Thankfulnefs to 
him : He has commanded we fhould give Alms, and 
therefore one fpecial End of our doing fo muft be the 
obeying that Precept of his. And it is from his Bounty 
alone that we receive all our Plenty, and this is the pro- 
per' Way of exprefling our Thankfulnefs for it ; for 
as Uic Pjalmi;. faith, Our Goodnefs exttndeth not unto 
God, Pfal. xvi. 2; That Tribute which we defire to pay 
out of " "^i\ires, we cannot pay to his Perfon : v Tis 
the bfi ire, as it were, his Proxy and Receivers ; 


Sund. iy. Of Alms-giving. 251 

and therefore, whatever we fhould, by way of Thank- 
fulnefs, give back again unto God, our Alms is the way 
of doing it. 2 dly, In refpect of our Neighbour, the Mo- 
tive muft be a true Love and Compafiion to him, a ten- 
der Fellow-feeling «f his Wants, and Defire of his Com- 
fort and Relief. 3^/y, In refpeft of ourfelves, the Mo- 
tive is to be the Hope of that eternal Reward promifed 
to this Performance. This Chrift points out to os, when 
he bids us lay up our Treafure in Heaven, Mat?, vi. 20. 
and to make us Friends of the Mammon of Unrighteouf- 
nefsy that they may receive us into everlajling Habi- 
tations, Luke xvi. 9. that is, by a charitable difpenfing 
of our temporal Goods to the Poor, to lay up a Stock in 
Heaven, to gain aTitleto thofe endlefs Felicities, which 
God hath promifed to the charitable ; that is the Har- 
veft we mult expefl of what we low in thefe Works of 
Mercy, which will be fo rich, as would abundantly re- 
compenfe us, though we mould, as the Apoftle fpeaks, 
1 Cor. xiii. 3. hejlovj all our Goods to feed the Poor. But 
then we mult be fure we make thi»pur fole Aim, and 
not, inftead of this, propole to ourfelves the Praife of 
Men, as the Motive of our Charity ; that will rob us of 
the other. This is exprefly told us by Chrift, Matt. vi. 
They that fet their Hearts on the Credit they fhall gain 
with Men, mult take that as their Portion, ver. 2. 
Verily lfay unto you they have their Reward : They 
choofe, it feems, rather to have Men their Paymaliers, 
than God, and to them they are turned off; that little 
airy Praife they get from them, is all the Reward they 
muft expect ; Ta have no Reward of my Father nvhich 
is in Heaven, ver.i. We have therefore Need to watch 
our Hearts narrowly, that this Defire of Vain glory ileal 
not in, and befool us into that miferable Exchange of a 
vain Blaft of Men's Breath for thofe fubltantial and eter- 
nal Joys of Heaven. 

5. In the fecond Place we muft take Care of our Alms- 
giving, in refpect of the Manner ; and in ,, r 
6 ,• ,x \ • 1 r 11 i\/r Manner of 
that, hrlt, we mult givechearfully. Men .. . . 

ufually value a fmall Thing that is given ms & IV '"£' 
chearfully, and with a good Heart, more than a much, 
greater, that is wrung from a Man with grudging and 
M3 unwillingnefs ; 

252 The Whole Duty 0/Man. 

tinwillingnefs ; and God is of the fame Mind, he loves 
pifjl a chearful Giver, 2 Cor. ix. 7. which the 
L/jiar/uiy. A po ftj e makes t ^ e R ea f on f the foregoing 

Exhortation of not giving grudgingly , or as of Neceffity, 
ver. 6* And fure 'tis no unreasonable Thing, that is 
herein required of us j there being no Duty that has, to 
human Nature, more of Pleafure and Delight, unlefs it 
be where Covetoufnefs or Cruelty have quite worked 
out the Man, ard put a ravenous Bealt in his Stead. Is it 
not a molt ravillung Pleafure to him that hath any Bow- 
els, to fee the Joy that a feafonable Alms brings to a 
poor Wretch ? How it revives and puts new Spirits in 
him, that was even finking ? Certainly the molt lenfual 
Creature alive knows not how to bellow his Money on 
a Thing that fhall bring him in fo great a Delight : and 
therefore methinks it mould be no hard Matter to give, 
not only without grudging, but even with a great deal of 
Alacrity and Chearfulnefs, it being the fetching in of 
Pleafure to ourfelves. 

6. There is but one Objeclion can be made againft 
a-, P f this, Md that is, that the Danger of impo- 

e ear of ver j m j n g one > s r e tf ky w | lat one gives, may 
impovenp- takeoff that p] e afure, and make Men not 
tngourjetoes giye at ^ Qf nQt fo chearfullyi To this j 
by it, vain anfwer> That firft> were this Hazard never 
and impious. ^ a p parerit) vet ^ j t l e \ n g t h e Command of 
God, that we fhall thus give, we are yet to obey chear- 
fully, and be as well concent to part with our Goods in 
pursuance of this Duty, as we are many Times called to 
do upon fome other. In which Cafe Chrilt tells us, He 
that forfakes not ail that he hath, cannot be his Difciple. 

7. But fecondly, this is fure a vain Suppofition, God 
having particularly promfed the contrary to the Chari- 
table ; that it (hall bring Bleffings on them, even in thefe 
outward Things. The liberal Soul Jhall be made fat', 
and he that nvatereth, Jhall benuatered alfo himfel/ % Prov. 
xi. 25. He that giveth to the Poor Jhall not lack, Prov. 
xxviii. 27. And many the like Texts there are, fo that 
one may truly fay, this Objeclion is grounded in direct 
Unbelief. r I he fhort of it is, we dare not truft God 
for this. Giving to the poor is directly the putting our 


Sand. 17. Of Alms-giving. 253 

Wealth into his Hands: He that gvveth to the Poor, 
lendeth unto thi Lord, Prov. xix. i 7. and that too on fo- 
lemn Promife of Repayment, as it follows in that Verfe, 
'That 'which he hath given -will h? fiay him again. It is, 
amongfl Men, thought a great Difparagement, when we 
refufe to trull them ; it mews, we either think them not 
fufiicient, or not hor.ell. How vile an AiTront is it tiien 
to God thus to diftruft him ? Nay, indeed, how horrid 
Blafphemy, to doubt the Security of that, for which he 
hath thus exprefly pail his Word, who is Lord of all, 
and therefore cannot be infufficient ; and who is the 
Go J of.Truch, ana therefore will not fail to nuke good 
his Promife ? Let not then tnat inhdel Feir of future 
Want convrad and lh it up thy Bowels from thy poor 
Brother; for though he be never likely to pay thee, 
yet God becomes his Surety, and enters Eond with him, 
and will moft afluredly pay thee With lncreafe. There- 
fore, it is fo far from being Damage to thee thus to give, 
that it is thy great Advantage. Any Man would rather 
choofe to put his Money in ibme fure Hand, where he 
may both improve, and be certain of it at his Need, 
than to let it lie unprofitably by him, efpecially if he be 
in Danger of Thieves, or other Accidents, by which he 
may probably lofe it. Now alas ! all that we poilefs is 
in minutely Danger of lofing : Innumerable Accidents 
there are, which may, in an Inilant, bring a rich Man 
to Beggary : He that doubts this, let him but read the 
Story otjob, and he will there find an Example ot it. 
And therefore, what fo prudent Courfe can we take for 
our Wealth, as to put it out of the Reach of thofe Ac- 
cidents, by thus lending it to God, where we may be 
fure to find it ready at our greatelt Need, and that too 
with Improvement and lncreafe ? In which refpect it is 
that the Apoille compares Alms to Seed, 2 Cor. ix. 10. 
We know it is the Nature of Seed that is fown, to mul- 
tiply and increafe ; and fo do all our Ads of Mercy, 
they return not fingle and naked to us, but bring in their 
Sheaves with them, a moft plenteous and bountiful Har- 
veil. God deals not with our Alms, as we too often do 
with his Graces, wrap them up in a Napkin, fo that they 
mall never bring in any Advantage to us, but makes us 
M 4 more 

254 *The Whole Duty of Man. 

more rich Returns ; and therefore we have all Reafon 
mod chearfully, yea, joyfully to fet to this Duty, which 
we have fuch Invitations to, as well in refpecl of our 
own Intereft as our Neighbours Needs. 

8. Secondly, we muft give feafonably. It is true in- 
q. , deed, there are fome fo poor, that an Alms 
r ,j can never come unfeafonably, becaufe they 
J •*' always want ; yet even to them there may be 
fome fpecial Seafons of doing it to their greater Advan- 
tage; for fometimes an Alms may not only deliver a 
poor Man from fome prefent Extremity, but, by the right 
timing of it, may fet him in fome Way of a mdre com- 
fortable Subfiftence afterwards. And for the moft, I pre- 
fume, it is a good Rule, to difpenfe what we intend to 
any, as foon as may be ; for Delays are hurtful often- 
times both to them and ourfelves. Firit, as to them, it is 
fure the longer we delay, the longer they groan under 
the prefent Want ; and after we have defigned them a 
Relief, it is in fome Degree a Cruelty to defer bellowing 
of it ; for fo long we prolong their Sufferings. You will 
think him a hard-hearted Fhyfician, that, having a cer- 
tain Cure for a Man in Pain, mould, when he might 
prefently apply it, make unneceffary Delays, and fokeep 
the poor Man Hill in Torture : And the fame it is here ; 
we want of the due Compaffion, if we can be content 
our poor Brother mould have one Hour of unneceffary 
Suffering, when we have prefent Opportunity of reliev- 
ing him. Or if he be not in fuch an Extremity of Want, 
yet whatever we intend for him for his greater Comfort, 
he lofes fo much of it, as the Time of the Delay amounts 
to. Secondly, in Refpett of ourfelves, 'tis ill to defer; 
for thereby we give Advantage to the Temptations ei- 
ther of Satan, or our own covetous Humour, to diffuade 
us from it. Thus it fares too often with many Chriilian 
Duties; for want of a fpeedy Execution, our Purpofes 
cool, and never come to att ; fo many refolve they will 
repent, but, becaufe they fet not immediately upon it, 
one Delay fucceeds another, and keeps them from ever 
doing it at all. And fo 'tis very apt to fall out in this 
Cafe, efpecialiy with Men who are of a covetous Tem- 
per ; and therefore they, of all others, ihould not truft 
themfelves thus to delay. 9. Thirdly* 

Sund. 17. Of Alms-giving. i$5 

9. Thirdly, We fhould take Care to give prudently ; 
that is, to givemoft where it is mod needed, „ , . 
and in fuch a Manner, as may do the Re- fU - y * 
ceiver mod good. Charities do often miicarry for want 
of this Care ; for if we give at all Adventures to all 
that feem to want, we may fometimes give more to* 
thofe, whofe Sloth and Lewdnefs is the Caufe of their 
Want, than to thofe, who bed deferve it ; and fo both 
encourage the one in their Idlenefs, and difable our- 
felves from giving to the other : Yet, I doubt not, fuch? 
may be the preient Wants, even of the moft unworthy, 
that we are to relieve them -, but where no fueh pref- 
fing Need is> we (hall do beft to choofe out the fitter 
Objecls of Charity, fuch as are thofe, who either are not 
able to labour, or elfe have a greater Charge than their 
Labour can maintain. And to thofe our Alms mould be 
given alfo in fuch Manner, as may be moil likely to do- 
them good; the Manner of which may differ according 
to the Circumftances of their Condition : It may to fomc 
be beft perhaps to give them by little and little ; to o- 
thers, the giving it all at once may tend more to their 
Benefit ; and fometimes a feafonable Loan may do as 
well as a Gift, and that may be in the Power fometimes- 
©f thofe who are able to give but little. But when we 
thus lend on Charity, we mull lend freely, without Ufe ;. 
and alfo with a Purpofe, that if he fhould prove unable: 
to pay, we will forgive fo much of the Principal,, as his- 
Needs require, and our Abilities will permit. They 
want much of this Charity, who clap up poor Debtors- 
in Prifon, when they know they have nothing to anfwer 
the Debt, which is a great Cruelty, to make another mi- 
ferable, when nothing is gained to ourfelves by it.. 

10. Fourthly, We fhould give liberally :■ We muft not 
be ftrait handed in our Alms, and give by fuch pitiful 
Scantlings, as will bring almoft no Relief to the Receiver,, 
for that is a kind of Mockery ; 'tis as if one fhould pre- 
tend to feed one that is almoft famifhed,. by giving hirr» 
a Crumb of Bread : Such Doles as that would be moft ri- 
diculous; yetlfear 'tis too near the Proportion of fomer 
Men's Alms ? fuch Men are below thofe Difciples wa 
*ead of> who knew only the Baptifm of Johnv for 'tis* 

M$ t& 

256 The Whole Duty of Man. 

to be obferved, that John B apt if, who was but the Fore- 
runner of Chrift, makes it a fpecial Part of his Doctrine, 
that he that hath two Coats, Jhould impart to him that 
bath none, Lukeiii. 1 1. He fays not, He that hath fome 
great Wardrobe, but even he that hath but two Coats, 
mud part with one of them : From whence we may ga- 
ther, that whatfoever is above (not our Vanity) but our 
Need, mould thus be difpofed of, when our Brethren's 
Neceflity requires it. But if we look into the firft Times 
of the Gofpel, we (hall find Chriftianity far exceeded 
this Proportion of Johns, the Converts affigned not a 
Part only, but frankly gave all to the Ufe of the Brtthren, 
Acts iv. And tho' that, being upon an extraordinary Oc- 
cafion, will be no Meafureof our conftant Practice, yet it 
may (hew us how prime and fundamental a Part of Chri- 
ftianity this of Charity is, that at the very firft«Founding 
of the Church fuch vaft Degrees of it were praclifed ; 
and if we farther confider what Precepts of Love are gi- 
ven us in the Gofpel, even to the laying down our Limes 
for the Brethren, 1 John iii. 1 6. we cannot imagine our 
Goods are, in God's Account, fo much more precious 
than our Lives, that he would command us to be prodi- 
gal of the one, and yet allow us to be fparing of the other. 

1 1. A Multitude of Arguments might be brought to 
recommend this Bounty to all that profefs Chrift : I 
(hall mention only two, which I find ufed by St. Paul to 
the Corinthians, on this Occafion. The firft is the Ex- 
ample of Chrift, 2 Cor. viii. 9, For ye know the Grace of 
our Lord Jefus Chriji, who, though he was rich, yet for 
your fakes he became poor, that ye thro' his Poverty might 
be rich. Chrift emptied himfelf of all that Glory and 
Greatnefs he enjoyed in Heaven with his Father, and 
fubmitted himfelf to a Life of much Meannefs and Po- 
verty, only to enrich us : And therefore for Shame, let 
us not grudge to empty our Coffers, to lefTen fomewhat 
of our Heaps, to relieve fome of his poor Members. The 
Second is the Expectation of Reward, which *vill be 
more or lefs, according to the Degrees of Our Alms, 
2 Cor. ix. 6. He that foweth fparingly,fhall reap fparing- 
ly, and he that foweth bountifully, /ball reap bountifully, 

e, think him. a very improvident HuTband man, chat, to 



Sund. 17. O/Alms-Gi vins. 2§j 

fave a little Seed at prefent, fows fo thin, as to fpoil his 
Crop. And the fame Folly 'twill be in us, if by the 
Sparingnefs of our Alms, we make ourfelves a lank 
Harveft hereafter, lofe either all, or a great Part of 
thofe Rewards, which God hath provided for the libe- 
ral Alms-giver. What is the Proportion which may be 
called a liberal Giving, I (lull not undertake to let 
down, there being Degrees even in Liberality : One 
may give liberally, and yet another give more liberally 
than he. Befides, Liberality is to be meafured, not fo 
much by what is given, as by the Ability of the Giver. 
A Man of a mean Eftate may give le fs than one of a 
great, and yet be the more liberal Perfon; becaufe that 
little may be more out of his, than the greater is out of 
the other's. Thus we fee Chrilr. pronounces the poor 
Widow to have given much more to the 7reafuty, than 
all the rich Men, Luke xxi. 3. not that her two Mites 
were more than their rich Gifts, but that it was more 
for her, (lie having left nothing behind, whereas they 
gave out of their Abundance, what they might eafily 
fpare. Every Man muft herein judge for himfelf ; we 
fee the Apoftle, tho' heearneflly preiTeth the Corinthians 
to Bounty, yet prefcribes not to them how much they 
(hall give, but leaves that to their own Breafts, 2 Cor. 
ix. 7. Every Man according as he purpojeth in his Heart , 
fo let him give. But let us ftill remember, that the 
more we give (provided we do not thereby fail in the 
Support of thofe that moft immediately depend on us) 
the more acceptable it will be to God, and the more re- 
vvardable by him. And to fecure the Performance of 
the Duty of Almf-giving (whatever the Proportion be) 
we may do very well to follow the Advice St. Paul gives 
the Corinthians in this Matter, 1 Cor. xvi. 2. Upon the 
firjl Day of the Week let every one of you lay by him in 
Store, as God hath profpered him. If Men would do 
thus, lay by fomewhat weekly in Store for this Work 
of Charity, it were the fureft Way not to be unprovided 
of fomewhat to give, when an Occafion offered itfelf ; 
and by giving fo by little and little, the Expence would 
become lefs fenfible, and fo be a Means to prevent thofe 
Grudgingsand Repinings, which are apt to attend Men 
in greater Difciutemcms ; And tore this were in other 


258 The Whole Duty of Man. 

Refpe&s alfo a very proper Courfe ; for when a Trades- 
man calls up bis weekly Account, and fees what his 
Gains have been, 'tis of all others the moft feafonable 
Time to offer this Tribute to God, out of what he hath, 
by his Blefling gained. If any will fay, they cannot fa 
well weekly reckon their Gains, as by longer Spaces of 
Time, I mall not contend with them for that precife 
Time, let it be done monthly or quarterly,, fo it be, 
doHe. But chat fomewhat mould ft ill be laid by in Bank 
for thefe Ufes^ rather than left loofe to our fudder*. 
Chanties, is fure very expedient ; and I doubt not, who* 
will make Trial of it^ will upon Experience, ack now- 
led ge it to be fo.. 

1 2.. The fourth Exercife of our Charily is towards the 
f, . . Credit 0/ our Neighbour: And of this we 
It i-h /? f mav nave man y Oecafions* fometimes to-- 
, y. {. ward the Innocent, and fometimes alfo to- 
1 ■*■ wards the Guilty. H one, whom we know 
to be an innocent Perfon, be flandered^ and traduced,. 
Charity binds us to do what we may,, for the declaring 
his Innocency, and delivering him from that falfelmpu-- 
tation; and that not only by witnefling, when we are. 
called to if, but by a voluntary Offering our Teitimony 
on his Behalf: Or, if the Accufation be not before a.. 
Court of Jutlice, and fo there be no Place for that our 
more foiernn Teftimony, but that it be only a Slander 
tofs'd from one to another, yet even there we are to do, 
what we can to clear him, by taking allOccafions pub- 
lickly to declare what we know of his Innocency. But. 
even to the Guilty there is fome Charity of this Kind to 
be performed, fometimes by concealing the Fault, if. 
it be fuch, tiiat no other Part of Charity to others make 
it necefiary to difcover it, or it be not fo nctorious, as. 
that it will be fure to betray itfelf. , The Wounds of. 
Reputation are, of all others, the moft incurable ; and 
therefore it may well become Chriftian Charity to pre- 
vent them, even where they have been deferved ; and-, 
perhaps fuch : a Tendernefs in. hiding the Fault may*, 
fooner bring the Offender to Repentance, if fecond-. 
«d, (as it ought to be), with all Earneftnefs of private Ad- 
monition:: But if the Fault; be fuch, that it be.- not to be : 
caAWaledjh yefc &U. there may, be.PIiSJfc&F, thisCiaarity^ 


Sund. 17. Duty o/Charity. 259 

in extenuating and leffening it, as far as the Circum- 
ftances will bear; as if it were done fuddenly and rafhly, 
Charity will allow fome Abatement of the Cenfure, 
which would belong to a defigned and deliberate Acl - 9 
and h proportionably in other Circumftances. But the 
moil frequent Exerciies of this Charity happen toward 
thofe, of whofe either Innocency or Guilt we have no 
Knowledge, but are by fome doubtful Actions brought 
under Sufpicion: And here we muft remember, that it 
is the Property of Love, not to think evil, to judge the 
belt •> and therefore we are both to abftain from uncha- 
ritable Conclufions of them ourfelves, and as much as 
lies in us, to keep others from them alfo, and fo endea- 
vour, to preferve the Credit of our Neighbour ; which 
is oftentimes as much fhaken by unjuft. Sufpieions, as it 
would be by the trueft Accufation. To thefe Cafes, I 
fuppofe, belongs that Precept of Chrift, Matt. vii. 1. 
Judge not'.. And when we confider how that is backed 
in the following Words, that ye be not judged, we (hall 
have Caufe to believe it no fuch light Matter as the 
World feems to account it: Our unmerciful judging of 
others will be paid Home to us in the ftrict and fevere 
Judgment of God., 

1 3.. I have now gone through this active Charity, as 
it relates to the four feveral Capacities of ~. . _ r . 
our Brethren* many cf the Particulars „, . < 
whereof were before briefly mentioned, . J* 
when we fpake of Juftice. If any think. , ~ ~ /.' 
it improper,, that the fame Acts mould . fr 
be made Part of Juftice and Charity too, 
I fhall defire them to confider, that Charity being by 
ChrilVs Command become a Debt to our Brethren, all 
the Parts of it may in that Refpecl be ranked under the 
Head of Juftice, fince 'tis fure, Payment of Debts is a. 
Part of that: Yet, becaufe in our common Ufe we do 
diftinguifh between the Offices of Juftice and Charity, I. 
have chofe to enlarge on them in particular Reference 
to Charity,. But I, defire it may ftill be remembred,, 
that whatfoever is under Precept, is fo much a Due 
from us,, that we fin not only againft Charity, but Juftice.- 
too, if we negledl it ;, which deferves to be confidered,, ug our. Care. to. the. Performance^, and 

The Whole Duty of Man. 

the rather, becaufe there feemsto be a common Error in 
this Point. Men look upon their Acts of Mercy as 
Things purely voluntary, that they have no Obligation 
to ; and the Effect of it is this, that they are apt to think 
very highly of themfelves, when they have performed 
any, though never fo mean, but never blame them- 
felves, though they omit all; which is a very dange- 
rous, but withal a very natural Fruit of the former Per- 
fuafion. If there be any Charities, wherein Juitice is 
not concerned, they are thofe, which for the Height 
and Degrees of them are not made Matter of Uriel Du- 
ty, that is, are not in thofe Degrees commanded by 
God ; and even after thefe 'twill be very reafonable for 
us to labour; but that cannot be done, without taking 
the lower and neceffary Degrees in our Way ; uiA 
therefore let our hrftCarebe for them. 

14. To help us wherein there will be no better 
cj., „ , Means, than to keep before our Eyes 

f p, . that grand Rule of loving our Neighbours 

•* *' as ourfel'ves: This the Apoiile makes 

the Sum of our whole Duty to our Neighbours, Rom. 
xiii. 9. Let this therefore be the Standard whereby to 
meafure all thy Actions which relate to others; when- 
ever any NeceiTity of thy Neighbour's prefents itfelf to 
thee, afk thyfelf, Whether, if thou wert in the like 
Cafe, thy Love to thyfelf would not make thee induf- 
trious for Relief! and then refoive, thy Love to thy 
Neighbour mud have the fame Effect for him. This is 
that Royal Law, as St. James calls it, Jam. ii. 8. 
which all that profefs themfelves Subjects to Chrifl, mull; 
be ruled by ; and whofoever is fo, will not fail of per- 
forming all Charities to others, becaufe 'tis fure he 
would upon the like Occafions have all fuch performed 
to himfelf. There is none but withes to have his good 
Name defended, his Poverty relieved, his bodily 
Suffering fuccoured ,* only it may be fiid, that in the 
fpiritual Wants there are fome fo careiefs of them- 
felves, that they wifh no Supply, they defire no Re- 
proofs, no Inductions, nay, are angry when they 
are given them : It may therefore feem that fuch 
Men are not, by Virtue of this Rule, tied to thofe Sorts 
of Charities. To this I anfwer, That the Love 


Sund. 17. Of Peace-Making. 261 

of ourfclves, which is here fetas the Meafure of that to 
our Neighbour, is to be undcrflood to be that reasona- 
ble LoVl* which Men ought to have; and therefore, 
though a Man fail of that due Love he owes himfelf, 
yet his Neighbour hath not thereby forfeited his Right, 
he has (till a Claim to fuch a Degree of our Love, as is 
anfwerable to that, which in right we fhould bear to 
ourfelves, and fuch I am fure is this Care of our fpiri- 
tual Eftate; and therefore 'tis not our defpifing our own 
Souls, that will abfolveus from Charity to other Men's: 
Yet I (hall not much prefs this Duty in fuch Men, it 
being neither likely that they will be perfuaded to it, or 
do any Good by it; their ill Example will overwhelm 
all their good Exhortations, and make them unfruitful. 
15. There is yet one Act of Charity behind, which 
does not properly fall under any one of the „ 
former Heads, and yet may relate to them , e . ace ma ~ 
all, and that is the making Peace and Amity ln *' 
among others; by doing whereof we may much benefit 
both the Souls, Bodies, Goods, and Credit of our 
Brethren ; for all thefe are in Danger by Strife and Con- 
tention. The reconciling of Enemies is a mo ft bleffed 
Work, and brings a Blefling on the Altars: We have 
Chrift's Word for it, Bleffed are the Peace makers, Matt. 
v. 9. And therefore we may be encouraged diligently 
to lay hold of all Opportunities of doing this Office of 
Charity, to ufeall our Art and Endeavour to take up all 
Grudges and Quarrels we difcern among others ; nei- 
ther mud we only labour to reftore Peace, where it is 
loft, but to preferve it where it is : Firft, generally, by 
ftriving to beget in the Hearts of all we converfe with, 
a true Value of that mod precious Jewel, Peace ; fe- 
condly, particularly, by a timely Prevention of thofe 
Jars and Unkindneffes we fee likely to fallout. It may 
many Times be in the Power of a difcreet Friend or 
Neighbour to cure thofe Mistakes and Mifapprehenfions, 
which are the firft Beginnings of Quarrels and Conten- 
tions ; and it will be both more eafy and more profit- 
able thus to prevent, than pacify Strifes 'Tisfure'tis 
more eafy ; for when a Quarrel is once broken out, 'tis 
like a violent Flame, which cannot fo foon be quench- 
ed, as it might have been, whilit it was but a fmothering 


262 The Whole Duty of Man. 

Fire : And then 'tis alfo more profitable; for it prevent? 
many Sins, which in the Progrefs of an open Conten- 
tion, are almoft fure to be committed. Solomon fays, In 
the Multitude of Words there nuanteth not Sin, Prov. X. 
19. which cannot more truly be faid of any Sort of 
Words thanthofe, that pafs in Anger; and then, tho v 
the Quarrel be afterwards compofed, yet thofe Sins will 
ftill remain on their Account -, and therefore it is a 
great Charity to prevent them. 

1 6. But to fit a Man for this fo excellent an Office of 

, Peace-making, 'tis neceffary that he be 

lie that under- firft remarkabIy peacab i e himfelf; for 

'£/T with what Face canft thou perfuade 0- 
peaceable htm- thefS fQ that whkh thou wih nQt per- 

J *• I form thyfelf ? Or how canft thou expeft 

thy Perfuafions (hould work? 'Twill be a ready Reply 
in every Man's Mouth, Ihou Hypocrite, caji outjirft the 
Beam out of thine own Eye, Matt. vii. 5. And there- 
fore, be fure thou qualify thyfelf for the Work.. There 
is one Point of Peaceablenefs, which feems to be little 
regarded among Men, and that is in the Cafe of legal 

. TrefpaiTes ; Men think it nothing ta 

Of going to Law. gQ tQ Law about ^ peUy Tnfl ^ 

and as long as they have but Law on their Side, never 
think they are to blame ; but fure, had we that true 
Peaceablenefs of Spirit, which we ought, we (hould be 
unwilling, for fuch flight Matters, to trouble and dif- 
quiet our Neighbours. Not that all going to Law is ut- 
terly unchriftian, but fuch Kind of Suits efpecially, as 
are UDon Contentioufnefs and Stoutnefs of Humour, to 
defend fuch an inconfiderable Right, as the Parting 
with will do us little or no Harm, or, which is yet 
worfe* to avenge fuch a Trefpafs. And even in great 
Matters* he that (hall part with fomewhat of his Right 
for Love of Peace, does furely the moft Chriftianly, 
and moft agreeably to the Advice of the Apoftle, 1 Cor, 
vi. 7. Rather to take wrong, and fuffer ourf elves to be 
defrauded. But if the Damage be fo infupportable* 
that it is neceffary for us to go to Law* yet even then 
we muft take Care of preferving Peaces firft, by car- 
rying ililL a friendly and Chriftian Temper, towards the 
£anv,, not fuffisring, our Hearts to be at all eitranged. 


Sund. ly. Charity to Enemies. 263 

from him ; fecondly, by being willing to yield to any rea- 
fonable Terms of Agreement, whenever they (hall be 
offered ; and truly if we carry not this Temper of Mind 
in our Suits, I fee not how they can be reconcilable 
with that Peaceablenefs (o flridily required of all Chri- 
ftians. Let thofe confider this, who make it their Plea- 
fure themfelves to difquiet their Neighbour, or their 
Trade, to ftir up others to do it. This tender Regard 
of Peace, both in ourfelves and others, is abfolutely ne- 
ceffary to be entertained of all thofe, who own them- 
felves to be the Servants of him, whofe Title it is to be 
the Prince of Peace, Ifa. ix. 6. 

17. All that remains to be touched on concerning 
this Charity of the Actions, is the Ex- ~,. , . . , 

tent of it, which mull be as large as ,_. ' I r 
.ur rLA/rn- . /lfltons mult reach 

the former of the Affections, even to c . 
„., A 1 . . , Ci , to tnemtes. 

the taking in, not only Strangers, and 

thofe of no Relation to us, but even of our bittereft E- 
nemies. I have already fpoken fo much of the Obliga- 
tion we are under to forgive them, that I mall not here 
fay any Thing of that ; but that being fuppofed a Duty, 
'twill fure then appear no unreafonable Thing to pro- 
ceed one Step further, by doing them good Turns ; for 
when we have once forgiven them, we can then no long- 
er account them Enemies, and fo it will be no hard 
Matter, even to Flefh and Blood, to do all kind Things 
to them. And indeed this is the Way, by which we 
muft try the Sincerity of our Forgivenefs. 'Tis eafy 
to fay, I forgive fuch a Man, but if, when an Opportu- 
nity of doing him Good is offer'd, thou declined it, 'tis 
apparent there yet lurks the old Malice in thy Heart ; 
where there is a thorough Forgivenefs there will be as 
great a Readinefs to benefit an Enemy, as a Friend ; nay, 
perhaps, in fome Refpecls. a greater, a true charitable 
Perfon looking upon it as an efpecial Prize, when he has 
an Opportunity of evidencing the Truth of his Recon- 
ciliation, and obeying the Precept of his Saviour, by do- 
ing Good to tbem that bate him, Matt. v. 44. Let us 
therefore refolve that all Actions of Kindnefs are to be 
performed to our Enemies; for which we have not on- 
ly the Command, but alfo the Example of Chriit, who 


264. ?he Whole Duty of Man. 

had not only fome inward Relentings towards us, his ob- 
flinate and moil provoking Enemies, but (hewed it in 
Acts, and thofe no cheap or eafy ones, but fuch as coll 
him his deareft Blood. And furely we cati never pre- 
tend to be either Obeyers of his Command, or Follow- 
ers of his Example, if we grudge to teftify our Love to 
our Enemies, by thofe fo much cheaper Ways of feeding 
them in Hunger^ and the like, recommended to us by the 
Apoftle, Rom. xii. 20. But if we could perform theie 
Ads of Kindnefs to Enemies in fuch Manner, as might 
draw them from their Enmity, and win them to Peace, 
the Charity would be doubled, and this we fhould aim 
at j for that we fee the Apoftle fets as the End of the 
forementioned Ads of feeding, Zfa that we may heap 
Coals of Fire on their Heads; not Coals to burn, bjt to 
melt them into all Love and Tendernefs towards us ; 
and this were indeed the moft compleat Way of imita- 
ting Chrift's Example, who, in all he did and fullered 
for us, defigned the reconciling of us to himielf. 

18. I have now fhewed you the feveral Parts of our 

c ,,. , Duty to our Neighbour, towards the Per- 

S elf -love an c ct\ u- 

tj/ , . foimance whereof I know nothing more 

Hindrance of „• , c 

7-pr • neceiiary, than the turning out of our 

tins parity. ^^ ^ Sdf . lovc which {o often pof . 

feffes them, and that fo wholly, that it leaves no Room 
for Charity, nay, nor Juftice neither, to our Neighbour. 
By this Self-love I mean not that true Love of ourfelves, 
which is the Love and Care of our Souls (for that would 
certainly help, not hinder us in this Duty) bat I mean 
that immoderate Love of our own worldly Interefts and 
Advantages, which is apparently the Root of all both 
Injultice and Uncharitablenefs towards others. We find 
this Sin of Self-love fet by the Apoftle in the Head of a 
whole Troop of Sins, 2 Tim. iii. 2 as if it were fome prin- 
cipal Officer in Satan's Camp; and certainly, not with- 
out Reafon ; for it never goes without an accurfed Train 
of many other Sins, which, like the Dragon's Tail, Rev. 
xii. 4. fweeps away all Care of Duty to others. We 
are by it made fo vehement and intent upon the pleafing 
ourfelves, that we have no Regard to any Body elfe, 
contrary to the Direction of St. Paul, Rom. xv. 2. which 


Sund. 17. 0/ Self-love, &c. 265 

is not to pleafe ourfelves, but every Man to pleafe his 
Neighbour for his Good to Edification , which he backs 
with the Examp'e of Chrift, Ver. 3. For even Cbrijl 
f leafed not himfelf. If therefore we have any fincere 
Defire to have this Virtue of Charity rooted in our 
Hearts, we muff, be careful to weed out this Sin of Self- 
love j for 'tis impoffible they can profper together. 
19. But when we have removed this Hindrance, we 

muft remember, that this, as all other D ,. 

Gj c r 1 • Prayer a Means 

races, proceeds not from ourlelves, it J . 

is the Gift of God ; and therefore we ° r ul 

mult earneftly pray to him to work it in us, to fend his 

Holy Spirit, which once appeared in the Form of a Dove, 

a meek and gall-leis Creature, to frame our Hearts to the 

fame Temper, and enable us rightly to pei form this Duty. 

20. T Have now part through thofe feveral Branches I 

X at firft propofed, and mewed n , . n . n .. 

•"* . . r V, ' r> , Lhnftian Duties 

you what is our Duty to God, our- , . 4 „-,, , 

i. , xt • , . r\c i_- l both pojlibte and 

ielves, and our .Neighbour: Of which . S ~ 

I may fay, as it is, Luke X. 28. This ? J 
da, and thou /halt live. And furely, 'tis noimpoflible 
Talk to perform this in fuch a Meafure, as God will 
gracioufly accept, that is, in Sincerity, tho" not in Perfec- 
tion ; for God is not that auilere Mailer, Luke xix. 20. 
that reaps where he has not fovon : He requires nothing 
of us, which he is not ready by his Grace to enable us 
to perform, if we be not wanting to ourfelves, either in 
afking it by Prayer or in uiing it by Diligence. And as 
'tis not impofTible,- fo neither is it fuch a fad melancho- 
ly Talk, as Men are apt to think it. 'Tis afpecial Po- 
licy of Satan's to do as the Spies did, Numb, xxiii. 28. 
bring up an ill Report upon this good Land, this State of 
Chnltian Life, thereby to difcourageus from entring in- 
to it, to fright us with I know not what Giants we lhall 
meet with j but let us not thus be cheated, let us but 
take the Courage to try, and we fhall indeed find a C<z- 
naan, a Land fiovuing voith Milk and Honey. God is not 
in this Refpect to his People a ifildernefs, a Land of 
Darknefs, Jer. ii. 31. His Service does not bereave Men 
of any true Joy, but helps thereto a great deal : Chrirt's 


266 The Whole Duty of Man. 

Yoke is an eafy, nay, a pleafant Yoke, his Burden a 
light, yea, a gracious Burden. There is in the Practice 
of Chriftian Duties a great deal of prefent Pleafure, and 
if we feel it not, it is becaufe of the Refiftance our vi- 
cious and finful Cuftoms make, which, by the Conten- 
tion, raifes an Uneafinefs. But then, fir it, that is to be 
charged only on ourfelves, for having got thofe ill Cuf- 
toms, and thereby made that hard to us, which, in it- 
felf,is moft pleafant; the Duties are not to be accufed for 
it. And then, fecondly, even there the Pleafure of fub- 
duing thofe ill Habits, overcoming thofe corrupt Cuf- 
toms, is fuch, as hugely outweigheth all the Trouble of 
the Combat. 

21. But it will perhaps be faid, that fome Parts of 

,, , , Piety are of fuch a Nature, as will be 

Even when they ^ ^ tQ expofe ug tQ p erfecutions 

expoje us to out- &nd Sufferings in the World . and that 
•ward 'Sufferings. ^^^ nof joyous, but grievous. 

I anfwer, That even in thofe there is Matter of Joy. 
We fee the Apoftles thought it fo ; They rejoiced that 
they were counted worthy tofuffer for CbriJFs Name, Acts 
V. 41. And St. Peter tells us, That if any Manfufferas 
a Chrijlian, he is to glorify God for it, 1 Pet. iv. 16. 
There is fuch a .Force and Virtue in the Teftimony of a 
good Confcience, as is able to change the greaieft Suf- 
fering into the greateft Triumph, and that Teftimony 
we can never have more clear and lively, than when we 
fufFer for Righteoufnefs Sake ; fo that you fee Chriftiani- 
ty is very amiable even in its faddeft Drefs, the inward 
Comforts of it do far furpafs all the outward Tribula- 
tions that attend it, and that even in the Inllant, while 
we are in the State of Warfare upon Earth. But then, 
if we look forward 10 the Crown of our Victories, thofe 
eternal Rewards in Heaven, we can never think thofe 
Tafks fad, though we had nothing at prefent to fweeten 
them, that have fuch Recompences await them at the 
End : Were our Labours never fo heavy, we could 
have no Caufe to faint under them. Let us therefore, 
whenever we meet with any Difcouragements in our 
Courfe, fix our Eye on ^this rich Prize, and then run 


Sund. 17. 0/ Turning to God. 267 

with Patience the Race which isfet be/ore us, Heb. xii. 
2. follow the Captain of our Salvation through the great- 
eft Sufferings, yea, even through the fame Red Sea of 
"Blood which he had waded, whenever our Obedience 
to him (hall require it ; for tho' our Fidelity to him 
mould bring us to Death itfelf, we are lure to be no 
Lofers by it ; for to fuch he hath promifed a Crown of 
Life, the very Expectation whereof is able to keep a 
Chriitian more chearful in his Fetters and Dungeon, 
than a Worldling can be in the Midft of his greateft 

22. All that remains for me farther to add, is earneft- 
ly to intreat and befeech the Reader, 
that, without Delay, he put himfelf in- The Danger of 
to this fo pleafant and gainful a Courfe, delaying our 
by.fettingfincerely to the Practice of all turning to God. 
thofe Things, which either by this Book, 
or by any other means hedifcems to be his Duty : And 
the farther he hath formerly gone out of his Way, the 
more Halle it concerns him to make to get into it, and 
to ufe the more Diligence in walking in it. He that 
hath a long Journey to go, and finds he has loft a great 
Part of his Day in a wrong Way, will not need much 
Intreaty either to turn into the right, or to quicken his 
Pace in it. And this is the Cafe of all thofe that have 
lived in any Courfe of Sin, they are in a wrong Roadj 
which will never bring them to the Place they aim at; nay, 
which will certainly bring them to the Place they moft 
fear and abhor : Much of their Day is fpent, how much 
will be left to finifh their Journey in, none knows; per- 
haps the next Hour, the next Minute, the Night of 
Death may overtake them ; what a Madnefs is it then 
for them to defer one Moment to turn out of the Path, 
which leads to certain Deftruclion, and to put them- 
felves in that, which will bring them to Blifs and Glory ? 
Yet fo are Men bewitched and inchanted with the De-* 
ceitfulnefs of Sin, that no Intreaty, no Perfuafion can 
prevail with them, to make this fo reafonable, {o ne- 
ce(:"iry a Change ; not but that they acknowledge it 
needful to be done, but they are unwilling to do it yet; 
they would enjoy all the Pleafures of Sin as long as thpy 
live, and then they hope, at their Death, or fome little 


268 : Zbe Whole Duty of Man; 

time before it, to do all the Bufinefs of their Souls. But, 
alas! Heaven is too high to be thus jumped into, the 
Way to it is a long and leifurely Afcent, which requires 
Time to walk. The Hazards of fuch deferring are more 
largely fpoken of in the Difcourfe of Repentance. I 
fhall not here repeat them, but defire the Reader feri- 
oufly to lay them to Heart, and then furely he will 
think it feafonable Counfel that is given by the wife 
Man, Eccluf.v. 7. Make no tarrying to turn to the Lord, 
mndput not off from Day to Day. 





Several Occafwns, 





Printed for Ed. and J. Exshaw, at the Bible on 
Cork-bill, M, d c c,XL viil. 

Christian Reader, 

I Have, for the Help of thy Devotions, fet 
down fome Fo r ms of Pri vat e Pr aye r , 
vpon Several Occafions : If it be thought an 
Omifficn, that there are none for families, I 
muft anfwer for myfelf, that it was not from* 
any Opinion that God is not as well to be wor- 
fhipped in the Family, as the Clofet ; but be- 
caufe the Providence of God and the Church 
'hath already furnifhed thee for that Purpofe, 
infinitely beyond what my utmcft Care could 
do : 1 mean the Publick Liturgy or Com- 
mon-Prayer, which, for all publick Ad- 
dreffes to God (and fuch are Family Prayers) 
are fo Excellent and Ufeful, that we may fay 
of it, as David did of Goliah'j Sword, 
i Sam. xxi. 9. There is none like it. 





As foon as ever thou awake ft in the Morning lift up thy 
Heart to God, in this, or the likejhort Prayer. 

LORD, as thou haft awaked my Body from Sleep, 
fo by thy Grace awaken my Soul from Sin ; and 
make me fo to walk before thee this day, and all the 
reft of my Life, that when the laft Trumpet (hall awake 
me out of my Grave, I may rife co the Life immortal, 
through Jefus Chrift. 

WHen thou haft thus begun, fuffer not (without 
fome urgent Neceflity) any worldly Thoughts 
to fill thy Mind, till thou haft alfo paid thy moft folemn 
Devotions to Almighty God ; and therefore during the 
Time thou art dreffing thyfelf (which fhould be no long- 
er than common Decency requires) exercife thy Mind 
in fome fpiritual Thoughts: As for Example, confider 
to what Temptations thy Bufinefs or Company that Day 
are moft like to lay thee open, and arm thyfelf with Re- 
folutions againft them: Or again, confider what Occa- 
Jtons of doing Service to God, or good to thy Neighbour, 
are that Day moft likely to prefent themfelves, and re- 
folve to embrace them ; and alfo contrive how thou 
mayeft improve them to the utmoft ; but efpecially it 
will be fit for thee to examine, whether there have any 
Sin efcaped thee fince thy laft Night's Examination. If 
after thefe Confiderations any further Leifure remain, 
thou mayeft profitably imploy it in meditating on the ge- 
neral Refurreclion (whereof our rifmgfrom our Beds is a 
Reprefentation) and of that dreadful Judgment which 
fhall follow it: And then think with thyfe'f in what 
Preparation thou art for it j and reiolve to hufband care- 
N fully 


fully every Minute of thy Time toward the fitting thee 
for that great Account. As foon as thou art ready, re- 
tire to fome private Place, and there offer up to God 
thy Morning Sacrifice of Praife and Prayer. 

Prayers for the Morning. 

At thy firfi kneeling down, fay, 

OHoly, Bleffed, and Glorious Trinity, Three Per- 
fons, and one> God, have Mercy upon me amifc- 
rable Sinner. 

LORD, I know not what to pray for as I ought; 
O let thy Spirit help my Infirmities, and enable 
me to offer up a fpiritual Sacrifice, acceptable to thcc 
by Jefus Chrift. 

A Thanksgiving. 

O Gracious Lord, whofe Mercies endure for ever, I 
thy unworthy Servant, who havefo deeply tailed 
of them, defire to render thee the Tribute of my hum- 
bled Praifes for them. In thee, O Lord, I live, and 
move, and have my Being : Thou firft madeft me to be, 
and then, that I might not be miferable, but happy, 
thou fenteft thy Son out of thy Bofom to redeem me 
from the Power of my Sins by his Grace, and from the 
Funilriment of them by his Blood, and -by both to bring 
me to his Glory. Thou haft, by thy Mercy, caufed 
me to be born within thy peculiar Fold, the Chriftian 
Church, where I was early confecrated to thee in Bap- 
tifm, and have been Partaker of all thofe fpiritual 
Helps, which might aid me to perform that Vow i there 
made to thee; and when, ;by my own Wilfulnefs or 
Negligence, I have failed it, yet thou in thy ma- 
nifold Mercies haft not forfaken me, but haft gracioufly 
invited me to Repentance, afforded m« all Means both 
outward and inward for it, and with much Patience haft 
attended, and not cut me off in the A6ls of thofe many 
damning Sins I have committed, as I have molt juftly 
deferved. It is, O Lord thy reftraining Grace alone 
by which I have been kept back from any the greateft 
Sins ; and it is thy inciting and affilting Grace alone by 


Prayers for Morning. 273 

Vfhich I have been enabled to do any the leaft Good ; 
therefore, not unto me, not unto me, but unto thy Name 
be the Praifes : For thefe, and all other thy fpiritual 
Bleflings, my Soul doth magnify the Lord, and all that 
is within me praife his holy Name. 1 likewile praifc 
thee for thofe many outward Bleflings I enjoy, as Health, 
Friends, Food, and Raiment, the Comforts as well a© 
the Neceffaries of this Life ; for thofe continual Protec- 
tions of thy Hand, by which I and mine are kept from 
Dangers; and thofe gracious Deliverances thou halt of- 
ten afforded out of fuch as have befallen me: and foe 
that Mercy of thine, whereby thou haft fweetned and 
allayed thofe Troubles thou haft not feen fit wholly to 
remove: For thy particular Preservation of me this 
Night, and all other thy Goodncfs to'wards rae. Lord, 
grant that I may render thee not only the Fruit of my 
Lips, but the Obedience of my Life; that fo thefe Blef- 
lings here may be an Earnclt of thofe richer Bleffing* 
thou haft prepared for thofe that love thee ; and that for 
his Sake, whom thou haft made the Author of eternal 
Salvation to all that obey him, even Jefus Chrift. 

A Confession. 

O Righteous Lord, who hateft Iniquity, I thy (Intel 
Creature caft myfelf at thy Feet, acknowledging 
that I moft juftly delerve to be utterly abhorred and for- 
faken by thee; for I have drunk Iniquity like Water; 
gone on in a continued Courfe of Sin and Rebellion a- 
gamft thee, daily committing thofe Things thou forbid - 
deft, and leaving undone thofe Things thou command- 
eft : Mine'Heart, which mould be an Habitation for 
thy Spirit, is become a Cage of unclean Birds, of foul 
anddilordered Affections; and out of this Abundance of 
the Heart my Mouth fpeaketh, my Hands acl : So that 
in Thought, Word, and Deed, I continually tranfgrefs 
aeainft thee. [ Here mentian the great eft of thy Sins. .] 
Nay, O Lord, 1 have del piled that G.odnefs of thine 
.which ihould bad me to Repentance, hardening my 
Heart againil all thofe Means thou haft ufed for my A- 
mendment. And now, Lord, what can I expect from 
N 2 thee, 


thee, but judgment and fiery Indignation ; that is, in- 
deed, the due Reward of my Sins? But, O Lord, there 
j's Mercy with thee, that thou may eft be feared. O fit 
me for that Mercy, by giving me a deep and hearty 
Repentance; and then, according to thy Goodnefs, let 
ihine Anger and thy Wrath be turned away from me: 
/,00k upon me in thy Son, my blelTed Saviour, and for 
the Merit of his Sufferings pardon all my Sins : And, 
Lord, I befeech thee, by the Power of thy Grace, fo to 
fenew and purify my Heart, that I may become a new 
Creature, utterly forfaking every evil Way, and living 
in a conftant fincere univerfal Obedience to thee all the 
reft of my Days ; that, behaving myfelf as a good and 
faithful Servant, I may, by thy Mercy, at the kft be re- 
ceived into the Joy of my Lord. Grant this, for Jefus 
Chrift his Sake. 

A Prayer for Grace. 

OMoft gracious God, from whom every good and 
perfect Giftcometh, I wretched Creature, that am 
not able of myfelf fo much as to think a good Thought, 
befeech thee to work in me both to will and do accord- 
ing to thy good Pleafure : Enlighten my Mind that I 
may know thee, and let me not be barren or unfruitful 
in that Knowledge: Lord, work in my Heart a true 
Faith, a purifying Hope and an unfeigned Love towards 
thee : Give me a full Truft on thee, Zeal for thee, 
Reverence of all Things that relate to thee: Make 
me fearful to offend thee, thankful for thy Mer- 
cies, humble under thy Corrections, devout in thy 
Service, forrowful for my Sins : and grant that in all 
Things I may behave myfelf fo, as befits a Creature to 
his Creator, a Servant to his Lord. Enable melikewife 
to perform that Duty I owe to myfelf: Give me that 
Meeknefs, Humility, and Contentednefs, whereby I 
may always poflefs my Soul in Patience and Thankful- 
nefs. Make me diligent in all my Duties, watchful a- 
gainft all Temptations, perfectly pure and temperate, 
and fo moderate in my moft lawful Enjoyments, that they 
may never become a Snare to me. Make me alfo, O 
Lord, to be fo affeded towards my Neighbour, that I 
never tranfgrefs that royal Law of thine, of loving him 
as myfelf. Grant me exaclly to perform ail Parts of 


Prayers for Morning. 2j$ 

Juftice, yielding to all whatfoever by any Kind of Right 
becomes their Due; and give me fuch Bowels of Mercy 
and Companion, that I may never fail to do all Acts of 
Charity to all Men, whether Friends or Enemies, accord- 
ing to thy Command and Example. Finally, I befeech 
thee, O Lord, to fanftify me throughout, that my whole 
Spirit, and Soul, and Body may be preferved blamelefs 
unto the Coming of our Lord Jefus Chrift; to whom, 
with thee and the Holy Ghoft, be all Honour and Glo- 
ry for ever. Amen. 


OBIefTed Lord, whofe Mercy is over all thy Works; 
I befeech thee to have Mercy upon all Men, and 
grant that the precious Ranfom, which was paid by thy 
Son* for all, may be effeclual to the Saving of all. Give 
thy inlightening Grace to thofe that are in Darknefs, 
and thy converting Grace to thofe that are in Sin : Look 
with thy tendered Compaffions upon the univerlal 
Church : O be favourable and gracious unto Sion, build 
thou the Walls of Jerufalem: Unite all thofe, that pro- 
fefs thy Name, to thee by Purity and Holinefs, and to 
each other by brotherly Love. Have Mercy on this 
defokte Church and finful Nation; thou haft moved the 
Land, and divided it, heal the Sores thereof,, for it fhak- 
eth: Make us fo truly to repent of thofe Sins which 
have provoked thy Judgments, that thou alio mayft 
turn and repent and leave a Blefling behind thee. Blefs 
thofe whom thou haft appointed our Governors, whe- 
ther in Church or State: So rule their Hearts and 
ftrengthen their Hands, that they may neither want 
Will nor Power to punifh Wickednefs and Vice, and to 
maintain God's true Religion and Virtue. Have Pity, O 
Lord, on all that are in Affliction ; be a Father to 
the Fatherlefs, and plead the Caufe of the Widow: 
Comfort the Feeble-minded, fupport the Weak, heal 
the Sick, relieve the needy, defend the opprefled, and 
adminifter to every one according to their own feveral 
Neceffities. Let thy Bleflings reft upon all that are near 
and dear to me, and grant them whatfoever thou feed 
N 3 neceffary, 


necefTary, either to their Bodies or their Souls: [Here 
■name thy near eft Relations'] Reward all thofe that have 
done me Good, and pardon all thofe that have done or 
wihhed me Evil: and work in them and me all that 
Good which may make us acceptable in thy Sight, 
through Jefus Chrift. 

For Preservation. 

O Merciful God, by whofe Bounty alone it is that I 
have this Day added to my Life, I befeech thee 
fb to guide me in it by thy Grace, that I may do no- 
thing which may difhonour thee, or wound my own 
Soul, but that I may diligently apply myfelf to do all 
fuch good Works, as thou haft prepared for me to 
walk in : And, Lord, I befeech thee, give thy Angel« 
charge over me, to keep me in all my Ways, that no 
Evil happen unto me, nor any Plague come nigh ray 
Dwelling, but that I and mine may be fafe under thy 
gracious Protection, through jefus Chrift. 

OLord, pardon the Wand rings and Coldnefs of thefe 
Petitions, and deal with me not according either 
to my Prayers or Deferts, but according to my Needs, 
and thine own rich Mercies in Jefus Chrift, in whofe 
bleffed Name and Words I conclude thefe my imperfect 
Prayers, faying, Our Father, &c. 


AT Night, when it draws towards the Time of Reft, 
bethink thyfelf how thou haft patted the Day : 
Examine thine own Heart what Sin either of Thought, 
Word, or Deed thou haft committed, what Opportuni* 
ty of doing Good thou haft omitted, and whatsoever 
thou findelt to accufe thyfelf of, confefs humbly and pe- 
nitently to God : Renew thy Purpofes and Refolutions 
of Amendment, and beg his Pardon in Chrift ; and this 
not Hightly, and only a* of Courfe, but with all devout 


Prayers for Night. 277 

Earneftnefs and Heartinefs, as thou wouldft do, if thou 
wert fure thy Death were as near approaching as thy 
Sleep, which, for ought thou knowett may be fo indeed: 
And therefore thou fhouldft no more venture to 
fleep unreconciled to God, than thou wouldft dare to 
die fo. In the next Place confider what fpecial and ex- 
traordinary Mercies thou halt that Day received ; as if 
thou naft had any great Deliverance, either in thy in- 
ward Man, from lbme dangerous Temptations, or in 
thy outward, from any great and apparent Danger, and 
offer to God thy hearty and devout Praife for the lame: 
Or, if nothing extraordinary have fo happened, and 
thou haft been kept even from the Approach of Danger, 
thou hail not the lefs, but the greater Caufe to magnify 
God, who hath by his Prote&ion fo guarded thee, 
that not (o much as the Fear of Evil hath aflaulted thee. 
And therefore omit not to pay him the Tribute of hum- 
ble Thankfulnefs, as well for his ufual and daily Prefer- 
vations, as his more extraordinary Deliverances. And 
above all, endeavour itill by the Confideration of his 
Mercies to have thy Heart the more cloielv knit to him; 
remembring that every Favour received from him is a 
new Engagement upon thee to love and obey him. 

Prayers for Night . 

OHoly, Blefled, and Glorious Trinity, three Perfont, 
and One God, have Mercy upon me a miferablc 

LORD, I know not what to pray for as I ought; 
O let thy Spirit help my Infirmities, and enable 
me to offer up a fpiritual Sacrifice, acceptable unto thee 
by Jefus Chrift. 

A Confession. 

OMofl holy Lord God, who art of purer Eyes than 
to behold Iniquity, how {hall I, abominable 
Wretch, dare to appear before thee, who am nothing 
but Pollution ? I am defiled in my very Nature, having 
a Backwardneis to all Good, and Readincfs to all Evil; 
N 4 But 


But I have defiled myfelf yet much worfe by my own 
actual Sins and wicked Cuftoms : I have tranfgrefled my 
Duty to thee, my Neighbour, and myfelf, and that 
both in Thought, in Word, and in Deed, by doing 
thofe Things which thou haft exprefly forbidden, 
and by neglecting to do thofe Things thou haft com- 
manded me ; and this not only through Ignorance and 
Frailty, but knowingly and wilfully againft the Mo- 
tions of thy Spirit, and the Checks of my own Con- 
science to the contrary. And to make all thefe out of 
Meafure finful, X have gone on in a daily Courfe of re- 
peating thefe Provocations againft thee, notwithflanding 
all thy Calls to, and my own Purpofes and Vows of A- 
mendment ; yea, this very Day I have not ceafed to 
2dd new Sins to my former Guilts : [Here name the 
Particulars] And now, O Lord, what (hall I fay, or 
bow (hall I open my Mouth, feeing I have done thefe 
Things ? I know that the Wages of thefe Sins is Death; 
but, O thou, who willed not the Death of a Sinner, have 
Mercy upon me ; work in me, I befeech thee, a fin- 
cere Contrition, and a perfett Hatred of all my Sins; 
and let me not daily confefs, and yet as daily renew' 
them : But grant, O Lord, that from this Inftant I may 
give a Bill of Divorce to all my mod beloved Lufts, and 
then be thou pleafed to marry me to thyfelf in Truth, 
in Righteoufnefs, and Holinefs. And for all my paft 
Sins, O Lord, receive a Reconciliation; accept of that 
Ranfom thy blefled Son hath paid for me, and for his 
Sake whom thou haft fet forth as a Propitiation, par- 
don all my Offences, and receive me to thy Favour .• 
And when thou haft thus fpoken Peace to my Soul, 
Lord, keep me, that I turn not any more to Folly; but 
fo eftablifh me with thy Grace, that no Temptation of 
the World, the Devil, or my own Flelh, may ever draw 
me to offend thee; that being made free from Sin, and 
becoming a Servant unto God, I may have my Fruit 
unto Holinefs, and the End everlafting Life, through 
jefus Chrift our Lord. 

A Thanksgiving. 
Thou Father of Mercies, who art kind even to the 
unthankful, I acknowledge myfelf to have abun- 


Prayers for Night. 2 jg 

tfantly experimented that gracious Property of thine ; 
for notwithstanding my daily Provocations againft thee, 
thou flili heapeft Mercy and loving Kindnefs upon me. 
All my Contempts and Defpifings of thy fpiritual Fa- 
vours have not yet made thee withdraw them; but in 
the Riches of thy Goodnefs and Long-fuffering, thou 
ftill continued to me the Offers of Grace and Life in 
thy Son. And all my Abufes of thy temporal Blefiings 
thou hart not punifhed with an utter Deprivation of them, 
but art flill pleafed to afford me a liberal Portion of 
them. The Sins of this Day thou hart not repayed, as 
juftly thou mighteft, byfweeping me away with afwift 
Deftru&ion, but haft fpared and preferved me accord- 
ing to the Greatnefs of thy Mercy. [Here mention the 
particular Mercies of that Day] What ihall I render 
unto the Lord for all thefe Benefits he hath done un- 
to me ? Lord, let this Goodnefs of thine lead me to Re- 
pentance; and grant that I may not only offer thee 
Thanks and Praife, but may alfo order my Converfa- 
tion aright, that fo I may at the laft fee the Salvation of 
God, through Jefus Chrill. 

Here ufe the Prayer for Grace, and that »f InterceJJion, 
appointed for the Morning. 

For Preservation. 

OBleffed Lord, the Keeper of Ifrael, that neither 
flumbereft nor fleepert, be pleafed in thy Mercy to 
watch over me this Night : Keep me by thy Grace from 
all Works of Darknefs, and defend me by thy Power from 
all Dangers : Grant me moderate and refrefhing Meep, 
fuch as may fit me for the Duties of the Day following: 
And, Lord, make me ever mindful of that Time when 
I (hall lie down in the Duft : And, becaufe I know nei- 
ther the Day nor the Hour of my Mafter's Coming, 
grant me Grace, that I may be always ready, that I may 
never live in fuch a State as I (hall fear to die in ; but 
that whether I live, I may live unto the Lord, or whe- 
ther I die, I may die unto the Lord; fo that living and 
dying I may be thine, through Jefus Chrift. 

N 5. V& 


XJfe the fame concluding Prayer as in the Morning. 

AS thou art putting off thy Clothes, think with thy 
felf that the Time approaches that thou muft 
put off thy Body alfo, and then thy Soul muft appear 
naked before God's Judgment -Seat ; and therefore thou 
liadft need be careful to make it fo clean and pure, by 
Repentance and Holinefs, that he, who will not look 
on Iniquity, may gracioufly behold and accept it. 
Lit thy Bed put thee in Mind of thy Grave, and when 
thou Heft down, fay, 

OBleffed Saviour, who by thy precious Death and 
Burial didft take away the Sting of Death, and the 
Power of the Grave, grant me the joyful Fruits of that 
thy Victory, and be thou to me in Life and Death Ad- 

I will lay me down in Peace, and take my Reft ; for 
at is thou, Lord, only that makeft me dwell in Safety. 

Into thy Hands I commend my Spirit ; for thou haft 
redeemed it, O Lord, thou God of Truth. 

IN the Anfibkt Church there were, befides Morn- 
ing and Night, four other Times every Day, which 
were called Hours of Prayer ; and the Zeal of thofe 
firft Chriftians was fuch, as made them conftantly ob- 
ferveq\ It would be thought too great a Stri&nefs now, 
in this lukewarm Age, to enjoin the like Frequency. 
Yet I cannot but mention the Example, and fay, that 
for thofe, who are not by very necefTary Bufinefs pre- 
vented, it will be but reafonable to imitate it, and make 
up in publick and private thofe Four Times of 
Prayer, befides the Offices already fet down for 
Morning and Night, and that none may be to feek 
hew to exercife their Devotions at thefe Times, I have 
added divers Collects for feveral Graces, whereof e- 
very Man may ufe at each fuch Time of Prayer fo ma- 
ny as his Zeal and Leifure (hall point out to him ; add- 
ing, if he pleafe, one of the Confeflions appointed for 
Morning or Night, and never omitting the Lord's 

But if any Man's State of Life be really fo bufy, as will 
not allow him Time for fo long and folemn Devotions; 
yet certainly there is no Man fo overlaid with Bufinefs, but 


Collects for fever al Graces. 281" 

that he may find Ltifure oftentimes in a Day to fay the 
Lord's Prayer alone, and therefore let him ufe that, 
if he cannot more. But becaufe it is the Character of a 
Chriftian, Phil. iii. 20. That he hath his Converfation in 
Heaven ; it is very fit, that befides thefe Set-times of 
Prayer, he mould divers Times in a Day, by fhort and 
fudden Ejaculations, dart up his Soul thither. And 
for this Sort of Devotion no Man can want Leifure ; for 
it may be performed in the midft of Bufmefs, the Artificer 
at his Work, the Hufbandman at his Plough, may prac- 
tife it. Now, as he cannot want 1 ime, fo that he may 
not want Matter for it, I have thought it not unufeful, 
out of that rich Store houfe, The Book of Ps a lms, 
to furnifh him with fome Texts, which may very fitly 
be ufed for this Purpofe, which being learned by Heart, 
will always be ready at hand to imploy his Devotion ; 
and the Matter of them being various, fome for Pardon 
of Sin, fome for Grace, fome for the Light of God's 
Countenance, fome for the Church, fome for Thankf- 
giving. &c. Every Man may fit himfelf according to the 
prefent Need and Temper of his Soul. I have given 
thefe, not as a full Collection, but only a Taite, by 
which the Reader's Appetite may be raifed to fearch 
after more in that Book, and other Parts of Holy Scrip- 

Collecls for feveral Graces. 

For Faith. 

OBlefled Lord, whom without Faith it is impofuble 
to pleafe, let thy v pirit, I befeech thee, work in 
me fuch a Faith as may be ;*:ceptable in thy Sight, even 
fuch as worketh by Love. O let me not reft in a dead 
ineffectual Faith, but grant that it may be fuch as may 
fhew itfelfby my Works, that it may be that victorious 
Faith which may enable me to overcome the World, 
and conform me to the Image of that Chrifl, on whom 
I believe; that fo at the laft I may receive the End of 
my Faith, even the Salvation of my Soul, by the fame 
Jefus. Chrift. For 


For Hope. 
f~\ Lord, who art the Hope of all the Ends of the 
Earth, let me never be deftitute of a well-grounded 
Hope, nor yet pofiefled with a vain Preemption : 
Suffer me not to think thou wilt either be reconciled to 
my Sins, or reject my Repentance ; but give me, I be- 
feech thee, fuch a Hope as may be anfwerable to the 
only Ground of Hope, thy Proroifes, and fuch as may 
both encourage and enable me to purify my felf from all 
Filthinefs both of Flelh and Spirit ;, that fo it may in- 
deed become to me an Anchor of the Soul both fure 
and ftedfaft, entering even within the Vail, whither the 
Fore runner is for me already entred, even Jefus Chrift A 
my high Prieft, and blefled Redeemer. 
For the Love of God. 
f~\ Holy and Gracious Lord, who art infinitely excel- 
^-^ lent in thy felf, and infinitely bountiful and com- 
panionate towards me, I befeech thee, fuffer not my 
Heart to be (o hardened through the Deceitfulnefs of 
Sin, as to reftft fuch Charms of Love, but let them make 
deep and lading Impreflions on my Soul. Lord, thou 
art pleafed to require my Heart, and thou only haft 
Right to it ; O let me not be fo facrilegioufly unjuft, 
as to alienate any Part of it, but enable me to render 
it up whole and entire to thee. But, O my God, thoi* 
feeli it is already ufurped ; the World with its Vani- 
ties hath feized it, and, like a ftrong Man armed, 
keeps rc-fTeffion. O thou, who art flronger, come upon 
him, and take this unworthy Heart of mine as thine 
©wn Spoil, refine it with this purifying Fire of thy 
Love, that it may be a fit Habitation for thy Spirit. 
Lord, if thou fee it fit, be pleafed to let me tafte o£ 
thofe Joys, thofe Ravilhments of thy Love, wherewith 
thy Saints have been fo tranfported. But if in this I 
know not what I aft., if 1 may not choofe my Place in thy 
Kingdom ; yet, O Lord, deny me not to drink of thy 
Cup : Let me have fuch a Sincerity and Degree of 
Love, as may make me endure any Thing for thy Sake, 
fuch a perfed Love as may call out all Fear and Sloth too, 
that nothing may feem to me too grievous to fuffer, or 
too difficult to do in Obedience to thee > that fo^exprefling 

Cotters for fever al Graces. 2S3 

my Love by keeping thy Commandments, I may, by 
thy Mercy, at lad obtain that Crown of Life, which 
thou haft promlfed to thofe that love thee, through 
Jefus Chrift our Lord. 

For Sincerity. 

OHoly Lord, who required Truth in the inward 
Parts, I humbly befeech thee to purge me from 
all Hypocrify and Unfincerity. The Heart, O Lord, 
is deceitful above all Things, and my Heart is deceitful 
above all Hearts : O thou, who fearcheft the Heart and 
Reins, try me and feek the Ground of my Heart, and 
fuffer not any accurfed Thing to lurk within me ; but 
purify me even with Fire, fo thou confume my Drofs. 
O Lord, I cannot deceive thee, but I may mod eafily 
deceive myfelf. I befeech thee, let me not reft in 
any fuch Deceit, but bring me to a Sight and Hatred of 
my moft hidden Corruptions, that I may notcherifh any 
Darling Luft, but make an utter Dedruction of every 
AmaUkite. O fuffer me not to fpeak Peace to myfelf, 
when there is no Peace, but grant I may judge of my- 
felf as thou judged of me, that I may never be at Peaca 
with myfelf, till I am at perfect Peace with thee, and, 
by Purity of Heart, be qualified to fee thee in thy King- 
dom, through Jefus Chrift. 

For Devotion in Prayer. 

O Gracious Lord God, who not only permitted, but 
invited: us, miferable and needy Creatures, to 
prefent our Petitions to thee ; grant, I befeech thee, 
that the Frequency of my Prayer may be fomewhat pro- 
portionable to thofe continual Needs I have of thy 
Mercy. Lord, I confefs it is the greateft Honour, and 
greateft Advantage, thus to be allowed Accefs to thee ; 
yetfo fottiub and ftupid is my prophane Heart, that it 
fhuns or fruftrates the Opportunities of it. My Soul, O 
Lord, is pofleiTed with a Spirit of Infirmity ; it is bowed 
together, and can in no wife lift up itfelf to thee. O be 
thou pleafed to cure this fad, this miferable Difeafe, to 
infpirit and enliven this earthly, drofly Heart, that it 
may freely mount towards thee ; that I may fet a true- 
Value on this mod valuable Privilege, and take Delight- 
in approaching to thee ; and that my Approaches mry 



be with a Reverence fome way anfwerable to that awful 
Majefty I come before ; with an Importunity and Ear- 
neftncfs anfwerable to thofe prefling Wants I have to be 
fuppliedj and with fuch a Fixednefs and Attention 
Of Mind, as no wandring Thoughts may interrupt : 
That I may no more incur the Guilt of drawing near to 
thee with my Lips, when my Heart is far from thee, or 
have my Prayers turned into Sin ; but may fo aflc, that 
I may receive ; feek, that I may find ; knock, that it 
may be opened unto me; that from praying to thee here, 
I may be tranflated to the praifing thee eternally in thy 
Glory, through the Merits and Interceilion of Jcfus 

For Humility. 

OThou high and lofty One, that inhabiteft Eternity, 
yet art pleafed to dwell with the humble Spirit, 
pour into my Heart, I befcech thee, that excellent Grace 
of Humility, which may utterly work out all thofe vain 
Conceits I have of myfelf : Lord, convince me power- 
fully of my own Wretchednefs ; make me to fee that I 
am miferable, and poor,. and blind, and naked, and not 
only Duft, but Sin ; that fo, in all thy Difpenfations to- 
wards me, I may lay my Hand upon my Mouth, and 
heartily acknowledge that I am lefs than the lcaft of thy 
Mercies, and greater than thegreateft of thy Judgments. 
And, O Lord, grant me not only to walk humbly with 
my God, but even with Men alfo, that I may not only 
fubm it myfelf to thy Rebukes, but even to thofe of my 
Fellow-Chriftians, and with Meeknefs receive and obey 
their Admonitions. And make me fo to behave myfelf 
towards all, that I never do any Thing through Strife 
and Vain-glory ; and to that End grant that in Lowli- 
ncfs of Mind I may etleem every other Man better than 
myfelf, and be willing that others mould efteem them fo 
alfo : that I neither nourim any high Opinion of my- 
felf, nor covet one among others ; bat, that defpifwg 
the vain Praife of Men, I may feek that Praiie which 
cometh from thee only : That fo, inftead of thofe mean 
fervile Arts 1 have ufed to recommend me to the Efteem. 
of Men, I may now employ all my Induftry and Care 
to approve myfelf to thee, who rdiilell the proud, and 
giveft Grace to the humble. Grant this, O Lord, for 


Col'efts for fever al Graces, 2S5 

his fake, who humbled himfelf unto the Death of the 
Crofs, Jefus Chrift. 

For the Fear of G O D. 

O Glorious Majefty, who only art high and to be 
feared, poflefs my Soul with a holy Awe and Re- 
verence of thee, that I may give thee the Honour due 
unto thy Name, and may bear fuch a Refped to all 
Things which relate to thee, that I may never profane 
any holy Thing, or facrilegioufly invade what thou haft 
fet apart to thyfelf. And, O Lord, fince thou art a God 
that will not clear the guilty, let the Dread of thy 
Juftice make me tremble to provoke thee in any Thing. 
O let me not fo mifplace my Fear, as to be afraid of a 
Man that (hall die, and of the Son of Man, who (hall 
be made as Grafs, and forget the Lord my Maker; but 
rtpknifh my Soul with that Fear of the Lord, which is 
the Beginning of Wifdom, which may be as a Bridle to 
all my brutifh Appetites ; and keep me in a constant 
Conformity to thy holy Will. Hear me, O Lord, I be- 
feech thee, and put this Fear in my Heart that I may not 
depart from thee ; but may, with Fear and Trembling, 
work out my own Salvation, through Jefus Chrift. 
For Trust in GOD. 

O Almighty Lord, who never failed them that truft 
on thee, give me Grace, I befeech thee, in all my 
Difficulties and Diftrenes to have Recourfe to thee, to 
reft and depend on thee : Thou (halt keep him, OLord, 
in perfecl Peace, whofe Mind is rtaid on thee. O let 
me always reft on this firm Pillar, and never exchange 
it for the' broken Reeds of worldly Succours : Suffer not 
my Heart to be overcharged with the Cares of this Life, 
taking thought what I (hall eat or drink, or wherewith- 
al I (hall be clothed ; but grant, that having by honeft 
Labour and Induftry done my Part, I may chearfully 
commit myfeif to thy Providence, cafting all my Care 
upon thee, and being careful for nocning, but to be of 
the Number of thofe whom thou owneft and careit for, 
even fuch as keep thy TelUmonies, and think upon thy 
Commandments to do tnem ; that foeking firft thy 
Kingdom, and the Righteoufhefs thereof, all thefe out- 
ward Things may be added unto me in fuch a Meaiure, 
as thy Wifdom knows beft for me. Grant this, O Lord, 
for Jefus Chrift his fake. For 


For Thankfulness. 

OMoft Gracious and Bountiful Lord, who filleft all 
Things living with Good, and expecleft no other 
Return, but Praife and Thankfgiying ; let me, O Lord,, 
never defraud thee of that fo eafy Tribute j but let my 
Heart be ever filled with the Senfe,and my Mouth with 
the Acknowledgment of thy Mercies. It is a joyful and 
pleafant Thing to be thankful ; O fuffer me not, I be- 
feech thee, to lofe my Part in that divine Pleafure r but 
grant, that as I daily receive Bleffings from thee, fo I 
may daily, from an affectionate and devout Heart, offer 
up Thanks to Thee ; and grant that not only my Lips, 
but my Life, may fhew forth thy Praife, by confecrat- 
ing myfelf to thy Service, and walking in Holinefs and 
Righteoumefs before thee all the Days of my Life, 
through Jefus Chrilt my Lord and bleffed Saviour. 
For Contrition. 

OHoly Lord, who art a merciful Embracer of true- 
Penitents, but yet a confuming Fire towards ob- 
ftinate Sinners, how (hall I approach thee, who have fo 
many provoking Sins to inflame thy Wrath, and fo 
little fmcere Repentance to incline thy Mercy ! Obe thou< 
pleafed to fofcen and melt this hard obdurate Heart of 
mine, that I may heartily bewail the Iniquities of my 
Life; ftrike this Rock, O Lord, that the Waters may 
flow out, even Floods of Tears to warn my polluted 
ConfcieRce. My drowfy Soul hath too long flept fe- 
curely in Sin ; Lord, awake it, though it be with Thun- 
der, and let me rather feel thy Terrors, than not feel 
my Sin. Thoufenteft thy bleffed Son to heal the broken- 
hearted ; but, Lord, what will that avail me, if my 
Heart be whole ? O break it, that it may be capable of 
this healing Virtue ; and grant, I befeech thee, that 
having once tafted the Bitternefs of Sin, I may fly from- 
it as from the Face of a Serpent, and bring forth Fruits 
of Repentance, in Amendment of Life, to the Praife 
and Glory of thy Grace, in Jefus Chrift our Bleffed 

For Meekness. 

O Bleffed Jefu, who waft led as a Sheep to the Slaugh- 
ter, let, I befeech thee, that admirable Example- 


ColleRs for fever al Graces. 287 

of Meeknefs quench in me all Sparks of Anger and Re- 
venge, and work in me fuch a Gentlenefs and Calmnefs 
of Spirit, as no Provocations may ever be able to difturb. 
Lord, grant I may be fo far from offering the leaft In- 
jury, that I may never return the greatelt, any other- 
wife than wkh Prayers and Kindnefs j that I, who have 
fo many Talents to be forgiven by thee, may never ex- 
act Pence of my Brethren ; but that putting on Bowels 
of Mercy, Meeknefs, Long-fufFering, thy Peace may- 
rule in my Heart, and make it an acceptable Habita- 
tion to thee who art the Prince of Peace ; to whom 
with the Father and Holy Spirit be all Honour and 
Glory for ever. 

Fot Chastity. 

OHoly and Immaculate Jefus, whofe firft Defcent 
was into the Virgin's Womb, and who doft ftill 
love to inhabit only in pure and virgin Hearts ; I be- 
feech thee, fend thy Spirit of Purity to cleanfe me from 
all Filthin&fs both of Flefh and Spirit. My Body, O 
Lord, is the Temple of the Holy Ghoft ; O let me ne- 
ver .pollute that Temple with any Uncleannefs. And 
becaufe out of the Heart proceed the Things that defile 
the Man, Lord, grant me, to keep my Heart with all 
Diligence, that no impure or foul Thoughts be harboured 
there ; but enable me, I befeech thee, to keep both Bo- 
dy and Soul pure and undefiled ; that fo I may glorify 
thee here both in Body and Spirit, and be glorified in 
both with thee hereafter. 

For Temperance. 

O Gracious Lord, who haft in thy Bounty to Man- 
kind offered to us the Ufe of thy good Creatures 
for our corporal Refrefhment, grant that I may always 
ufe this Liberty with Thankfulnefs and Moderation. O 
let me never be fo enflaved to that Brulifh Pleafure of 
Tafle, that my Table become a Snare to me ; but give 
me, I befeech thee, a perfect Abhorrence of all Degrees 
of Excefs.and let me eat and drink only for thofe Ends, 
and according to thofe Meafures which thou haft affign- 
edme; for Health.andnot for Luxury. And Lord, grant 
that my Purfuits may be, not after the Meat that pe- 



riftieth, but after that which endureth to everlafting 
Life, that hungering and thirfting after Righteoufnefs, 
I may be filled with thy Grace here, and thy Glory 
hereafter, through Jefus Chrift. 


O Merciful God, thy Wifcom is infinite to choofe, 
and thy Love forward to difpenfe good Things to 
«s j O let me always fully and entirely refign myielf to 
thy Difpofah, have no Defires of my own, but a per- 
fect Satisfaction in thy Chorees for me ; that fo. in 
whatfoever Eftate lam, I may be therein content. Lord, 
grant I may never look with murmuring on my own 
Condition, nor with Envy on other Men's. And to that 
End, 1^ befeech thee, purge my Heart of all covetous 
Affections. O let me never yield up any Corner of my 
Soul to Mammon, but give me fuch a Contempt of 
thefe fading Riches, that whether they increafe or de- 
creafe, I may never fet my Heart upon them ; but that 
all my Care may be to be rich towards God- to lay up 
my Treafure in Heaven ; that fo I may fet my Affec- 
tions on Things above, that when Chrift, who is my 
Life, mail appear, I may alio appear with him in 
Glory. Grant this, O Lord, for the Merits of the fame 
Jefus Chrift. 


O Lord, who haft in thy Wifdom ordained that Man 
mould be born to Labour, fuffer me not to refill: 
that Defign of thine, by giving myfelf up to Sloth and 
Idlenefs ; but grant I may fo imploy my Time, and all 
Other Talents thou haft intrufted me with, that I may 
not fall under the Sentence of the flothful and wicked 
Servant. Lord, if it be thy Will, make me fome way 
ufeful to others, that I may not live an unprofitable 
Part of Mankind ; but however, O Lord, let me not 
be ufelefs to myfelf ; but grant that I may give all Di- 
ligence to make my Calling and Election fure. My Soul 
is befet with many and vigilant Adverfaries ; O let me 
not fold my Hands to Sleep in the Midft of fo great 
Dangers, but watch and pray that I enter not into Temp- 
tation, enduring Hardnefs as a good Soldier of Jefus 
Chrift, 'till at the laft,from this State of Warfare, thou 


Colic 5fs for fever al Graces. 289 

tranflate me to the State of Triumph and Blif*, in thy 
Kingdom, through Jefus Chrift. 

For Justice. 

OThou King of Righteoufnefs, who haft commanded 
us to keep Judgment, and do Juftice, be pleafed 
by thy Grace to cleanie my Heart and Hands from all 
Fraud and Injuftice, and give me a perfect Integrity and 
Uprightnefs in all my Dealings. O make me ever abhor 
to ufe my Power to opprefs, or my Skill to deceive my 
Brother ; and grant I may molt ftriclly obferve that fa- 
cred Rule, of doing as [ would be done to ; that I may 
not dilhonour my Chriftian Profeflion by an unjult and 
fraudulent Life, but in Simplicity, and godly Sincerity, 
have my Converfation in the World ; never ferking to 
heap up Treafures in this Life, but preferring a little 
with Righteoufnefs, before great Revenues without 
Right. Lord, make me exactly careful to render to 
every Man what, by any Sort of Obligation, becomes 
his Due, that I may never break the Bond of any of 
thofe Relations that thou halt placed me in, but may fo 
behave my ielf towards alT, that none may have any evil 
Thing to fay of me, that fo, if it be poiuble, I may have 
Peace with all Men ; or however, I m.;y, by keeping 
Innocency, and taking heed to the Thing that is right, 
have Peace at the laft, even Peace with thee, through 
Jefus Chrift our Lord. 

For Charity. 

O Merciful Lord, who haft made of one Blood, and 
redeemed by one Ranfom, all Nations of Men, 
Jet me never harden my Bowels againft any that partake 
of the fame Nature and Redemption with me, but grant 
me an univeifal Charity towards all Men. Give me, O 
thou Father of Companions, fuch a Tendernefs and 
Meltingnefs of Heart, that I may be deeply arTecled 
with all the Miferies and Calamities, outward or inward, 
of my Brethren, and diligently employ all my Abilities 
for their Succour and Relief. O let not an unchriftian 
Self love poffefs my Heart, but drive out that accurfed 
Spirit, and let thy Spirit of Love enter and dwell there, 
and make mefeek not topleafe myfelf, but my Neigh- 
bour, for his Good to Edification, even at Chrift pleafed 



not himfelf. Lord, make me a faithful Steward of all 
thofe Talents thou haft committed to me, for the Bene- 
fit of others; that fo when thou (halt call me to give an 
Account of my Stewardfhip, I may do it with Joy ; and 
not with Grief. Grant this, merciful Lord, I befeech 
thee, for Jefus Chrift his Sake. 

For Perseverance. 

O Eternal and unchangeable Lord God, who art the 
fame Yefterday and To-day, and for ever ; be thou 
pleafed to communicate fome fmall Ray of that Excel- 
lence, fome Degree of that Stability to me thy wretched 
Creature, who am light and unconftant, turned about 
with every Blaft ; my Underftanding is very deceivable, 
O eftablifh it in thy Truth, keep it from the Snares of 
feducing Spirits, that I may not be led away with the 
Error of the wicked, and fall from my own Stedfaftnefs : 
My Will alfo, O Lord, is irrefolute and wavering, and 
-doth not cleave ftedfaftly unto God ; my Goodnefs ia 
but as the Morning Cloud, and as the early Dew it 
paflethaway. Oftrengthen and confirm me ; and what- 
ever good Work thou haft wrought in me, be pleafed t# 
accomplifti and perform it until the Day of Chrift. Lord, 
thou feeft my Weaknefs, and thou knoweft the Number 
and Strength of thofe Temptations I have to ftruggle 
with. O leave me not to myfelf, but cover thou my 
Head in the Day of Battle, and in all fpiritual Combats- 
make me more than Conqueror, through him that loved 
me. O let no Terrors or Flatteries either of the World, 
or my own Flefh, ever draw me from my Obedience to 
thee ; but grant that I may continue ftedfaft, unmove- 
able, always abounding in the Work of the Lord ; and, 
by patient continuing in well-doing, feek, and at laftr 
obtain Glory, and Honour, and Immortality, and eter- 
nal Life, through Jefus Chrift our Lord. 

A Brief 



A Brief PARAPHRASE of the 


To be ufed as a 


[Our Father which art in Heaven.'] 

O Lord, who dwelled in the higheft Heavens, thou art 
the Author of our Being, thou haft alfo begotten 
us again unto a lively Hope, and carried towards us the 
Tendernefs and Bowels of a companionate Father, O 
make us to render to thee the Love and Obedience of 
Children : And that we may refernble thee our Father 
in Heaven, (that Place of true Delight and Purity) give 
us a holy Difdain of all the deceitful Pleafures and foul 
Pollutions of this World, and fo raife up our Minds, 
that we may always have our Converfation in Heaven, 
from whence we look for our Saviour the Lord Jefus 

[1. Hallowed he thy Name.] 

STRIKE fuch an Awe in our Hearts, that we may 
humbly reverence thee in tby Name, which is great, 
wonderful, and holy ; and carry fuch a facred Refpecl 
to all Things that relate to thee and thy Worfhip, as 
may exprefs our Reverence to thy great Majefty. Let 
all the People praife thee, O God ! let all the People 
praife thee. 

2. <thy 


[2. Tby Kingdom come.'] 

EStablifli thy Throne, and rule for ever in our Souls, 
and by the Power of thy Grace fubdue all thofe 
rebellious Corruptions that exalt themfelves againft thee; 
They are thofe Enemies of thine, which would not thou 
fhouldeft reign over them. O let them be brought 
forth and flain before thee ; and make us fuch faithful 
Subjects of this thy Kingdom of Grace, that we may be 
capable of the Kingdom of Glory s, and then, Lord Jcfut, 
come quickly! 

[3. Thy Will be done on Ear'b^ &c] 

ENable as by thy grace chearfnlly to fuffer Will 
in all our Afflictions, and readily perform it in all 
thy Commands: Give us of that heavenly Zeal to thy 
Service, wherewith the blefTed Angels of thy Prefence 
are infpired, that we may obey thee with the like Fer- 
vor and Alacrity ; and that following them in their 
Obedience, we may be joined with them to fing eternal 
Praifes in thy Kingdom, to God and to the Lamb for 

[4. Give us this Bay, &c] 

("MVE us that continual Supply of thy Grace, whicli 
Jf may fuftain and nourifh our Souls unto eternal 
Life. And be thou pleafed alfo to provid- for our Bo- 
dies all thofe Things which thou feed fit for their Sup- 
port, through this our earthly Pilgrimage; and make 
us chearfully to reft on thee for them, firft feeking thy 
Kingdom and the Righteoufnefs thereof, and then not 
doubting but all thefe Things (hall be added unto us. 

[5. Forgive us our Trefpajfes, &c] 

HEAL our Souls, O Lore?, for we have finned a- 
gainft thee ; let thy fender Mercies abound to- j j 
wards us, in the Forgvvenefs of ail our Offences : And J V 
grant, O Lord, that we may never forfeit this Pardon I 

of o 

Pious Ejaculations. 293 

of thine, by denying ours to our Brethren ; but give us 
thofe Bowels oi Compaflion to others, which we (land 
in fo much greater Need of from thee, that we may 
forgive as fully and finally upon Chrift's Command, as 
we defire to be forgiven for his Merits and Interceffion. 

[6. Lead us not into Temptation, &c] 

OLord, we have no Strength againft: thofe Multi- 
tudes of Temptations that daily affault us, only our 
Eyes are upon thee : O be thou pleafed either to re- 
ftrain them, or aflift us ; and in thy Faithfulnefs fuffer 
us not to be tempted above that we are able ; but in all 
our Temptations make us a Way to efcape, that we be 
not overcome by them, but may, when thou ftialt call us 
to it, refill even unto Blood, ftriving againft Sin, that be- 
ing faithful unto Death, thou mayeft give us the Crown 
of Life. 

[For ihine is the Kingdom, &c] 

HEAR us, and gracioufly anfwer our Petitions ; for 
thou art the great King over air the Earth, whofe 
Power is infinite, and art able to do for us above all 
that we can afk or think, and to whom belongeth the 
Glory of all that Good thou worked in us, or for us. 
Therefore Bicfling, Honour, Glory, and Power be unto 
him that fitteth upon the Throne, to our God for ever 
and ever. Amen. 

Pious EJACULATIONS taken out 
of the Book of PSALM S. 

Tor Pardon of SIN. 

HAVE Mercy on me, O God, after thy great 
Goodnefs ; according to the Multitude of rhy 
Mercies do away mine Offences. 

Walh me thoroughly from my Wickednefs, and 
cleanfe me from my Sin. Turn 

294 Pious Ejaculations. 

Turn thy Face from my Sins, and put out all my 

My Mifdeeds prevail againft me : O be thou mer- 
ciful unto my Sins. 

Enter not into Judgment with thy Servant, for in thy 
Sight mail no Man living be juftified. 

For thy Name's fake, O Lord, be merciful unto my 
Sin, for it is great. 

Turn thee, O Lord, and deliver my Soul ; O fave 
me for thy Mercies fake. 

For Grace. 

TEACH me to do the Thing that pleafeth thee ; 
for thou art my God. 
Teach me thy way, O Lord, and I will walk in thy 
Truth : O knit my Heart to thee, that I may fear thy 

Make me a clean Heart, O God, and renew a right 
Spirit within me. 

let my Heart be found in thy Statutes, that I be 
not aftiamed. 

Incline my Heart unto thy Teftimonies, and not to 

Turn away mine Eyes, left they behold Vanity, and 
quicken thou me in thy Way. 

1 am a Stranger upon Earth, O hide not thy Com- 
mandments from me. 

Loid, teach me to number my Days, that I may 
apply my Heart unto Wifdom. 

For the Light of God's Countenance. 

LORD, why abhorreft.thou my Soul, and hideft thy 
Face from me ? O hide not thou thy Face from 
me, nor cart thy Servant away in Difpleafure. 
Thy loving kindnefs is better than Life it felf. 
Lord, lift thou up the Light of thy Countenance up- 
on me. 

Comfort the Soul of thy Servant ; for unto thee, O 
Lord, do I lift up my Soul. 


Pious Ejaculations. 295 


I Will always give Thanks unto the Lord, his Praife 
(hall ever be in my Mouth. 

Thou art my God, and I will thank thee ; thou art 
my God, and I will praife thee. 

I will fing unto the Lord as long as I live : I will 
praife my God, whilft I have my Being. 

Praifed be God, who hath not call out my Prayer, 
nor turned his Mercy from me. 

Bleffed be the Lord God, even the God of Ifrael, 
which only doth wondrous Things : 

And bleffed be the Name of his Majefty for ever: And 
all the Earth (hall be filled with his Majefty. Amen, Amen. 

For Deliverance from Trouble. 

BE merciful unto me, O Lord, be merciful unto me; 
for my Soul trufteth in thee, and under the Sha- 
dow of thy Wings (hall be my Refuge, until thefe Cala- 
mities be overpaft. 

Deliver me, O Lord, from mine Enemies : for I flee 
unto thee to hide me. 

O keep my Soul, and deliver me: Let me not be 
confounded : for I have put my Truft in thee. 

Mine Eyes are ever looking unto the Lord; for he 
fhall pluck my Feet out of the Net. 

Turn thee unto me, and have Mercy upon me ; for 
I am defolate, and in Mifery. 

The Sorrows of my Heart are enlarged : O bring 
thou me out of my Troubles. 

For the Church. 

OBe favourable and gracious unto Sion; build thou 
the Walls of Jerufakm. 
O God, wherefore art thou abfent from us fo long ? 
Why is thy Wrath fo hotagainftthe Sheep of thy Pafture? 
O think upon thy Congregation, whom thou haft pur- 
chafed and redeemed of old. 

Look upon the Tribe of thine Inheritance, and 
Mount Sion where thou haft dwelt. 

It is Time for thee, Lord, to lay to thy Hand; for 
they have deftroyed thy Law. 

Arife, O God, and maintain thine own Caufe; deli- 
VOi Ifrael, Q God, out of all his Troubles. 

O Brief 


Brief Heads of Self- Examination, efpe daily 
before the Sacrament, colletled out of the 
foregoing Treatife, concerning the Breaches 
of our Duty, 

To GOD. ~~ 


NOT believing there is a God. 
Not believing his Word. 
Not believing it practically, fo as to live according to 
our Belief. 


DEfpairing of God's Mercy, fo as to neglect Duty. 
Prefuming groundlefly on it, whilft we go on in 
wilful Sin. 


NOT loving God for his own Excellencies. 
Not loving him for his Goodnefs to us. 
Not labouring to pleafe him. 
Not defiring to draw near to him in his Ordinances. 
Not longing to enjoy him in Heaven. 

NO T fearing God, fo as to keep from offending 
Fearing Man above him, by committing Sin, to ftiun 
^bme outward Suffering. 


NOT trufting on God in Dangers and DiftrefTes. 
Ufing unlawful Means to bring us out of them. 
Not depending on God for Supply of our Wants. 
Immoderate Care for our outward Things. 
Neglecting to labour, and expecting God mould fupport 

us in our Idlenefs. 
Not looking up to God for a BlefTmg on our honeft En- 


NOT having a high Efteemof God. 
Not fubmitting obediently to act h'u Will. 


Heads of Self -Examination. 297 

Not patiently fuffering it, but murmuring at his Correc- 

Not amending by them. 

Not being thankful to him. 

Not acknowledging his Wifdom in choofing for us, but 
having eager and impatient Defires of our own. 

NOT honouring God, by a reverent Ufage of the 
Things that relate to him. 

Behaving ourfelves irreverently in his Houfe. 

Robbing God, by taking Things that are confecrated to 

Profaning holy Times, the Lord's Day, and the Feafts 
and Fafb of the Church. 

Neglecting to read the Holy Scriptures ; not marking 
when we do read. 

Being carelefs to get Knowledge of our Duty ; choofing 
rather to continue ignorant, than put ourfelves to the 
Pains or Charge of learning. 

Placing Religion in hearing of Sermons, without Practice. 

Breaking our Vow made at Baptifm. 

By reforting to Witches and Conjurers, /. e. to the Devil. 

By loving the Pomps and Vanities of the World, and 
following its finful Cuftoms. 

By fulfilling the Luftsof theFleih. 

Profaning the Lord's Supper. 

By coming to it ignorantly, without Examination, Con- 
trition, and Purpofes of new Life. 

By behaving ourfelves irreverently at it, without Devo- 
tion and fpiritual Affe&ion. 

By neglecling to keep the Promifesmade at it. 

Profaning God's Name, by blafphemous Thoughts or 

Giving others Occafion to blafpheme him, by our vile 
and wicked Lives. 

Taking unlawful Oaths. 


Swearing in ordinary Communication. 

NOT worfhipping God. 
Omitting Prayers, publick or private, and being 
glad of a Pretence to do Co. 

O z Afking 


Afking unlawful Things, or to unlawful Ends. 
Not purifying our Hearts from Sin before we praj. 
Not praying with Faith and Humility. 
Coldnefs and Deadnefs in Prayer. 
"Wandring Thoughts in it. 
Irreverent Geftures of Body in Prayer. 


NEglecting the Duty of Repentance. 
Not calling ourfelves to daily Account for our Sins. 
Not affigning any fet or folemn Times for Humiliation 

and Confeffion, or too feldom. 
Not deeply confidering our Sin?,, to beget Contrition. 
Not acting Revenge upon ourfelves, by fading, and 0- 
ther Ads of Mortification. 


OUtward Idolatry, in worfhipping of Creatures. 
Inward Idolatry, in placing our Love and other 
Affections more on Creatures than the Creator. 

To our Selves. 


BEing puft up with high Conceits of ourfelv«s. in 
Refpea of natural Parts, as Beauty, Wit, &c. 
Of worldly Riches, and Honours. 
Of Grace. 

Greedily feeking the Praife of Men. 
Directing Chriftian A&ions, as Prayer, Alms, <5V. to 

that End. 
Communing Sins to avoid reproach from wicked Men. 
Ifturbing our Minds with Anger and Peevifhncfs. 



NOT carefully examining what our Eftate towards 
God is. 
Not trying ourfelves by the true Rule, i. e. our Obedi- 
ence to God's Commands. 
Not weighing the Lawfulnefs of our Actions, before we 
venture on them. 


Heads of Self- Examination. 299 

Not examining our part Aclions, to repent of the 111, to 
give God the Glory of the Good. 


UNcontentednefs in our Eftates. 
Greedy Defires after Honour and Riches. 
Seeking to gain them by finful Means. 
Envying the Condition of other Men. 

BEing negligent in obferving and refilling Tempta- 
Not improving God's Gifts, outward or inward, to his 

i^bufing our natural Parts, as Wit, Memory, bV. 
Negle£)ling or refilling the Motions of God's Spirit. 

UNcleannefs, Adultery, Fornication, unnatural 
Lulls, &c. 
Uncieannefs of the Eye and Hand. 
Filthy and obfcene talking. 
Impure Fancies and Defires. 
Heightningof Lull by pampering the Body. 
Not labouring to fubdue it by Failing, or other Severi- 


EAting too much. 
Making Pleafure, not Health, the End of Eating. 
Being too curious or coilly in Meats. 
Drinking more than is ufeful to our Bodies, tho' not to 

Waiting the Time or Etlate in good Fellowship. 
Abufing our Strength of Brain to the making others 

Immoderate Sleeping. 
Idlenefs and Negligence in our Callings. 
Ufing unlawful Recreations. 
Being too vehement upon lawful Ones. 
Spending too much Time at them. 
Being drawn by them to Anger or Covetoufnefs. 
Being proud of Apparel. 

O 3 Striving 


Striving to go beyond our Rank. 

Befiowing too much Time, Care, or Coft about it. 

Abftaining from fuch ExcelTes, not out of Confcience, 

but Covetoufnefs. 
Pinching our Bodies to fill our Purfes. 

To our Neighbour. 


Eing injurious to cur Neighbour. 
Delighting cauflefly to grieve his Mind. 
Infnariog his Soul in Sin, by Command, Counfel, En- 
ticement, or Example. 
Affrighting him from Gcdlinefs by our Scoffing at it. 
Not feeking to bring thofe to Repentance, whom we 
have led into Sin. 


MUrder, open or fecret. 
Drawing Men to Intemperance, or other Vices, 
which may bring Difeafesor Death. 
Stirring Men up to quarrelling and fighting. 
Maiming or hurting the Body of our Neighbour. 
Fiercenefs and Rage againfr him. 


COveting our Neighbour's Wife. 
Aftually defiling her. 

Poiling the Goods of others upon Spite and Malice. 


^SOVETING to gain them to ourfelves. 

Ppreffion by Violence and Force, or Colour of Law. 



NOT paying what we borrow. 
Not paying what we have voluntarily promifed. 
Keeping back the Wages of the Servant and Hireling. 


Heads of Self-Examination. qoi 


UNfaithfulnefs in Trufts, whether to the Living or 
Ufing Arts of Deceit in Buying and*Selling. 
Exacting upon the Necefiities of our NeighLoars. 

B Lading the Credit of our Neighbour. 
By Falfe-Witnefs. 
By Railing. By Whifpering. 

Encouraging others in their Slanders. 
Being forward to believe all ill Reports of our Neighbour. 
Caufelefs Sufpicions. Ram judging of him. 

Defpifing him for his Infirmities. 
Inviting others to do fo, by fcofling and deriding him. 
Bearing any Malice in the Heart. 
Secret vvifhing of Death or Hurt to our Neighbours. 
Rejoicing when any Evil befals him. 
Neglecting to make what Satisfaction we can, for any 
Sort of Injury done to our Neighbour. 

CHurlifh and proud Behaviour to others. 
Froward and peevidi Converfation. 
Bitter and reproachful Language. 
Curfing. (others. 

Not paying the Refpect due to the Qualities or Gifts of 
Proudly overlooking them. 
Seeking to lefien others Efteem of them. 
Not imploying our Abilities, whether of Mind or Eftate, 
in adminiftring to thofe whofe Wants require it. 

UNthankfulnefs to our Benefactors. 
Efpecially thofe that admonifti us. 
Not amending upon their Reproof. 
Being angry at them for it. 

Not reverencing our civil Parent, the lawful Magiftrate. 
Judging and fpeakmg Evil of him, 
Grudging his juft Tributes. 
Sowing Sedition among People. 
Refufmg to obey his lawful Commands. 
Rifing up againft him, or taking Part with them that do. 
Defpifing our fpiritual Fathers. 

O4 Not 


Not loving them for their Works fake. 
Not obeying thofe Commands of God they deliver to usj 
Seeking to withhold from them their juft Maintenance. 
Forfakingour lawful Paftors, to follow factious Teachers. 

STubborn and irreverent Behaviour to our natural 
Defpifwg and publishing their Infirmities* 
Not loving them, nor endeavouring to bring them 

Contemning their Counfels. 
Murmuring at their Government. 
Coveting their Eftates, though by their Death. 
Not miniftring to them in their Wants of all forts. 
Neglecting to pray for God's BlefTing on the feveral 

forts of Parents. 
Want of natural Affection to Children. 
Mothers refuting to nurfe them without a juft Impedi- 
Not bringing them timely to Baptifm. 
No: early intruding them in the Ways of God. 
Storing fhriTi, for want of timely Correction, to get 

Csftoms of Sin. 
Setting them evil Examples. 
Difcouraging them by harlh and cruel Ufage. 
Not providing for their Subfiilence according to OUT 

Confuming their Portions in our own Riot. 
Referving ail till our Death, and letting them want ia 

the mean time. 
Not feeking to entail a BlefTing on them by our Chri* 

ftian Lives. 
Not heartily praying for them. 
Want of Affection to our natural Brethren. 
Envying a. d Heart burnings towards them. 


NO i loving our fpiritual Brethren, i. e. our Fellow* 
C hriftians. 
Having no Fellow-feeling of their Sufferings. 
Caufelefly forfaking their Communion in Holy Duties. 
Not taking deeply to heart the Deflations of the 
Church. MAR : 

Heads of Self -Examination. 303 


MArrying within the Degrees forbidden. 
Marrying for undue Ends, as Covetoufnefs, 
Luit, &c. 
Unkind, froward, and unquiet Behaviour towards the 

Hufband or Wife. 
Unfaithfulnefs to the Bed. 
Not bearing with the Infirmities of each other. 
Not endeavouring to advance one another's Good, fpi- 

ritual or temporal. 
The Wife refilling the lawful Commands of her Huf- 

Her ltriving for Rule and Dominion over him. 
Not praying for each other. 


UNfaithfulnefs to a Friend. 
Betraying his Secrets. 
Denying him Afliftance in his Needs. 
Negle&ing lovingly to admonim him. 
Flattering him in his Faults. 
Forfaking his Friendship upon flight or no Caufe. 
Making Leagues in Sin, initead of virtuous Friendihip. 

SErvants difobeying the lawful Commands of their 
Purloining their Goods. 
Carelefsly wailing them, 
Murmuring at their Rebukes. 
Eye- Service. 


M Afters ufing Servants tyrannically and cruelly. 
Being too remifs, and fuffering them to negleft 
their Duty. 
Having no Care of their Souls. 

Not providing them Means of Inftruclion in Religion. 
Not admoniihing them, when they commit Sins. 
Not allowing them Time and Opportunity for Prayer, 

Oc CHA* 



WAnt of Bowels and Charity to our Neighbours. 
Not heartily defiring their Good fpiritual or 
Not loving and forgiving Enemies. 
Taking a&ual Revenges upon them. 
FalfeneO, profefling Kindnefs, and acting none. 
Not labouring to do all the Good we can to the Soul of 

our Neighbour. 
Not affitiing him to our Power in his bodily DiflrefTes. 
Not defending his good Name, when we know him 

Denying him any neighbourly Office to preferve or ad- 
vance his Eftate. 
Not defending him from OpprelTion, when we have 

Not relieving him in his Poverty. 
Not giving liberally and chearfully. 


NOT loving Peace. 
Going to Law upon flight Occafions. 
Bearing inward Enmity to thofe we fue. 
Net labouring to make Peace among others. 

^THE Vfeof this Catalogue of Sins is this : Upon Days 
of Humiliation, efpecially before the v acrament, read 
them confideringly overhand at every Particular afk thine 
etvu Heart, Am I guilty of this? And nvbatfoever, by 
fuch Examination, thiufindefi thy J elf faulty in, confefs 
particularly and humbly to God, nvitb all the heightening 
Circumflances which may any ivay increafe their Guilt, 
and make ferious Refolutions agaivft every fuch Sin/or the 
future : After nvhich thou mayejl ufe this Fotmfolioiving, 

/^\ Lord, I am afhamed, and blufli to lift up my Face 
^^ to thee ; for my Iniquities are increafed over my 
Head, and my T>efpafs is grown up even to Heaven. 
I have wrought all thefe great Provocations, and that 
in the moft provoking Manner; they have not been on- 
ly fingle, but repeated Acls of Sin • For, O Lord, of alt 
this black Catalogue, which I have now brought be- 
fore thee, how few are there which I have not often 

committed i 

Prayers before the Sacrament. 305 

committed ? Nay, which are not become even habitual 
and cuftomary to me? And to this Frequency I have 
added both a Greedinefs, and Obftinacy in finning, turn- 
ing into my Courfe as the Horfe rufheih into the Battle, 
doing Evil with both Hands, earneitly ; yea, hating to 
be reformed, and calling thy Words behind me, quench- 
ing thy Spirit within me, which teftified againft me, to 
turn me from my evil Ways, and fruftrating all thofe 
outward Means, whether of Judgment or Mercy, which 
thou hartufed to draw me to thy felf. Nay, O Lord 
even my Repentances may be numbered amongft my 
greatefc Sins: They have fometimes been feigned and 
hypocritical, always fo flight and ineffectual, that they 
have brought forth no Fruit in Amendment of Life ; but 
I have ftill returned with the Dog to the Vomit, and the 
Sow to the Mire again, and have added the Breach of 
Refolutions and Vows to all my former Guilts. Thus, 

Lord, I am become out of Meafure finful, and fince I 
have thus chofen Death, I am molt worthy to take part 
in it, even in the fecond Death, the Lake of Fire and 
Brimftone. This, this, O Lord, is in Juftice to be the 
Portion of my Cup ; to me belongs nothing but Shame 
and Confufion of Face eternally ; but to thee, O Lord, 
God, belongeth Mercy and Forgivennefs, tho' I have 
rebelled againft thee. O remember not my Sins and 
Offences, but according to thy Mercy think thou upon 
me, O Lord, for thy Goodnefs. Thou fenteft thy Son to 
feek and to fave that which was loll : Behold, O Lord, 

1 have gone aftray like a Sheep that is loft; O feek thy 
Servant, and bring me back to the Shepherd and Bivhop 
of my Soul. Let thy Spirit work in me a hearty Senfe 
and Deteftation of all my Abominations, that true Con- 
trition of Heart which thou haft promifed not to defpife; 
and then be thou pleafed to look on me, to take away all 
Iniquity, and receive me gracioufly ; and for his fake, 
who hath done nothing amifs, be reconciled to me, who 
have done nothing well : Warn away the Guilt of my 
Sins in his Blood, and fubdue the Power of them by his 
Grace. And grant, O Lord, that I may from this Hour 
bid a final Adieu to all Ungodlinefs and worldly Lulls, 
that I may never once more call a Look towards Scdom, 



or long after the Flefli pots of Egypt ; but confecrate my 
felf entirely to thee, to ferve thee in Righteoufnefs and 
true Holinefs, reckoning myfelf to be dead indeed unto 
Sin, but alive unto God, thro' Jefus Chrift our Loid 
and bleiTed Saviour. 

This Penitential Pfalm may alfo fitly be ufed, 


HAVE Mercy upon me, O God, after thy great 
Goodnefs, according to the Multitude of thy 
Mercies, do away mine Offences. 

Warn me throughly from my Wickednefs, and cleanfe 
me from my Sin. 

For I acknowledge my Faults, and my Sin is ever 
before me. 

Againft thee only have I finned, and done this Evil 
in thy Sight, that thou mighteft be juftified in thy Say- 
ing, and clear when thou art judged. 

Behold I was (hapen in Wickednefs, and in Sin hath 
my Mother conceived me. 

But lo, thou required Truth in the inward Parts, and 
{halt make me to underftand Wifdom fecretly. 

Thou (halt purge me with HyfTop, and I fhall be clean ; 
thou (halt waih me, and I fhall be whiter than Snow. 

Thou fhalt make me hear of Joy and Gladnefs, that 
the Bones which thou haft broken may rejoice 

Turn thy Face from my Sins, and put out all my 

Make me a clean Heart, O God, and renew a right 
Spirit within me. 

Caft me not away from thy Prefence, and take not 
thy Holy Spirit from me. ■ 

O give me the Comfort of thy Help again, and ftab- 
lifh me with thy free Spirit. 

Then (hall I teach thy Ways unto the Wicked, and 
Sinners (hall be converted unto thee. 

Deliver me from Blood guiltinefs, O God, thou that 
art the God of my Health, and my Tongue (hall ling of 
thy Righteoufnefs 

Thou (halt open my Lips, O Lord, and my Mouth 
ihall (hew fgrth thy Praife. 


Prayers before the Sacrament. 307 

For thou defireft no Sacrifice, elfe would I give it 
thee : but thou delighted not in Burnt offering. 

The Sacrifice of God is a troubled Spirit ; a broken 
and contrite Heart, O God, (halt thou notdefpife. 

O be favourable and gracious unto Sion, build thou 
the Walls of Jerufalem. 

Then (halt thou be pleafed with the Sacrifices of 
Righteoufncfs, with the Burnt-offerings and Oblations ; 
then (hall they offer young Bullocks upon thine Altar. 

Glory be to the Father ', and to the Son, and to the 
Holy Ghoft. 

As it zvas in the Beginning, is now, and ever Jball 
he. World without End. Amen. 

PRAYERS before the Receiving oftheblef- 

1T\ Mod merciful God, who haft in thy great Goodnefa 
^^ prepared this fpiritual Feaft for nek and famifhed 
Souls, make my Defires and gafping afier it anfwerable 
to my Needs of it. I have, with the Prodigal, wafted 
that Portion of Grace thou beftowedft upon me, and 
therefore do infinitely want a Supply out of this Trea- 
fury : But, O Lord, how (hall fuch a Wretch as I dare 
to approach this holy Table ? I am a Dog how (hall I 
prefume to take the Children's Bread ? Or, how (hall 
this fpiritual Manna, this Food of Angels, be given to 
one who hath chofen to feed on Hufks with Swine ? 
nay, to one, who hath already fo often trampled thefe 
precious Things under Foot, either carelefly neglefting, 
or unworthily receiving thefe holy Myfteries ? OLord, 
my horrible Guiltinefs makes me tremble to come, and 
yet makes me not dare to keep away ; for where, O 
Lord, lhall my polluted Soul be walhed, if not in this 
Fountain which thou haft opened for Sin, and for Un- 
cleannefs ? Hither therefore 1 come, and thou haft pro- 
mifed, that him that cometh to thee thou wilt 
wife cali out : This is, O Lord, the Blood of the New 
Teftament; grant me fo to receive it, that it may be to me 
for Remiffion of Sins ; and tho' I have fo often, and Co 
wretchedly broken my Part of that Covenant, whereof 



this Sacrament is the Seal, yet be thou gracioufly pleafed, 
to make good thine, to be merciful to my Unrighteouf- 
nefs, and to remember my Sins and my Iniquities no 
more: And not only fo, but to put thy Laws into my 
Heart, and to write them in my Mind ; and by the 
Ppwer of thy Grace difpofe my Soul to fuch a fincere 
and conftant Obedience, that I may never again provoke 
thee. Lord, grant that in thefe holy MyiTeries I may 
not only commemorate, but effectually receive my blef- 
fed Saviour, and all the Benefits of his Paflion ; and to 
that End give me fuch a Preparation of Soul, as may 
qualify me for it : Give me a deep Jenfe of my Sins and 
Unworthinefs, that being weary and heavy laden, I may 
be capable of his Refrefhings; and by being fupplied in 
my own Tears, I may be the fitter to be warned in his 
Blood : Raife up my dull an4 earthly Mind from gro- 
velling here below, and infpire it with a holy Zeal, that 
I may with fpiritual Affection approach this fpiritual 
Feaft: And let, O Lord, that infinite Love of Chrift/ 
in dying for fo wretched a Sinner, inflame my frozen 
benumbed Soul, and kindle in me that facred Fire of 
Love to him; and chat fo vehement, that no Waters 
may quench, no Floods drown it, fuch as may burn up 
all my Drofs, not leave one unmortified Lull in my Soul; 
and fuch as may alfo extend itfelf to all whom thou haft 
given me Command and Example to love, even Ene- 
mies as well as Friends. Finally, O Lord, I befeech thee 
to clothe mc in the Wedding Garment, and make me, 
tho' of myfelf a moll unworthy, yet by thy Mercy an 
acceptable Gueft at this holy Table ; that I may not eat 
and drink my own Condemnation ; but may have my 
Pardon fealed, my Weaknefs repaired, my Corruptions 
fubdued, and my Soui fo infeparably united to thee, that 
no Temptations may ever be able to diiTolve the Union, 
but that being begun here in Grace, it may be confum- 
mated in Glory. Grant this, O Lord, for thy dear Son's 
fake, Jefus Chrift. 


OBlefled Jefus, who once offeredft up thy felf for 
me upon the Crofs, and now offered ui^felf to me 
in the Sacrament, let not, 1 beieech thee, my Impe- 
nitence and Unworthinefs fruftrate thefe fo ineflima- 


Prayers before the Sacrament. 309 

ble Mercies to me, but qualify me by thy Grace to re- 
ceive the full Benefit of them. O Lord, I have abun- 
dant Need of thee, but am fo clogg'd with Guilt, fo hoi- 
den with the Cords of my Sins, that I am not able to 
move towards thee. O loofc me from this Band where- 
with Satan and my own Lufts have bound me, and draw 
me that I may run after thee. Lord, thou feefl drily 
how eagerly I purfue the Paths that lead to Death ; but 
when thou invited me to Life and Glory, I turn my Back, 
and forfake my own Mercy. How often hath this Feaft 
been prepared, and I have with frivolous Excufes abfented 
my felf ? Or if I have come, it hath been rather to derle 
than to adore thee, I have brought fuch Troops of thy 
profefTed Enemies, unrepented Sins, along with me, as if I 
came not to commemorate, but renew thy Paffion, cruci- 
fying thee afrefti, and putting thee to open Shame. And 
now of what Punimment fhall I be thought worthy, who 
have thus trampled under Foot the Son of God, and count- 
ed the Blood of the Covenant an unholy Thing? Yet, O 
merciful Jefu, this Blood is my only Refuge : O let 
this make my Atonement, or I perifh eternally. Where- 
fore didfl thou fhed it, but to fave Sinners? Neither 
can the Merit of it be overwhelmed either by the 
Greatnefs or Number of Sins. I am a Sinner, a great 
one ; C let me find its faving Efficacy. Be merciful 
unto me, O God, be merciful unto me, for my Soul 
trufteth in thee, and in the Clefts of thy Wounds fhalt 
be my Refuge, until thy Father's Indignation be over- 
part. O thou who haft as my High- Pried facrinced for 
me, intercede for me alfo, and plead thy meritorious 
Sufferings on my Behalf, and fufFer not, O my Re- 
deemer, the Price of thy Blood to be utterly loft : And 
grant, O Lord, that as the Sins I have to be forgiven 
are many, fo I may love much. Lord, thou feeft what 
faint, what cold Affe&ions I have towards thee. O 
warm and enliven them : And as in this Sacrament, 
•that tranfeendent Love of thine in dying for me, is fhed 
forth, fo I befeech thee let it convey fuch Grace into 
me, as may enable me to make fome Returns of Love : 
O let this divine Fire defcend from Heaven into my 
Soul, and let my Sins be the Burnt- offering for it to 
confunae, that there may not any corrupt°Affeaion, 



any curfed Thing be (heltered in my Heart, that I may 
never again defile that Place, which thou haft chofen 
for thy Temple. Thou diedft, O dear Jefu, to redeem 
me fiom all Iniqui y : O let me not again fell my felf 
to work Wickednefs. But grant that I may approach 
thee at this Time with mod fincere and fixed Refoluti- 
ons of an entire Reformation, and let me receive fuch 
Grace and Strength from thee, as may enable me faith- 
fully to perform them. Lord, there are many old habi- 
tuated Difeafes my Soul groans under. [Here mention 
thy moft prevailing Corruptions.'] And though I lie never 
fo long at the Pool of Bethefda, come never fo often to 
thy Table, yet unlefs thou be pleafed to put forth thy 
healing Virtue, they will (till remain uncured. O thou 
blefTed Phyfician of Souls heal me, and grant that I may 
now fo touch thee, that every one of thefe loathfome If- 
fues may immediately ftanch, that thefe Sickneffes may 
not be unto Death, but unto the Glory of thy Mercy 
in pardoning, to the Glory of thy Grace in purifying 
fo polluted a Wretch : OChrift hear me, and grant I may 
now approach thee with fuch Humility and Contrition, 
Love and Devotion, that thou mayeft vouchfafe to come 
unto me, and abide with me, communicating to me thy 
felf, and all the Merits of thy Paflion. And then, O 
Lord, let no Accufations of Satan, or my own Confcience 
amaze or diftradt me, but having Peace with thee, let 
me alfo have Peace in my felf, that this Wine may 
make glad, this Bread of Life may ftrengthen my 
Heart, and enable me chearfully to run the Way of thy 
Commandments. Grant this, merciful Saviour, for 
thine own Bowels and Compaflion's Sake. 

EJACULATIONS to beufedatthe 

LORD I am not worthy that thou fhould'ft come 
under my Roof. 
J have finned, what (hall I do unto thee, O thou 
Preferver of Men. 

[Here reco left fome of thy great eft Sins.] 
If thou, Lord, fhouldft be extreme to mark what is 
done amifs, O Lord, who may abide it ? 

But with the Lord there is Mercy, and with him is 
plenteous Redemption. Behold, 

Ejaculations at the Lord's Supper, g i » 

Behold, O Lord, thy beloved Son, in whom thou art 
well pleated. 

Hearken to the Cry of his Blood, which fpeaketh 
better Things than that of Abel. 

By his Agony and bloody Sweat, by his Crofs and 
Paffion, good Lord, deliver me. 

O Lamb of God, which takelt away the Sins of the 
World, grant me thy Peace. 

O Lamb of God, which takeft away the Sins of the 
World, have Mercy upon me. 

Immediately before Receiving. 

THou haft laid, that he that eateth thy Flefh, and 
drinketh thy Blood, hath eternal Life. 
Behold the Servant of the Lord, be it unto me ac- 
cording to thy Word. 

At the Receiving of the Bread. 

BY thy crucified Body deliver me from this Body of 

At the Receiving of the Cup. 
r\ Let this Blood of thine purge my Confcience from 
^^ dead Works to ierve the living God. 

Lord, if thou wilt, thou canft make me clean. 

touch me, and fay, I will, be thou clean. 

After Receiving. 

WHat mail I render unto the Lord for all the Be-' 
nefits he hath done unto me ? 

1 will take the Cup of Salvation, and call upon the 
Name of the Lord. 

Worthy is the Lamb that was flain, to receive Power, 
and Riches, and Wifdom, and Strength, and Honour, 
and Glory, and Bleffing. 

Therefore Bleffing, Honour, Glory, and Power be to 
him thatfitteth upon the Throne, and to the Lamb for 
ever and ever. Amen. 

I have fworn, and am fledfaflly pufpofed to keep 
thy righteous Judgments. 

O hold thou up my Goings in thy Paths, that my 
Foot-fteps flip not. 

A 1 bank/giving after the Receiving of the Sacrament. 
£\ Thou Fountain of all Goodnefs, from whom every 
^* good and perfect Gift cometh, and to whom all 



Honour and Glory mould be returned, I defire with all 
the moft fervent and inflamed Affections of a grateful 
Heart, to blefs and praife thee for thofe ineftimable 
Mercies thou haft vouchfafed me. Lord, what is Man, 
that thou fhouldft fo regard him, as to fend thy beloved 
Son to fuffer fuch bitter Things for him ? But, Lord, 
what am I, the worft of Men, that I mould have any 
Part in this Atonement, who have fo often defpifed him 
and his Sufferings ? O the Heigh th and Depth of this 
Mercy of thine, that art pleafed to admit me to the 
renewing of that Covenant with thee, which I have fo 
often and foperverfly broken ! That I, who am not wor- 
thy of that daily Bread which fuftains the Body, fhould 
be made Partaker of this Bread of Life, which nourifheth 
the Soul ! And that the God of all Purity fhould vouch- 
fafe to unite himfelf tofo polluted a Wretch ! Omy God, 
fuffer me no more, I befeech thee, to turn thy Grace 
into Wantonnefs, to make thy Mercy an Occafion of 
Security, but let this unfpeakable Love of thine conftrain 
me to Obedience ; that fince my blefled Lord hath died 
for me, 1 may no longer live unto myfelf, but to him. 
O Lord, I know there is no Concord between Chrift 
and Belial ; theiefore fince he hath now been pleafed 
to enter my Heart, O let me never permit any Lull to 
chafe him thence, but let him that hath fo dearly bought 
me, ftill keep Pofftilion of me, and let nothing ever 
take me out of his Hand. To this End be thou graci- 
oufly pleafed to watch over me, and defend me from all 
Affaults of my fpiritual Enemies ; but especially deli- 
ver me from my felf, from the Treachery of my own 
Heart, which is too willing to yield itfelf a Prey. And 
where tho ; i feeft I am either by Nature or Cuftom moft 
weak there do thou, I befeech thee, magnify thy Power 
in my Preservation. [Here mention thy mo/1 dangerous 
Temptations.] And, Lord, let my Saviour's Sufferings 
for my Sins, and the Vows I have now made againft 
them never depart from my Mind ; but let the Remem- 
brance of the one enable me to perform the other, that 
I may never make Truce with thofe Lufts which nailed 
his Hands, pierced his Side, and made his Soul heavy to 
the Death: But that having now a new lifted my felf un- 
der his Banner I may fight manfully, and follow the 


Prayers after the Sacrament. 3 1 3 

Captain of my Salvation, even through a Sea of Blood. 
Lord, lift up my Hands that hang down, and my feeble 
Knees, that I faint not in this Warfare : O be thou my 
Strength, who am not able of myfelf to ftruggle with 
the flighted Temptations. How often have I turned my 
Back in the Day of Battle? How many of thefefacramen- 
tal Vows have I violated ? And, Lord, I have itill the 
fame ur.conftant deceitful Heart to betray me to the Breach 
of this. O thou, who art Yea and Amen, in whom there 
is no Shadow of Change, communicate to me, I befeech 
thee, fuch a Stability of Mind, that I may no more thus 
ftart afidelike a broken Bo wj but that having my Heart 
whole with thee, I may continue ftedfait in thy Cove- 
nant, that not one good Purpofe which thy Spirit ha:h 
raifed in me this Day, may vanifh, as fo many have 
formerly done ; but that they may brin^ forth Fruit 
unto Life eternal. Grant this, O merciful father, through 
the Merits and Mediation of my crucified Saviour. 

A Prayer of Interce/Jicn, to be ufed either he/ore or after 
the Receiving of the Sacrament. 

OMoft gracious Lord, who fo tenderly lovedft Man- 
kind, as to give thy dear Son out of thy Bofom 
to be a Propitiation for the Sins of the whole World, 
grant that the Effect of this Redemption may be as uni- 
verfal as the Defign of it, that it may be to the Sal- 
vation of all. O let no Perfon by Impenitence and 
wilful Sin forfeit his Part in it ; but by the Power of 
thy Grace bring all, even the moft obttinate Sinners, to 
Repentance. Enlighten all that fi; in Darknefs, all Jews, 
Turks, Infidels, and Hereticks ; take from them all Blind- 
nefs. Hardnefs of Heart, and Contempt of thy Word ; and 
fo fetcii them home, blefied Lord, unto thy Fold, that 
they may be faved among the Number of the true If- 
raelites. And for all thofe upon whom the Name of 
thy Son is called, grant, O Lord, that their Converfa- 
tions may be fuch as becometh the Gofpcl of Chri.'l ; 
that his Name be no longer blafphemed among the Hea- 
thens through us. O blefied Lord, how long (hall Cbri- 
jhndom continue the vilelt Part of the World, a Sink 
of all thofe abominable Pollutions, which even Barba- 


rians deteft ? O let not our Profeflion and our Practice* 
be always at fo wide a Diftance. Let not the DifcipleS 
of the holy and immaculate Jefus be of all others the 
moft profane and impure. Let not the Subjects of 
the Prince of Peace be of all others the moft contentious 
and bloody ; but make us Chriftians in deed, as well 
as in Name, that we may walk worthy of that holy Vo- 
cation wherewith we are called, and may all with one 
Mind and one Mouth glorify thee the Father of our Lord 
Jefus Chrift. Have Mercy on this languifhing Church ; 
look down from Heaven, the Habitation of thy Holi- 
nefs, and of thy Glory. Where is thy Zeal and thy 
Strength, the Sounding of thy Bowels and of thy Mercies 
towards us ? Are they reftrained ? Be not wroth very fore, 
OLord, neither remember Iniquity forever : But though 
ourBack-flidings are many, and we have grievoufly rebel- 
led, yet according to all thy Goodnefs let thy Anger and ! 
thy Fury be turned away, and caufe thy Face to (hine upon 
thy Sanctuary, which is defolate, for the Lord's Sake; and 
fo feparate between us and ourSins,that they may no long- 
er feparate between us and our God. Save and defend all 
Chriftian Kings, Princes, and Governors, efpecially thofe 
to whom we owe Subjection ; plead thou their Caufe, O 
Lord, againft thofe that ftrive wi:h them, and fight thou 
againft thofe that fight againft them j and fo guide and 
aflift them in the difcharge of that Office whereunto thou 
haft appointed them, that under them we may lead a 
quiet and peaceable Life in all Godlinefs and Honefty. 
Blefi them that wait at thine Altar, open thou their 
Lips, that their Mouth may (hew forth thy Praife. O let 
not the Lights of the World be put under Bumels, but 
place them in their Candlefticks, that they may give 
Light to all that are in the Houfe. Let not Jeroboatnt 
Priefts profane thy Service ; but let the Seed of Aaron 
ftill minifter before thee. And O thou Father oi Mer- 
cies, and God of all Comfort, fuccour and relieve all 
that are in Affliction ; deliver the Out-caft and Poor, help 
them to Right that fufFer Wrong; let the forrowful Sigh- 
ing of the Prifoners come before thee ; and according to 
the Greatnefs of thy Power preferve thou thofe that are 
appointed to die ; grant Eafc to thofe that are in Pain, 


A Prayer in Times of Perfecution. 3 1 5 

•Supplies to thofe that fuffer Want ; give to all prefump- 
tuous Sinners a Senfe of their Sins, and to all defpairing, 
a Sight of thy Mercies : And do thou, O Lord, for 
everyone abundantly above what they can afk or think. 
Forgive my Enemies, Perfecutors and Slanderers, and 
turn their Hearts. Pour down thy Bleflings on all my 
Friends and Benefactors, all who have commended them- 
felves to my Prayers. [ Here tbou mayeji name particular 
Per/ons.] And grant, O merciful Father, that through 
this Blood of the Crofs we may all be prefented pure and 
unblameable, and unreproveable in thy Sight ; that fo 
we may be admitted into that Place of Purity, where 
no unclean Thing can enter, there to fing eternal Praifei 
to Father, Son, and Holy Ghoft, for ever. 

A Prayer in Times of common Perfecution. 

OBleffed Saviour, who haft made the Crofs the Badge 
of thy Difciples, enable me, I befeech thee, willing- 
ly and chearfully toembrace it : Thou feeft, O Lord, I am 
fallen into Days, wherein he that departeth from Evil, 
maketh himfelf a Prey; O make me fo readily toexpofe 
all my outward Concernments, when my Obedience to 
thee requireth it, that what falls as a Prey to Men, may 
by thee be accepted as a Sacrifice to God. Lord, preferve 
me fo by thy Grace, that I never fuffer as an evil Doer ; 
and then, O Lord, if it be my Lot to fuffer asaChriftian, 
let me not be afhamed, but rejoice that I am counted 
worthy to fuffer for thy Name. O thou, who for my 
Sake enduredft the Crofs, and defpifedft the Shame, let 
the Example of that Love and Patience prevail againft all 
theTremblingsof my corrupt Heart, that no Terrors may 
;ver be able to fhake my Conflancy ; but, that how long 
(bever thou (halt permit the Rod of the Wicked to lie on 
my Back, I may never put my Hand unto Wickednefs. 
Lord, thou knoweft whereof I am made, thou remem- 
bered that I am but Flefh ; and Flefh, O Lord, fhrinks at 
he Approach of any Thing grievous, it is thy Spirit, thy 
spirit alone, that can uphold me. O eftablifh. rre with thy 
ree Spirit, that I be not weary and faint in my Mind. And 
)v how much the greater thou difcemeft my Weaknefs, fo 
nuch the more do thou (hew forth thy Power in me ; and 
nake me, OLord, in all Temptations ltedfallly to look to 



Thee, the Author and Finimer of my Faith ; thatfo I may 
run the Race which is let before me, and refill even unto 
Blood, driving againft Sin. O dear Jefus, hear me ; and 
tho' Satan defire to have me, that he may winnow me 
as Wheat, yet do thou, O bleffed Mediator, pray fcr 
me, that my Faith fail not ; but that, tho' it be tried 
with Fire, it may be found unto Praife and Glory, and 
Honour, at thy Appearing. And, O Lord, I befeech 
thee, grant that I may preferve not only Conftancy 
towards God, but Charity alfo towards Men, even 
thofe whom thou (halt permit to be the Initruments of 
my Sufferings : Lord, let me not fail to imitate that ad- 
mirable Meeknefs of thine, in loving and praying for my 
greateft Perfecutors : And do thou, O Lord, overcome all 
their Evil with thy infinite Goodnefs, turn their Hearts, 
and draw them powerfully to thy felf, and at laft receive 
both me and mine Enemies into thofe Manfions of Peace 
and Reft, where thou reigneft with the Father and the 
Holy Ghoft, one God, for ever. 

A Prayer in 'time of Ajfliclion. 

OJuft and holy Lord, who with Rebukes doll cha- 
ften Man for Sin, I defire unfeignedly to humble 
myfelf under thy mighty Hand, which now lies heavy 
upon me ; I heartily acknowledge, O Lord, that all I 
do, all I can fuffer, is but the due Reward of my Deeds, 
and therefore in thy fevereft Inflictions I mult ftill fay, 
Righteous art thou, O Lord, and upright are thy Judg- 
ments. But, O Lord, I befeech thee, in Judgment re- 
member Mercy, and though my Sins have enforced thee to 
ftrike, yet confider my Weaknefs, and let not thy Stripes 
be more heavy or more lading than thou feeft profitable 
for my Soul: Correct me, but with theChaftifement of a 
Father, not with the Wounds of an Enemy ; and though 
thou take not off thy Rod, yet take away thine Anger. 
Lord, do not abhor my Soul, nor caft thy Servant away 
in Difpleafure, but pardon my Sins, I befeech thee ; and 
if yet in thy Fatherly Wifdom thou fee fit to prolong 
thy Corrections, tby blelTed Will be done. I caft my- 
felf, O Lord, at thy Feet; do with me what thou 
pleafeft. Try me as Silver is tried, fo thou bring me out 
purified. And Lord, make even my Flelh alfo to fub-, 
fcribe to this Refignation, that there may be nothing in 



"Directions for the 'Time of Sicknefs. 3 1 y 

me that may rebel againft thy Hand, but that having per- 
fectly fupprefled all repining Thoughts, I may chear- 
fully drink of this Cup : And, how bitter foever thou 
(halt pleafe to make it, Lord, let it prove medicinal, 
and cure all the Difeafes of my Soul, that it may bring 
forth in me the peaceable Fruit of Righteoufnefs, that 
fo thefe light Afflictions, which are but for a Moment, 
may work for me a far more exceeding and eternal 
Weight of Glory, through Jefus Chrift. 

A Thank/giving for Deliverance. 

OBlefled Lord, who art gracious and mercifal, flow 
to Anger, and of great Kindnefs, and repenteft 
thee of the Evil; I thankfully acknowledge before 
thee, that thou haft not dealt with me after my Sins, nor 
rewarded me according to my Iniquities. My Rebellions, 
OLord, deferved to b^fcourged wiih Scorpions, and thou 
haft corrected them only with a gentle and fatherly Rod; 
neither haft thou fuffered me to lie long under that, but 
haft given me a timely and a gracious Iffue out of my late 
Diftrefles. O Lord, I will be glad, and rejoice in thy Mer- 
cy; for thou haftconfidered my Trouble, and haft known 
my Soul, in Adverfity. Thou haft fmitten, and thou 
haft healed me. O let thefe various Methods of thine 
have their proper Effedts upon my Soul, that I, who have 
felt the Smart of thy Chaftifements, may ftand in Awe 
and not fin: And that I, who have likewife felt the 
fweet Refrelhings of thy Mercy, may have my Heart ra- 
vilhed with it, and knit to thee in the firmeft Bands of 
Love; and that by both I may be preferved in a conftant 
entire Obedience to theeall my Days, through JefusChrift. 

Diretficns for the Time of Sicknefs. 

WHEN thou hndeft thyfelf vifited with Sicknefs, 
thou art immediately to remember, that it is 
God, which <witb Rebukes doth chajlen Men for Sin. 
And therefore let thy firft Care be to find out what it is 
that provokes him to fmitethee: and to that Purpofe 
examine thine own Heart, fearch diligently what Guiles 
lie there, confefs them humbly and penitently to God, 
and for the greater Security, renew thy Repentance for 
1 all the old Sins of thy former Life; beg moft earneftly 
and importunately his Mercy and Pardon in Chrift Jefus, 
\ and 


and put on fincere and zealous Refolutions of forfaking 
every evil Way for the reft of that Time which God 
(hall fpare thee. And that thy own Heart deceive thee 
not in this fo weighty a Bufinefs, it will be Wifdom to 
fend for fome godly Divine, not only to aflift thee with 
his Prayers, but with his Counfel alfo. And to that Pur- 
pofe open thy Heart fo freely to him, that he may be 
able to judge whether thy Repentance be fuch as may- 
give thee Confidence to appear before God's dreadful 
Tribunal ; and that, if it be not, he may help thee 
what he can towards the making it fo. And when thoa 
haft thus provided for thy better Part, thy Soul, then 
confider thy Body alfo: And as the wile Man faith, 
Eccluf. xxxviii. I 2. Give Place to the Phyfidan ; for the 
Lord hath created him. Ufe fuch Means as may be 
moft likely to recover thy Health; but always remem- 
ber that the Succefs of them muft come from God ; and 
beware of Afa^s Sin, who fought to the Phy/ieians and 
not to the Lord, 2 Chr. xvi. 12. Difpofe alfo betimes of 
thy temporal Affairs, by making thy Will, and fetting 
all Things in fuch Order as thou meaneft finally to leave 
them in, and defer it not till thy Sicknefs grow more vi- 
olent : For then perhaps thou fhalt not have fuch Ufe 
of thy Reafon as may fit. thee for it ; or, if thou have, 
it will be then much more reafonable to imploy thy 
Thoughts on higher Things, on the World thou art 
going to, rather than that thou art about to leave. We 
cannot carry the Things of this World with us when we 
go hence, and it is not fit we fhould carry the Thoughts 
of them. Therefore let thofe be early difpatched, that 
they may not difturb thee at laft. 

A Prayer for a fick Perfon. 

O Merciful and righteous Lord, the God of Healtk 
and of Sicknefs. of Life and of Death I moft un- 
feignedly acknowledge that my great Abufe of thofe 
many Days of Strength and Welfare, which thou haft 
afforded me, hath moft juftly deferved thy prefent Vifi- 
tation I defire, O Lord, humbly to accept of this 
Punifhment of mine Iniquity, and to bear the Indigna- 
tion of the Lord, becaufe I have finned againft him. 
And, O thou merciful Father, who defigneft not the Ru- 
in, but the Ameadment of thofe, whom thou fcourgeft. 

A Vhankjgiving for Recovery. 3 r 9 

thee by thy Grace (o to fanclify this Correction of thine 
to me, that this Sicknefs of my Body may be a Means 
of Health to my Soul ; make me diligent to fearch my 
Heart; and do thou. O Lord, enable me to difcover every 
accurfed Thing, how clofely foever concealed there, that 
by the Removal thereof I may make Way for the Remov- 
al of this unifhment. Heal my Soul, O Lord, which hath 
finned againftthee ; and then, if it be thy blefled Will, 
heal my Body alfo ; reftore the Voice of Joy and Health 
unto my Dwelling, that I may live to praife thee, and 
to bring forth Fruits of Repentance. But if in thy Wif- 
dom thou haft othervvife difpofed, if thou haft determined 
that this Sicknefs ihall be unto Death, I befeech thee to 
fit and prepare me for it : Give me that fincere and 
carneft Repentance, to which thou haft promifed Mercy 
and Pardon ; wean my Heart from the World, and all 
its fading Vanities, and make me to gafp and pant after 
thofe more excellent and durable Joys, which are at thy 
right Hand for ever. Lord, lift thou up the Light of 
thy Countenance upon me, and, in all the Pains of my 
Body , and in all the Agonies of my pirit, let thy Comforts 
refrefh my Soul, and enable me patiently to wait till my 
Change come. And grant, O Lord, thatwhen my earth- 
ly Houfe of this Tabernacle is diflblved, I may have a 
Building of God, an Houfe not made with Hands, eternal 
in the Heavens ; and that for his Sake, who by his pre- 
cious Blood hath purchafed it for me, even Jefus Chrift. 

A Thank/giving for Recovery. 

O Gracious Lord, the God of the Spirits of all Flefh, 
in wnofe Hand my Time is, I praife and magnifie 
thee, that thou haft, in Love to my Soul, delivered it from 
the Pit of Corruption, and reltored me to Health again. 
It is thou alone, O Lord, that haft preferved my Life 
from Deftruction ; thou haft chaftened and corrected me, 
but thou haft not given me over unto Death. O let 
this Life, which thou haft thusgracioufly fpared, be whol- 
ly couiecrated to thee Behold, O Lord, I am by thy 
Mercy made whole ; O make me ftri&ly careful to fin 
no more, left a worfe Thing come unto me. Lord, 
let not this Reprieve thou ruft now given me, make me 
feci] re, as thinking that my Lord delay eth his coming ; 
F but 


but grant me, Ibe r eech thee, to make a right Ufe of 
this Long- fufFering of ihine, and fo to employ every 
Minute of that Time thou (halt allow me, that when 
thou fhclt appear, I may have Confidence, and not be 
afhimed before thee at thy Coming. Lord, I have found 
by this Approach towards Death how dreadful a Thing 
it is to be taken unprepared : O let it be a perpetual 
Admonition to me to watch for my Matter's Coming: 
Ard when the Plealures of Sin {hall prefent themfelves 
to entice me, O make me to remember how bitter they 
will be at the laft. O Lord hear me ; and as thou 
haft in much Mercy afforded me Time, {o grant me al- 
fo Grace to work out my own Salvation, to provide 
Oil in my Lamp, that when the Bridegroom cometh, 
I may go in with him to the Marriage. Grant this, 1 
beieech thee, for thy dear Son's Sake. 

A Prayer at the Approach of Death. 

O Eternal and everlafting God, who firft breathedfl: 
into Man the Breath of Life, and when thou ta- 
ke ft away that Breath, he dies, and is turned again to his 
Duft 3 look with Compaflion on me thy poor Creature, 
who am now drawing near the Gates of Death, and, 
which is infinitely more terrible, the Bar of Judgment. 
Lord, my own Heart condemnsvme, and thou art infi- 
nitely greater than my Heart, and knoweft all Things. 
The Sins I know, and remember, fill me with Horror, 
but there are alio Multitudes of others, which! either ob- 
ferved not at that Time, or have fince careJefly forgot, 
which are all prefent to thee. Thou fetteft my Mifdeeds 
before thee, and my fecretSins in the Light of thy Coun- 
tenance ; ar.d to what a mountainous Heap muft the 
minutely Provocations of fo many Years arife ? How long 
(hall one fo ungodly ftand in thy Judgment, or fuch a 
Sinner in the Congregation of the Righteous ! And, to add 
yet more to my Terror, my very Repentance, I fear, 
will not abide the Trial ; my frequent Relapfes heretofore 
have fufnciently witnefled the Infincerity of my paft Re- 
folutions. And then, O \ ord, what can fecure me, 
that my prefent Diflikes of my Sins are not rather the Ef- 
fects of my amazing Danger, fhan of any real Change ? 
And, O Lord, I know thou art not mocked, nor wilt 
accept of any Thing that is not perfectly finco-e. O 


A Prayer at the Approach of Death. 3 1 1 

Lord, when I confider this, Fearfulnef* and Trembling 
cometh upon me, and an horrible Dread overwhelmed 
me, my Flefh trembleth for Fear of thee, and my Heart 
is wounded within me. But, O Lord, one Deep calletii 
upon another, the Depth of my Mifery upon the Depth 
of thy Mercy : Lord, fave now, or I perifh eternally. 
O thou, who willed not that any fhould perifh, but that 
ell would come to Repentance, bring me, I befcech thee, 
though thus late, to a fincere Repentance, fuch as rhou 
wilt accept, who tried the Heart. Create in rne, O God, 
a clean Heart, and renew a right Spirit within me. Lord, 
one D.iy is with thee as a thouland Years ; O let thy migh- 
ty Spirit work in me now, in this my lail Day, whatsoe- 
ver thou Left wanting to fit me for thy «Y?ercy and Ac- 
ceptation. Give me a perfect and entire Hatred of my 
Sins, and enable rr.e to prefem thee with thit Sacrifice 
of a broken and contrite Heart, which thou haft promi- 
sed not to defpife ; that by this I may be made capable 
of that Atonement, which thy dear Son hath, by the more 
excellent Oblation of himfelf, made for all repenting Sin- 
nets. He is the Propitiation for our Sins ; he was woun- 
ded for our Tranfg -efiions; he was bruifed for our Ini- 
quities ; the Crnftifement of our P??ce was on him. O 
heal me by his Stripes, and let the Cry of his Blood drown 
the Clamour of my Sins. I am indeed a Child of Wrath, 
but he is the Son of thy Love ; for his Sake {pare me, O 
Lord, fpare thy Creature, whom he hath redeemed 
with his mod precious Blood, and be not angry wich 
me for ever. In his Wounds, O Lord, I take Sanctua- 
ry ; O let not thy Vengeance purfue me to this City of 
Refuge : My Soul hangcth upon him, O let me not pe- 
rifh with a Jefus, with a Saviour in my Arms. But by his 
Agony and bloody Sweat, by his Crofs and Pafiion, by 
all that he did and fuffered for Sinners, good Lord, deli- 
ver me ; deliver me, I befcech thee, from the Wages of 
my Sins, thy Wrath and everlaftmg Damnation, in this 
Time ofmyTribulatibn, in the Hour o' Death, and in the 
Day of Judgment. Hear me, O Lotd, hear me, and 
do not now repay my former Neglects of thy Calls, by 
refuling to aniwer me in this Time of my greatelt Need. 
Lord, there is but a Slcp between me and Death. O let 
not my Sun go do^n upon thy Wrath, but feul my Par- 
P 2 don. 


don, before I go hence and be no more {ben. Thy Lo- 
ving-kindnefs is better than the Life itfelf; Olet me hav« 
that in Exchange, and I (hall moft gladly lay down this 
mortal Life. Lord, thou knoweft all my Defire, and 
my Groaning is not hid from thee ; deal thou with me, 

Lord, according to thy Name, for fweet is thy Mer- 
cy j take away the Sting of Death, the Guilt of my Sins, 
and then, though I walk through the Valley of the Sha- 
dow of Death, I will fear no Evil. I will lay me down 
in Peace, and, Lord, when I awake up, let me be fatif- 
fied with thy Prefencein thy Glory. Grant this, merci- 
ful God, for his Sake, who is both the Redeemer and 
Mediator of Sinners, even Jefus Chrift. 


PUT me not to Rebuke, O Lord, in thine Anger, 
neither chaften me in thy heavy Difpleafure. 

There is no Health in my Flefh becaufe of thy 
Difpleafure : Neither is there any Reft in my Bones by 
Reafon of my Sins. 

For my Wickedneffes are gone over my Head, and are 
a fore Burden, too heavy for me to bear. 

My Wounds ftink, and are corrupt, through my 

Therefore is my Spirit vexed within me, and my 
Heart within me is defolate. 

My Sins have taken fuch Hold upon me, that I am not 
able to look up : Yea, they are more in Number than 
the Hairs of my Head, and my Heart hath failed me. 

But thou, O Lord, art full of Companion and 
Mercy, Long- fuffering, plenteous inGoodnefsandTruth. 

Turn thee unto me, and have Mercy upon me ; for 

1 am defolate and in Mifery. 

If thou, Lord, (hould be extream to mark what is 
done amifs, O Lord, who may abide it ? 

O remember not the Sins and Offences of my Youth : 
But according to thy Mercy think thou upon me, for 
thy Goodneis. 

Look upon my Adverfity and Mifery, and forgive 
me all my Sin. 

Hide not thy Face from thy Servant, for I am in 
Trouble : O hafte tnee, and heSr me. 

Out of the Deep do I call unto thee, Lord, hear my 
Voice. Turn 

Ejaculations for the Sick. 323 

Turn thee, O Lord, and deliver my Soul : O fave me 
for thy Mercies Sake. 

go not from me ;. for Trouble is hard at Hand, 
and there is none to help. 

1 Mretch forth my Hands unto thee : My Soul gafpeth 
unto thee as a thirily Land. 

Draw nigh unto my Soul, and fave it : O deliver me 
becaufe of mine Enemies. 

For my Soul is full of Trouble, and my Life draweth 
nigh unto Hell. 

Save me from the Lion's Mouth : Hear me from 
among the Horns of the Unicorns. 

O fet me upon the Rock that is higher than I, for 
thou art my Hope, and a ltrong Tower for me againft 
the Enemy. 

Why art thou fo heavy, O my Soul, and why art 
thou io difquie ed within me ? 

Put thy Trull in God ; for I will yet give him Thanks 
for the Help of his Countenance. 

The Lord (hall make good his Loving-kindnefs to- 
wards me j yea, thy Mercy, O Lord, endureth for ever : 
Dtfpife not thou the Work of thine own Hands. 
f~\ God, thou art my God, early will I leek thee. 
^^ My Soul thirtieth for thee, my Flefti alfo longeth 
after thee, in a barren and dry Land, where no Water is. 

Like as the Hart defireth the Water brook, fo 
longeth my Soul after thee, O God. 

My Soul is a-thirft for God, even for the living God ; 
when (hall I come to appear before the Prefence of God? 

How amiable are thy Dwellings, O Lord of Holts ! 

My Soul hath a Dehre and Longing to enter into 
the Courts of the Lord : My Flelh and my Heart re- 
joyceth in the living God. 

O that I had Wmgs like a Dove ! for then would I 
flee away, and be at reft. 

fend out thy Light and thy Truth, that they may 
lead me, and bring me unto thy holy Hill, and to thy 

For one Day in thy Courts is better than a thoufand. 

1 had rather be a Door-keeper in the Houfe of my 
God, than to dwell in the Tents of Wickednefs. 

Pj, I mould 


I mould utterly have fainted, but that I believed ve- 
rily to fee the Gcodnefs of the Lord in the Land of the 

Thou art my Helper and my Redeemer : O Lord, 
make no ior,g tarrying. 


OLord, of whom may I feek for Succour, but of 
thee, who for my Sins art juftly difpleafed ? Yet, 
O Lord God mod holy, O Lord mofr mighty, O holy 
aad melt mcrc'ful Saviour, deliver me not into the bit- 
ter Pains cf eternal Death. 

Thou kuoweft, Lord, the Secrets of my Heart ; (hut 
not up thy merciful Eats ;o my Prayer, but hear me, 
O Lord moil holy, O God molt mighty, O holy and 
merciful Saviour, thou nwft worthy Judge eternal, fuf- 
fei me not at my lail Hour, for any Pains of Death, to 
fall from thee*. 

Father, I have finned sgainft Heaven, and before thee, 

I and am not worthy to be called thy Child : Yet, O Lord, 

' do not thou cafe off the Bowels and CcmpafT;cns of a 

father, but even as a Father pitietn his own Children, 

fo be thou merciful unto me. 

Lord, the Prince of thisWorld cometh, O let him have 
nothing in me ; but, as he accufeth, do thou abfolve : 
He lays many and grievous Things to my Charge, which 
he can too well prove ; I have nothing to fay for my(df t 
do thou anfwer for me, O Lord my God. 

O Lord, lam cloathed with filthy Garments, and Sa- 
tan (lands at my right Hand to refift me j O be thou 
pleafed to rebuke him, and pluck me as a Brand out of 
the Fire ; oaufe mine Iniquities to pafs from me, and 
cloathe me with the Righteoufnefs of thy Son. 

Behold, O God, the Devil is coming towards me, 
having great Wrath, becaule he knoweth he hath but 
a (hort Time. O fave and deliver me, leil he de\cur 
my Soui like a Lion, and tear it in Pieces while there 
is nr>ne to help. 

O my God, I know that no unclean Thing can enter 
into thy Kingdom, and I am nothing but Pollution ; 
my very Rightceufnefiiesaieas filthy Rags. Owaih me, 


Ejaculations for the Sick. 325 

arid make me white in the Blood of the Lamb, that To I 
may be fit to (land before thy Throne. 

Lord, the Snares of Death compafs me round about ; O 
let nut the Pains of Hell alio take hold upon me : But 
though I find Trouble and Heaviness, jet, O Lord, \ 
befeech thee, deliver my Soul. 

O dear Jefus, who halt bought me with the precious 
Price of thine own Llcod, challenge nou thy PuichjUc, 
and let not the Malice of Hell pluck me out of thy 

O blefTed High-Prieft, who art able to fave them to 
the utmoft, who come unto God by thee ; fave me, I 
befeech thee, who have no Hope but on thy Merits 
and Intercefhon. 

O God, I confefs I have defaced that Image of thine 
thou didft imprint upon my Soul ; yet, O thou faithful 
Creator, have Pity on thy Creature. 

O Jefu, I have by my many and grievous Sins crucified 
thee afrefh ; ) et thou who prayeditfor thy Periecuiors, 
intercede for me alfo, and fuffer not, O my Redeemer, 
my Soul (the Price of thy Blood) to perifli. 

O pirit of Grace, I have, by my horrid Impieties, 
done defpite to thee ; yet, O blefied Comforter, though 
I have often grieved thee, be thou pleafed to fuccour 
and relieve me, and lay unto my Soul 1 am thy Salvation. 
Mine Eyes look unto thee, O Lord, in thee is my 
Truft ; O call not out my Soul. 

O Lord, in thee have I trailed ; let me never Le 

O Blefied Lord, who fcourgeft every Son whom 
thou received ; let me not be weary of thy Cor- 
rection, but give me fuch a perfect Subjection to thee 
the Father of Spirits, that this Chaftifement may be 
for my Profit, that I may thereby be Partaker of thy 

O thou Captain of mv Salvation, who wert made 
perfect by Sufeiin^s, fanctify to me all the Pains of 
Body, all the Terrors of Mind, which thou malt per- 
mit to fall upon me. 

Lord, my Sins havedeferved eternal Torments; make 

me chearfully and thankfully to bear my prefeut Pains; 

P 4 chafien 



chaften me as thou pleafeft here, that I may not be 
condemned with the World. 

Lord, the Waters are come in even unto my Soul : 
O let thy Spirit move upon thefe Waters, and make 
them like the Pool of Bethefda, that they may cure 
whatfoever fpiritual Difeaie thoudifcerneft in me. 

OChrift, whofirfefurTeredft many and grievousThings, 
and then enteredft into thy Glory ; make me fo to iuffer 
with thee, that I may alio be glorified with thee. 

dear Jefus who humbledft thyfelf to the Death of 
the Crofs for me, let that Death of thine fweeten the 
Bitternefs of mine. 

When thou hadft overcome the Sharpnefs of Death, 
thou didft open the Kingdom of Heaven to all Believers. 

1 believe that thou (halt come to be my Judge. 

I pray thee therefore help tny Servant, whom thou 
haft redeemed with thy moft precious Blood. 

Make me to be numbred with thy Saints in Glory 
eve Haft in g. * 

Thou art the Refurreftion and the Life : He that be- 
lieveth in thee, though he were dead, yet (hall he live": 
Lord, I believe, help thou my Unbelief. 

My Flefh and my Heart faileth ; but God is tht 
Strength of my Heart, and my Portion for ever. 

I defire to be difi'olved, and to be with Chrift, which 
is he bttter : Lord, I groan earneftly, defiring to be 
cloathed with that Houfe from Heaven. 

I defire to put off this my Tabernacle : O be pleafed 
to receive me into everlafting Habitations. 

Bring my Soul out of Prifon, that I may give Thanks 
unto thy Name. 

Lord, I am here to wreftle not only with Flefh and 
Blood, but with Principalities and Powers, and fpiritual" 
Wickednefs; O take me f om thefe Tents of KeJar, 
into the heavenly Jerufalem, where Satan (hall be ut- 
terly trodden under my Feet. 

I cannot here attend one Minute to thy Service with- 
out Diffraction : O take me up to ftand before thy 
Throne, where I (hall ferve thee Day and Night. 

lam here in Heavinefs through many Tribulations : O 
receive me into that Place of reft, where all Tears (hall 


Prayers in Time of public k Calamity. < 

be wiped from my Eyes, where there (hall be no mo, 
Death, nor Sorrow, nor Crying, nor Pain. 

lam herein the State ofBaniO.ment and Abfencefrom 
the Lord : O take me where 1 (hall for ever behold thy 
Face, and follow the Lamb whitherfoever he goeth. 

I have fought a good Fight, I have finished my 
Courfe, I have kept the Faith j henceforth there is laid 
up forme a Crown of Righteoufnefs. 

/"\ Blefled Jefu, who haft loved me, and warned me 
^-^ from my Sins in thine own Blood, receive my Soul. 
Into thy Hands I commend my Spirit : For thou haft 
redeemed me, O Lord, thou God of Truth. Come, 
Lord Jefu, come quickly. 

PRAYERS for their Ufe, who mourn in 
iecrct for the publick Calamities, &c* 

O God, wherefore art tbou abfent from us fo long ? Why 
is thy Wrath fo hot again ft the Sheep of thy Pajlure? Sec. 
Pfal. lxxix. O God, the Heathen are come into thine In- 
heritance ' Thy holy Temple have they defiled ', and made 
Jerufalem an Heap of Stones, &c. 
Pfal. lxxx. Hear, O thou Shepherd of Ifrael, thou that 
leadeft Jofeph like a Sheep ; Jheiu thyf If alfo thou that 
Jittefi upon the Cherubims, &C 

A Prayer to he ufed in thefe Times of Calamity. 
f\ Lord God, to whom Vengeance belongeth, 1 defire 
^* humbly to confefs before thee, both on my own 
Behalf, and that of this Nation, that thefe many Years 
of Calamity we have groaned under, are but the jult 
(yea, mild) Returns of thofe many more Years of our 
Provocations againlt thee; and that thy prefent Wrath 
is but the due Punilhment of thyabufed Mercy. OLord, 
thou h.ift formerly abounded to us in BlefTings above all 
the People of the Earth. Thy Candle fhined upon our 
P 5 Heads, 



Heids, and we delighted ourfelves in thy great Good- 
nefs : Peace was within our Walls, and Plenteoufrefs 
within our Palaces : there was no Decay, no leading in- 
to Captivity, and no complaining in our Streets : But 
we furred this Grace into Wantonnefs ; we abufed our 
Pesce to Security, our Plenty to Riot and Luxury ; and 
njade thofe good Things, which would have endeared 
our Hearts to thee, theOccafion of eflranging them from 
thee. Nav, O I ord, thou gaveft us yet more precious 
Meicies, thou wert pleafed thyfelf to pitch thy Taber- 
nacle with us, to eitablifh a pure and glorious Church 
among us, and give us thy Word to be a Lamp unto our 
Feet, and a Light unto our Paths. But, O Lord, wchave 
made no other Ufe of that Light, than to conduit us to' 
the Chambers of Death : We have dealt proudly, and 
not hearkened to thy Commandments ; and by rebelling the Light, have purchafed to ourfelves fo much 
the heavier Portion in the outer Darknefs And now, O 
Lord, had the Overflowings cf thy Vengeance been an- 
fwerrtble to that of our Sin.% we had long f:nce been, fwept 
away with a fwift DeftrusStion, and there had been none 
of us alive at this D^y, to implore -thy Mercy. But thou 
art a gracious God, flow to Anger, and haft proceeded 
with, us w ith much Patience and Long-fuffering; thou haft 
fent thv Judgments to awaken us to Repentance, and haft 
alfo allowed us Space for it : But alas! we have pervert- 
ed this Mercy of thine beyond all the former ; we return 
not to him that fmiteth us. neither co we feek the Lord ; 
we are Hidden back by a perpetual Back- Aiding ; no Man 
sepcnreth him of his Wickednefs, or faith. What have I 
done? v l is true, indeed, we fear the Rod (we dread 
every Suffering, fo trar we are ready to buy it off with 
the foixleft Sin) but we fear not him that hath appointed 
it ; but by a wretched Obftinacy, harden our Necks a- 
gainft thee, and refufe co return. And now, O God, 
what Balm is there in Gilead that can cure us, who, 
when thou wouldlt heal us, will not be healed ? We know 
thou haft pronounced, that there is no Peace to the wick- 
ed ; and how (hall we then pray for Peace, that ftill re- 
tain our Wickednefs ? This, this, O Lord, is our foreft 
Difeafc : O give us Medicines to heal this Sicknefs : 


Prayers in Time of publick Calamity. ^i( 

Heal our Souls, and then we know thou fcanfi foon heal 
our Land. Lord, thou haft long Spoken by thy Word to. 
our Ears, by thy Judgments even to all our Senfes; bat 
unlefs thou fpeakeft by thy Spirit to our Hearts, all otiier 
Calls will itill be ineffectual. O fend out this Voice, and' 
that a mighty Voice, fuch as may awake us out of this' 
Lethargy : Thou that did (1 call Lazarus out of the 
Grave, O be pleafed to call us, who aic dead, yea pu- 
trined in TrcfpafTesand Snis. and make us to awake to 
Righteoufnefs. Ar.d though, O Lord, our frequent Refif-' 
tances, even of thofc inward Calls, have j a Illy provoked 
thee to give us up to the Lulls of our own Hearts ; >ec, 
O thou boundlefs Ocean of Mercy, who art Good i >t 
only beyond what we can deferve, but what we can 
\vi(h ; do not withdraw the Influence of thy Grace, and 
take not thy Holy Sp;.it from us. Thou wtrt found of. 
thofe that fought thee not : O let that Act of Mercy be 
repeated to us, who are fo defperatch , yet fo infenfibly 
fick, that we cannot fo much as look after the Phj fician ; 
and by how much our Caie is the more dangerous, fo 
much the more fovereign R.mediei do thoo apply. Lord 
help us, and confider not fo much our Un worth ineis of 
thy Aid, as our irremediable Ruin, if we want it ; Sue, 
Lord, or we perilh eternally. To this end, difpenfe to 
us in our temporal Intertfl, what thou fceit ma\ bell fe- 
cure our ipintual : If a greater Degree of ourward Mi- 
fery will tend to the curing our inward, Lord, fpare 
not thy Road, but llrike yet more (harply. Can out 
this Devil, though with never fo much foaming and 
tearing. But if thou feed that fome Return of.Mercy 
may be molt likely to melt us, O be thou pleafed fo far 
to condefcend to our Wretched ntfs, as to afford ui ijial; 
and whether by thy (harper or thy gender Methods, 
bring us librae to thy felf : And then, O Lord, we know 
thy Hand is not fhortned, that it cannot lave i When 
thou halt delivered us from our Sins, thou canft and 
wilt deliver us from our Troubles. O mew us thy 
Mercy, and grant us thy Salvation, that being redeem- 
ed both in our Bodies and Spirits, we may glorify thee 
in both, in a chearful Obedience and pruile ihe Name 
of oar God, that hath dealt woaderfully with us, thro* 
Jefus Chriil our Lord. A 


A Prayer for the Church. 
f~\ Thou great God of Recompences, who turneft a 
^^ fruitful Land into Barrennefs, for the Wickednefs 
of them that dwell therein : Thou haft moftjuftly exe- 
cuted that fatal Sentence on this Church, which having 
once been the Perfection of Beauty, the Joy of the 
whole Earth, is now become a Scorn and Derifion to all 
that are round about her. O Lord, what could have 
been done to thy Vineyard, that thou haft not done in it ? 
And fince it hath brought forth nothing but wild Grapes, 
it is perfe&ly juft with thee to take away the Hedge 
thereof, and let it be eaten up. But, O Lord, though 
our Iniquities teftify againft us, yet do thou it for thy 
Name's fake ; for our Backflidings are many, we have 
fjnned againft thee. O thou Hope of lfrael, the Saviour 
thereof in Time of ^rouble, why fhouldft thou be a 
Stranger in the Land, as a wav faring Man, that turneth 
afide to tarry for a Night ? Why (houldft thou be as a 
Man aftonifhed ? As a mighty Man that cannot fave ? 
Yet thou, O Lord, art in the Midft of us, and we are 
called by thy Name, leave us not ; deprive us of what 
outward Enjoyment thou pleafeft, take from us the Op- 
portunities of our Luxury, and it may be a Mercy ; but, 
O take not from us the Means of our Reformation, for 
that is the moft direful ExpreiTion of thy Wrath. And 
tho' we have hated the Light, becaufe our Deeds were 
evil, yet, O Lord, do not, by withdrawing it, condemn 
us to walk on ftill in Darknefs ; but let it continue to 
mine till it have guided our Feet into the Way of Peace. 
O Lord, arife, ftir up thy Strength, and come and help, 
and deliver rot the Soul of thy Turtle Dove [this dif- 
confolute C lurch] unto the Multitude of the Enemy : 
But help her, O God, and that right early. But if, O 
Lord, our Rebellions have fo provoked thee, that the 
Ark muft <voander in the Wildernefs, till all this mur- 
muring Generation he confutned y yet let not that perifti 
with us, but bring it at laft into a Canaan, and let our 
more innocent Poferity fee that which in thy juft Judg- 
ment thou deniejl to us. In the mean time, let us not ceafe 
to bewail that Defolationour Sins have wrought, to think 
upon the Stones of S ion, and pity to fee her in theDuft, 
nor ever be afhamed or afraid to own her in her loweft 


J Prayer for the Peace of the Church. 331 

and moft perfecuted Condition, bat efteem the Reproach 
of Chrid greater Riches than the Treafures of Egypti 
and fo approve our Conftancy to this our afflicted Mo* 
ther, that her blefled Lord and Head may own us with 
Mercy, when he (hall come in the Glory of Thee his 
Father, with the holy Angels. Grant this, merciful 
Lord, for the fame Jefus Chrid his fake. 

A Prayer for the Peace of the Church. 

LORD Jefus Chrift, which of thine Almightinefs 
madeft all Creatures both vifible and invifible; 
which of thy godly Wifdom governed and fetteft all 
Things in moft goodly Order ; which of thine unfpeak* 
able Goodnefs keepeft, defendeft, and furthered all 
Things ; which of thy deep Mercy reftoreft the decayed, 
renewed the fallen, raifeit the dead : Vouchfafe, we 
pray thee, at laft to caftdown thy Countenance upon thy 
well-beloved Spoufe theChurch ; but let it be that ami- 
able and merciful Countenance, wherewith thou paci- 
fied all Things in Heaven, in Earth, and whatfoever is 
above Heaven, and under the Earth. Vouchfafe to cad 
upon us thofe tender and pitiful Eyes with which thou 
didft once behold Peter, that great Shepherd of thy 
Church, and forthwith he remembred himfelf, and re- 
pented; with which Eyes thou once didd view the fcat- 
tered Multitude, and wert moved with Compaflion, that 
for Lack of a good Shepherd, they wandred as Sheep dif- 
perfedandltrayedafunder. Thou feed (O good Shepherd) 
what fundry Sorts of Wolves have broken into thy Sheep- 
cotes : So that if it were poflible,the very perfect Perfons 
mould be brought into Error: Thou feed with what 
Winds, with what Waves, with what Storms, thy filly 
Ship is tolled, thy Ship wherein thy little Flock is in Peril 
to be drowned. And what is now left, but that it utterly 
fink, and we all perifh ? For this Temped and Storm we 
may thank our own Wickednefs, and hnful living; we 
difcern ic well, and confefs it; we difcern thy Righte- 
oufnefs, and we bewail our Unrighteoufnefs ; but we ap- 
peal to thy Mercy, which furmounteth all thy Works. 
We have nowfuftered much Pumlhment, being fcourged 
with fo many Wars, confumed with fuch Lodes of Goods, 
lhaken withfo many Floods ; and yet appears there no 
where any Haven or Port unto us. Being thus tired and 



forlorn among fo (Irange Eviis, but ftill every Day more 
grievous Puniihments. and more feem to hang over out 
Heads, we complain not of thy Sharpnefs, moll tender 
Saviour, but we difcern here alfothy Vercy, forafmuch 
as much grievoufer Plagues we have deferved : But, O 
mod merciful Jefus, we befeech thee, that thou wilt not 
confider nor weigh what is due for our Defervings; but 
rather what becometh thy Mercy; without which nei- 
ther the Angels in Heaven can ftar.d fure before thee, 
much lefs we filly Vellels of Clay. Have Mercy on us, 
O Redeemer, which art eafy to be intreated ; not that 
we be worthy of thy Mercy, but give thou this Glory 
unto thine own Name. Suffer not thofe, which either 
have not known thee, or do envy thy Glory, continually 
to triumph over us, and fay. Where is their God ? Where 
is their Redeemer ? Where is their Saviour ? Where is 
their Bridegroom, that they thus boaiton ? Theie oppro- 
brious Words redound unto thee, O Lord, while by our 
Evils Men weigh and eiteem thy Goodnefs, they think 
we be forsaken, whom they fee not amended. Once 
when thou fleplt in the Ship, and a Tempelt fuddenly 
arifing threatned Death to all in the Ship, thou awokeli 
at the Outcry of a few Difciples, andftralghtway at thine 
Almighty Word, the Waters couched, the Winds fell, 
the Storm was fuddenly turned into a great Cairn; the 
dumb Waters knew their Maker's Voice. Now in this 
far greaterTempelt, wherein not a few Men's Bodies be 
in Danger, but innumerable Souls, we befeech thee, at 
the Cry of thy holy Church, which is in Danger of 
drowning, that thou wilt awake. ~o many thojfands of 
Men do cry, Lord, fa<ve us, ive peri/h ! the Temptft is 
paft Man's Power; it is thy Word that mulldotheDeed. 
Lord Jefu, only fay thou with a Word of thy Mouth, 
Ceafe, O Tempeft, and ferth-uoith the defired Calm /ball 
appear. Thou ivouldft have ipared fo many Thoufands 
of mott wicked Men. if in the City of Sodom had been 
found but ten good Men. Now lice be fo many thou- 
fands of Men which love the Glory of thy Name, which 
figh for the Beauty of thy Houie ; and wilt thou not, at 
thefe Men's Prayers, let go thine Anger, and remember 
thine accuftomed and old Mercies? Shalt thou not. with 
thy heavenly Policy, turn our Folly into ihy Glory? 


A Prayer fer the Peace of the Church, 3.3 3 

Shalt thou not turn the wicked Men's Evils into thy 
Church's Good ? For thy Mercy is wont then mod of all 
to fuccour, when the Thing is with us paft Remedy; and 
neither the Might nor Wifdom of Men can help it. 
Thou alone bringelt Things that be never fo out of Or- 
der into Order again, which art the only Author and 
Maintainer of Peace. Thou framedft that old Confufion, 
wherein, without Order, without Fafhion, confufedly by 
the difcordant Seeds of Things; and with a wonderful 
Order the Things of th it Nature, which fought together, 
thou didft allay and knit in a perpetual Band. But how 
much greater Confufion is this, where is no Charity, no 
Fidelity, no Bonds of Love, no Reverence, neither of 
Laws, nor yet of Rulers ; no Agreement of Opinions, 
but, as it were, in a mif-ordered Choir, every Man lingeth 
a contrary Note ? Among the heavenly Planets is no Dif- 
fenfion ; the Elements keep their Place, every one do the 
Office whereunto they be appointed: And wilt thou fuf- 
fer thy Spoufe, for whole fake all Things were made, 
thus by continual Difcords to periih ? Shalt thou fuffer 
the wicked Spirits, which be Authors and Workers of 
Difcord, tobearfuch a Swing in thy Kingdom unchecked? 
Shalt thou furrer the ftrong Captain of Mifchief, whom 
thou once overthreweft. again to invade thy Tents, and 
tofpoil thy Soldiers ? When thou werthere, a Man con- 
verfant among Men, at thy Voice fled the Devils. Send 
forth, we befeech thee, O Lord, thy Spirit, which may 
drive away out of the Breads of all them that profefs thy 
Nimc, the wicked Spirits, Matters of Riot, ofCovetouf- 
ncfs.of Vain glory, of carnal Luft. of Mifchief and Dif- 
cord. Create in us, O our God and King, a clean Heart , 
and rensvo thy holy Spirit in our Breafls : Pluck not f rem 
us thy Holy Ghift : Render unto us the Joy of thy fauinr 
Health ', and ~uith thy principal Spirit jlrengthen thy Spoufe 
and the Herdmen there jf. By :his Spirit thou reconciled 
the earthly to the heavenly : By this thou didft frame and 
reduce fo many Tongues, (o many Nations, fo many 
fundry Sorts of Men into one Body of a Church, which 
Body, by the fame Spirit, is knit to thee their Head. This 
Spirit, if thou wilt vouchfafe torenewinall Men'sHearts, 
then (hall all thefeforeign Miferiesceafe; or if they ceafe 
not, they (hall tarn to the Profit and Avail of them which 



love thee. Stay this Confufion, fet in order this horrible 
Chaos : O Lord Jefus, let thy Spirit ftretch out itfelf up- 
on thefe Waters of Evil, wavering Opinions. And be- 
caufe thy Spirit, which, according to thy Prophet's fay- 
ing, containeth all Things, hath alio the Science of fpeak- 
ing; make, that like as unto all them which be of thy 
Houfe is one Light, one Baptifm, one God, one Hope, 
one Spirit, fo they may alfo have one Voice, one Note, 
one Song, profefiing one Catholick Truth. When thou 
didft mount up to Heaven triumphantly, thou threweft 
out from above thy precious Things, thou gaveft Gifts 
among Men, thou dealteft fundry Rewards of thy Spirit ; 
Renew again from above thy oldBountifulnefs, give that 
Thing to thy Church, now fainting anc growing down- 
ward, that thou gaveft unto her mooting up at her firfl: 
Beginning. Give unto Princes and Rulers the Grace fo to 
ftand in awe of thee, that they fo may guide the Com- 
monweal, as they (hould (Tiortly render Account unto thee, 
that art the King of Kings. Give Wifdom to be always 
affiftant unto them, that whatfoever is beft to be done, 
they may efpy it in their Minds, and purfue the fame in 
their Doings. Give to the Bifhops the Gifcs of Prophe- 
cy, that they may declare and interpret the holy Scripture 
not of their own Brain, but of thine infpiring. Give them 
the threefold Charity which. thou once demandedft of 
Peter, what time thou didft bequeath unto him the Charge 
of thy Sheep. Give to the Priefts the Love of Sobernefs 
and of Chaftity. Give to thy People a good Will to fol- 
low thy Commandments, and a Readinefs to obey fuch 
Perfons as thou haft appointed over them. So fhall it 
come to pafs, if thro' thy Gift thy Princes (hall command 
that thou requireft, if thy Pallors and Herdmen fhall 
teach the fame, and thy People obey them bo. h, that the 
old Dignity and Tranquillity of the Church (hall return 
again, with a goodly Order, unto the Glory of thy Name. 
Thou fparedit the Ninevites appointed to be deftroyed, 
as foon as they converted to Repentance : And wilt thou 
defpife tny Houfe fallingdown at thy Feet, which, inftead 
of Sackcloth, hath Signs, and inllead of Alhes, Tears ? 
Thou promifedftForgivenels to fuch asturn untothee;but 
this felf- thing is thy Gift, a Man to turn with his whole 
Heart unto thee,to the Intent that all our Goodneis mould 


A Prayer for the King's Majefty. 335 

unto thy Glory. Thou art the Maker, repair the Work 
thatthou-haft fafhioned. Thou art the Redeemer, fave 
that thou halt bought. Thou art the Saviour, fuffer 
not them to perim which do hang on thee. Thou art 
the Lord and Owner, challenge thy Poffeflion. Thou 
art the Head, help thy Members. Thou art the King, 
give us a Reverence of thy Laws. Thou art the Prince 
of Peace, breath upon us brotherly Love. Thou art 
the God, have Pity on thy humble Befeechers, be thou 
according to Paul's Saying, All Tbingt in all Men, to 
the Intent the whole Choir of thy Church, with agree- 
ing Minds and confonant Voices for Mercy obtained at 
thy Hands, may give Thanks unto the Father, Son, and 
Holy Ghoft; which, after the moll perfect Example of 
Concord, be diftmguiuYd in Property of Perfons, and 
one in Nature : To whom be Praife and Glory eter- 
nally. Amen. 

A P R A YE R for the King's Majesty, out of the 
Liber Regalis. 

GOD, the unfpeakable Author of the World, Crea- 
tor of Men, Governor of Empires, and Eitablifh- 
er of all Kingdoms, who, out of the Loins of our Fa- 
ther Abraham didft choofe a King that became the Sa- 
viour of all Kings and Nations of the Earth ; Blefs, we 
befeech thee, thy faithful Servant, and our Dread Sove- 
reign Lord King G E O R G E, with the richeft Blef- 
fings of thy Grace. Eilabliih him in the Throne of his 
Kingdom by thy mighty Aid and Protection ; Vifit him 
as thou didft vifit Mofes in the Bufh, Jo/bua in the Bat- 
tle, Gideon in the Field, and Samuel in the Temple. 
Let the Dew of thy abundant Mercies fall upon his 
Head, and give him the BlefTing of David and Salomon. 
Be unto him an Helmet of Salvation againft the Face of 
his Enemies, and a ftrong Tower of Defence in the 
Time of Adverfity. Let his Reign be profperous, and 
his Days many. Let Peace, and Love, and Holinefs, 
let Juftice, and Truth, and all Chriitian Virtues, flourish. 
in his Time. Let his People (ervc him with Honour 
and Obedience. And let him fo duly ferve thee here on 
Earth, that he may hereafter everlaltingly reign with 
thee in Heaven j through Jefus Chrift our Lord Amen, 



APparel Pa%e 140 

Anger, fee Meek- 
nefs 103 

Adultery 116 

Alms giving 241, 254 
Ambition 109 

Baptifm 40, 205 

Its Vow 41 

Bargaining 128, 168 

Blafphemy 66 

Brawling 186 

Brethren 213 

Borrowing 163 

Ble£ing of Parents 2 1 1 


Covenant; fee Preface. 

New Covenant 62 

Commands 5, 28 

Church 30, 1 2 

Catechifing 37 

Contrition 52 

Confefiion 53, 59, 75 

Charity 56, 229, 249, 

258, 263 

Chrift 6 

his Sufferings 60 

Love 61 

Chriftian Duties poffib!e 

and pleafant 265 

Cqpfideration 105, to ioq 

Contenrednefs ibid. 

Covetoufnefs 1 10, 161 

K Challity 116 

Cares 1 2 



J S4 

Curfing 186,67 

Children 200, to 204 

Coneci ions 27 

Calamities 1 79 

Credit 175 

loft 180 

Cenforioufnefs 233 

Courteoufnefs 1 84 

Defpair 8 

Devotion 5 7 

Diligence 1 1 3 

Drinking 109 

Debts paying 163 

Deceit 166, &t. 

Detraction 188 

Duty to God ; fee God. 
To ourfclves 92 

To Magi Urates 194 
To Parents ibid. 

200, 204 
To Pallors 58, 196 
To Children 205 

ToHufband 217 

To Wife 2 1 9 

Of Servants 225 

Of \J afters 227 

To thofe in Want 190 
To Relations 192, 213 
To all Ranks and Quali- 
ties 187, 189 
Drunkennefs 122 
Excufcs for it. J 23 
Envy 1 I I, 187 
Enemies 2 34» 2 9 2 
Eating 1 20 


Example 210 

Kindred, cifr. 192, 212 

Education of Children 205 



Love of God 10 

Faith 4, 53 

Fruits of Love to God 11 

Fear 15,53 

Love of Brethren 21 3 

Feaits and Fafts 34 

Love of Enemies 238 

Farting 90 

Lord's Day 33 

Falfe Reports 175, 18c 

Lord's Supper 46, &c. 

Falfe Witnefs 176 

Lying 183 

Fraud, <vide Deceit 

Law-fuits 262 

Friendship 222 

Light of Nature 1 

Forgiving 241 



Meeknefs 103,185 

God 3, to 35, 66, 74 

Murmuring 109 

Goods of Nature 97 

Murder 149 

of Fortune 98 

Maiming 153 

of our Neighbour 160 

Malice 1 60 

of Grace 98 

Magistrates 194 

Graces 56, 57 

Marriage 203, 221 

Gratitude 192 

Mailers 227 

Gaming 133 

Miniiter 58, 196 

Guide in Spirituals 58 

Motives to Good So 



Hope 8 

Neighbours 143, i<;7, 160 

Humility 24, 94, 184 

175, 180, 229 

Humiliation 51 

Nature 114 

Hufband 219 


Heilth ' 120 

Obedience 54 


Oaths 67, to 70 

Honour of God 30, 66 

Oppreflion 161 


Offences againft God and 

Inconfideration 106 

Man, the Difference 237 

Juftice, fee Neighbour. 


Injuitice 171 

Promifes 5 

Idolatry 92 

Prefumption 8 

Improvingour Talents 1 1 3 

Patience 26 

Injuries 153, 1 So 

Preaching 38 

Infirmities 179, 215 

Preachers 58, 196 


Perjury 68 

Kindnefsof God 10 

Prayer 74, to 86 

King 1 94 

Piide 94, 200, 204 



I9O, 25O 


Peace- making 






Reports falfe 






Scriptures 2, 35 

Soul, fee the Preface. 
Sacraments 40, 46, to 65 
Swearing 67, 136 

Sobnety 93 

Sloth, Sleep 136 

Stealing 1 65 

Slanders 176 

Scoffing 1 7% 

Self Love 264 

Servants. 225 



l 73 




2 34 


Sacrilege . 32 

Sins " 4 8 >55> t0 77 
Sports 138 


Threatnings 5 

Temperance 120, to 141 


Truft deceived 

Vain- glory 

Witnefs falfe 

Word of God 
Wants of Parents 

63, 165 








» 157 






to be 




CONTENDS of the fever al Chapters or 
Partitions in this Book, which according 
to this Divifion, by Reading one of thefe 
Chapters every Lord's-Day, the whole 
may be Read over Thrice in the Tear. 


OF the Duty of Man, by the Light of Nature, hy the 
Light of Scripture, Page I. Duty to God, p. 3. 
Of Faith, ibid. ( ommands, Tbreatnings, Ptomifes,^. 5. 
Hope, Preemption, Defpair, p. 8. Love of God, p. 9. 
Fear of God, p. 1 5. Trufting in God, p. 1 7. In all 
Wants, Spiritual and Temporal, p. 20, &c. 
Of Humility: Of Submiffionto God's Will, in Refpefl 
pf Obedience, Page 24. Of Patience in all Sorts of Suf- 
ferings, p. 26. Of Honour due to God in fewer al Ways, 
p. 30. In his Houfe ibid ^offelfton, p. 31. His Day, 
p. 33. The Feafis and Fafnofthe Church, p. 34. Hit 
Word, p. 35. OfCatecib/ing,p3J. Preaching,^. 38. 
Sacraments, p. 40. Baptifm, ibid, to the End. 
Of the Lords Supper, of Preparation before Receiving, 
Page 46. Of Duties at the Receiving, p. 60. Ana af- 
terwards, p. 63. 

Honour due to God's Name ; Sins againfl it ; Blafpbe- 
fny, Swearing, afj'ertory Oaths, Page 66 Promffory 
Oaths, unlawful Oaths, p 6~>. Of Perjury, p. 68. 
Of vain Oaths, and the Sin of them, p. 69. 


The TAB.L E. 


Of WorJJy'tp due to God" 1 * Name ; of Prayer and Con- 
fcffion, Page 74. Of Publick Prayers in the Church, in 
the Family ', p. 79. Of Private Prayer, p. 80. The Ad- 
vantages of Prayer, p. 8 I . Repentance, p. 86. Of 
Fafling, p. 90. 


Of Duties to ourf elves, Page 93. Of Sobriety, Humi- 
lity, the great Sin of Pride, p. 94. The Danger- p. 95. 
The Folly of this Sin, p. 97. Of Fain-glory, p. IOO. 
helps againji it, p. 202. Of Meeknefs,p. 103. The Means 
to obtain it, p. 10^. Of Con fide rat ion, ibid. 
Of Contentednefs, and the Contraries to it, Page 109. 
Murmuring, Ambition, Covetoufnefs, ibid. Envy, and 
Helps to Contentednefs, p. 112. Diligence, p. 1 I 3. In- 
duftry in approving Gifts of Nature or Grace, ibid. Of 
Chafity, p. 116. Helps to it, p. 118. Temperance, 
and its Rules in Eating, &c p. 1 20. 

Of Temperance in Drinking, Page 122. Falfe Ends sf 
Drinking, viz. Good Fellovjjhip, preferring of Kindnefs, 
chearirg the Spirits, p. l 23. Putting a-xvay Cares, puf- 
fing avjay Time, p. 125. Preventing Reproach, p. 126. 
Pleafure, Bargaining, &C. p. I 28, to I 3 1 . The Guilt of 
firovg Drinkers, p. 129. Exhortations from it, &C. p. I 3 I . 
Temperance in Sleep. Page 136. Mif chiefs of Sloth, p. 
137. Of Recreation, p. I 38. Of Apparel, and of the 
Ends for v:bich C'oathingjhculd be ufed, p. 140. 
Of Duties to our Neighbours, Page 143. Of negative J f- 
tice, in doing no Wrong or Injury to any ; and pofitive, ts J 
do Right to all, ibid. Of the Sin 0/ Murder, p. 149. j ; 
The tieimufnef of it, the Punifoments of it. and the | ' 
Jlrange Di /cover ies thereof \ p. 150, &C. Of Maiming, 
p. 153. Of Wounds, Stripes, and Injuries to others, p. 154. 
Of J u/1 ice about < be PoffeJJions of our Neighbour', a- f ^ 
gainf injuring him as concerning his Wife, Page 157* ^ 
Goods, p. 160. 0/\VW/r<?, ibid. CovetQufnefs,Injufice,p. 
1 61. Qpprefion, ibid. Theft, p. 163. Of paying Debts, 


The TAB L E. 

ibid. That vje are bound for, ivhat ive have promifed, 
p. 164. 

Of Theft, Stealing the Goods of our Neighbour, Page 
165. Of Deceit in Trull, p. 167. In^T&ffick, con- 
cealing the Faults of 'his Ware, p. 168. His over valu- 
ing it, p. 169. Fraud in the Buyer, p. 170. Of Re- 
Jiit tit ion, and the NeceJJtty thereof, p. 173. 

Of falfe Reports', Of the Credit of our Neighbour, 
Page 175,1 80. Falfe Witnefs,\y6. Slanders, ibid. Whif- 
perings,p. 177. Of Defpifmg and Scoffing for Infirmi- 
ties, p. 178.*- Pofitjve\fuJuee, orhhe yielding to every 
Man that ivhich by any Kind of p ight he may challenge 
from us, p. 182. Of fpeakincr Truth*, of Lying, p. 183. 
Of Humility, courteous Behaviour, Meeknefs, and Pride, 
p. 184.. Bravoling and Cur/tng, p. 186. Of Envy, De-. 
traclion, p. 188. Refpefl of Men of extraohfoary Gifts, 
p. 1 89. In Regard of their Ranks and Qualities, ibid. 
Dues to thofe in any Sort of Want, 190. Duties in Rc» 
fpefl cf Relations, p. 192. Of Gratitude to Benefac- 
tors, ibid. 


Of Duty to Parents, Magijlrates, Page 1 9.1. Pa/lors, p. 
196. Love and Eft rem of th'm, p. 197. Maintenance, 
Obedience, p. 198. Of the Duty of Children to Parents, 
p. 200. Reverence, love, Obedience, efpecially in their 
Marriage, Miniftring to their Wants, ibid, 203. Duty 
to the ivorfl of Paints, p 204- Of the Duty of Pa- 
rents to their Children, p. 205. 


Of Duty to our Brethren and Relations, Page 213. To a 
Hufoand Obedience, Fidelity, Love, p. 21.7. The Faults 
nf the Hujband 'acquit nyt from't-hefe Duties, p. 218. 
Dues to the Wife, Love, Faithfulnefs, Maintenance, ht- 
firuBion, p. 219, &C. Hufbands and Wivts nfatunlly to 
pray for and ajji ft each other in all Good, p. 2 20. Vntue 
the chief Con fideratisn in Marriage, unlawful Carriages, 
p. 221. Friend/hip, p. 222. Servants Duty, p. 225. 
Mafters Duty, p. 227. 





OtherBranches of our Duty to our Neighbour, Page 22$ 
&he Duty of Charity to Men's Souls, Bodies, Goods, Crt 
4it, &c. p. 2ko. to the End. 

f^S U N D A Y XVII. 

Of Charity, in Refpecl of our Neighbour's Good, 
jams-giving, p. 249. 250, &c. Of Charity, in Re/pe* 
cf our Neighbours Credit,^ 258. Of Peace-making 
p. 261. Of going to Law, p. 262. ' Of Charity to ou 
Enemies, p. 263. Chriftian Duties both pojjible an 
f leaf ant, p. 265. The Danger of delaying our turnin 
to God, p. 267. -XjP 

A TABtfcof the PRAYERS. 

PRayersfaf Morning. Page 271 

Prayers for Night, 27; 

Colled s for federal Graces. 2 8 1 

A Paraphrafe of the Lord's Prayer. 29 1 

Pious Ejaculations out of the Book of Pfalms. 2 9$ 
£rif Heads of Examination before the Sacrament. 296 

Prayers before the Sacrament. 30; 

Ejaculations at the Lord's Supper, &C« „ 31c 

Prayers after the Sacrament. 321 

Prayers for the Sick. 318 

Ejaculations for the Sick. 322 

Prayers in Time of Public k Calamities. 327 

A Prayer for the Church. 330 

* Prayer for the Peace of the Church. 33 1 

"rayerfor the Kings Majefy. 335 

,F I 13 I S.